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Obesity markers

Emanuella Gomes Maia, Luiza Eunice Sá da Silva, Maria Aline Siqueira Santos, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Simoni Urbano da Silva, Rