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Obesity markers

Rubab Qureshi, Yuri Jadotte, Peijia Zha, Sallie Ann Porter, Cheryl Holly, Susan Salmond, Elizabeth Ann Watkins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to determine if prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of obesity and overweight in children. INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. This is of great concern as childhood obesity is associated with early onset of chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease, type II diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. Extensive research suggests a multifactorial etiology...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Duc Trung, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Pham Thanh Duy, Chung The Hao, Nguyen Thi Thanh Nhan, Lu Lan Vi, Hoang Thi Diem Tuyet, Tran Thi Thuy Tien, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Phung Khanh Lam, Guy Thwaites, Stephen Baker
PURPOSE: Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a well-established global health issue. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with the carriage of ciprofloxacin- and ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli and associated resistance genes in a cohort of 498 healthy children residing in urban Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: We cultured rectal swabs onto MacConkey agar supplemented with resistant concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Fang Yuan, Jian Ma, Xinxin Xiang, He Lan, Yanhui Xu, Jing Zhao, Yin Li, Weizhen Zhang
Purpose: Adipose tissue inflammation is the key linking obesity to insulin resistance. Over 50% of the interstitial cells in adipose tissue are macrophages, which produce inflammatory cytokines and therefore play an important role in the progression of insulin resistance. Within this classification view, macrophage biology is driven by two polarization phenotypes, M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory). The unique functional receptor of ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a classic seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that is linked to multiple intracellular signaling pathways...
2018: BioMed Research International
Tomoya Yamada, Mituru Kamiya, Mikito Higuchi, Naoto Nakanishi
Obesity is associated with the chronic inflammation and senescence of adipose tissues. Macrophage is a key mediator of chronic inflammation that infiltrates obese adipose tissue and stimulates metabolic disorders. However, the fat depot-specific differences of macrophage infiltration and senescence, especially the influence on intramuscular adipose tissue, have remained unclear. We investigated the fat depot-specific differences of macrophage infiltration and senescence in obese bovine adipose tissue from three different anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Leena Antikainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Henrikki Nordman, Raimo Voutilainen, Hanna Huopio
BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and overweight are associated with an increased risk of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the adult offspring. We studied the influence of maternal GDM on prepubertal children's height, weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and low-grade inflammation. METHODS: A cohort of 135 prepubertal Caucasian children (age range 4.4-9.7 years) was studied in a controlled cross-sectional study...
August 15, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Inga C Teller, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Hella Brönneke, Pia Nosthoff-Horstmann, Annemarie Oosting, Gregor Lippach, Maria Wohlfarth, Manfred Rauh, Eline M van der Beek, Jörg Dötsch, Kai D Nüsken
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse metabolic outcome later in life. Healthy mice challenged with a Western-style diet (WSD) accumulated less body fat when previously fed a diet containing large lipid globules (complex lipid matrix (CLM)). This study was designed to clarify whether an early-life CLM diet mitigates 'programmed' visceral adiposity and associated metabolic sequelae after IUGR. In rats, IUGR was induced either by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG) or sham operation (i...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Fereshteh Asgharzadeh, Rahimeh Bargi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mehdi Farzadnia, Majid Khazaei
BACKGROUND: Subclinical inflammation induced by persistent exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is found in some clinical conditions such as obesity or diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of recurrent LPS exposure on inflammatory markers, oxidative stress balance and cardiac and renal fibrosis in male rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into control and LPS-treated. LPS (10 mg/kg/week) was injected intraperitoneally. After 4 weeks, left ventricles and kidneys were homogenized and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome for histological examination...
March 2018: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Thaís F Araujo, André V Cordeiro, Diogo A A Vasconcelos, Kaio F Vitzel, Vagner R R Silva
White adipose tissue (WAT) regulates energy homeostasis by releasing adipokines and modulating cell maintenance. Nutrient excess affects adipocyte hypertrophy directly in WAT by increasing excessively the activity of autophagy systems, generating proinflammatory markers and increasing infiltration of macrophages, causing metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Evidences suggest that cathepsin B (CTSB), a papain-like cysteine peptidase protein, can modulate autophagy processes in adipocytes. This review will focus on the role of CTSB in autophagy under conditions of obesity...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Joshua M Boucher, Michael Robich, S Spencer Scott, Xuehui Yang, Larisa Ryzhova, Jacqueline E Turner, Ilka Pinz, Lucy Liaw
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels and regulates vascular tone through paracrine secretion of cytokines. During conditions promoting cardiometabolic dysfunction, such as obesity, cytokine secretion is altered towards a proinflammatory and proatherogenic profile. Despite the clinical implications for cardiovascular disease, studies addressing the biology of human PVAT remain limited. We are interested in characterizing the resident adipose progenitor cells (APCs) because of their potential role in PVAT expansion during obesity...
August 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul LaBounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean L Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B Kreider
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65...
August 11, 2018: Nutrients
Mahadev Potharaju, Balamurugan Mangaleswaran, Anugraha Mathavan, Reginald John, Vincent Thamburaj, Siddhartha Ghosh, Shankar Ganesh, Chandrasekhar Kalvakonda, Murugan Loganathan, Suresh Bapu, Rathna Devi, Rama Shanker Verma
PURPOSE: Correlation of body mass index (BMI) with clinical outcome in patients with glioblastoma is not well documented. Hence, we studied the association between survival and pretreatment BMI in glioblastoma patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this retrospective study, only patients with histopathology-confirmed glioblastoma were included. Their BMIs were calculated from height and weight measurements and recorded in medical records at their first examination...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Niroshan Siva, Casey R Johnson, Vincent Richard, Elliot D Jesch, William Whiteside, Abdullah A Abood, Pushparajah Thavarajah, Susan Duckett, Dil Thavarajah
Lentil, a moderate-energy high-protein pulse crop, provides significant amounts of essential nutrients for healthy living. The objective of this study was to determine if a lentil-based diet affects food and energy intake, body weight, percent body fat, liver weight, and body plasma triacylglycerols (TGs) as well as the composition of fecal microbiota in rats. A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either a standard diet, a 3.5% high amylose corn starch diet, or a 70.8% red lentil diet for 6 weeks...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nathan Denton, Katherine E Pinnick, Fredrik Karpe
OBJECTIVE: The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impacts adipocyte function and might determine adipose tissue (AT) function and distribution. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a matricellular protein usually studied in bone and cartilage, is highly differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT. This study aimed to explore COMP's role in human subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT and preadipocyte biology. METHODS: COMP mRNA levels were measured in whole AT and immortalised preadipocytes via quantitative (q)-PCR...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Christine Fink, Samuel Kilian, Ines Bertlich, Elti Hoxha, Felicitas Bardehle, Alexander Enk, Holger A Haenssle
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis vulgaris was shown to be an independent factor increasing the risk of several comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes and dyslipidaemia with an increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. We hypothesise that early endothelial dysfunction, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, may be detected by digital video nailfold capillaroscopy (DVNC) at the level of the dermal capillary microvasculature as a surrogate parameter. Nailfolds represent the only body site allowing for a non-invasive assessment of the capillary microvasculature at a horizontal plane...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Eleni Rebelos, Heidi Immonen, Marco Bucci, Jarna C Hannukainen, Lauri Nummenmaa, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Ele Ferrannini, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
AIMS: We have previously shown that insulin enhances brain glucose uptake (BGU) in obese but not in lean subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate further this finding by combining BGU with measures of endogenous glucose production (EGP). Associations between insulin-stimulated BGU and peripheral markers such as metabolites and inflammatory markers were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty morbidly obese and twelve lean controls were recruited from the larger randomized controlled SLEEVEPASS study...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Juan Jiang, PengZhou Li, Hao Ling, ZhouZhou Xu, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Obesity is associated with increased risks of diverse diseases; brown adipose tissue (BAT) can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity by increasing the decomposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) to enhance the non-coupled oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acid in adipocytes and contributes to weight loss. However, BAT is abundant in only small rodents and newborn humans, but not in adults. PRDM16 is a key factor that induces the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors to brown adipocytes and simultaneously inhibits myogenic differentiation...
August 10, 2018: Human Cell
Sushri Priyadarshini, Biswaranjan Pradhan, Philip Griebel, Palok Aich
Epidemiological studies implicate stress as an important factor contributing to the increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders. Studies have correlated visceral obesity and atherosclerosis with hyper-cortisolemia, a sequela of chronic psychological stress in humans and animals. Although several hormonal markers of stress have been associated with various metabolic disorders, the mechanism by which these hormones alter metabolic functions have not been established. We used an in vitro model system, culturing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and RAW 264...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Lino Arisqueta, Hiart Navarro-Imaz, Ibone Labiano, Yuri Rueda, Olatz Fresnedo
High fat diet (HFD) feeding or leptin deficient mice are extensively used as models resembling features of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The concurrence of experimental factors as fat content and source or total caloric intake leads to prominent differences in the development of the hepatic steatosis and related disturbances. In this work, we characterized the hepatic lipid accumulation induced by HFD in wild type (Wt) and ob/ob mice with the purpose of differentiating adaptations to HFD from those specific of increased overfeeding due to leptin deficiency-associated hyperphagia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Xiao Wu, Bo Li, Wei-Quan Lin, Ling-Ling Huang, Xiao-Xiao Wang, Li-Ying Fu, Bing-Bing Li, Pei-Xi Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the most notable obesity index and its optimal cut-off point of hypertension in different age groups stratified by sexes among community residents in southern China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 620 men and 631 women aged 18-59 years were enrolled. The independent-samples t-test and chi-square test were conducted to analyze continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis assessed the association between the obesity indices and hypertension risk...
August 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Niek E G Beurskens, Quint A J Hagdorn, Thomas M Gorter, Rolf M F Berger, Karin M Vermeulen, Joost P van Melle, Tjark E Ebels, George K Lui, Scott R Ceresnak, Frandics P Chan, Tineke P Willems
Cardiac tachyarrhythmias are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We evaluated risk factors for sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) and atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA) in these patients. Patients (n = 319) who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging at two tertiary centers between 2007 and 2016 were assessed. Potential risk markers, based on history, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography, were analyzed for prediction of the primary endpoint of VT, and the secondary endpoint of ATA...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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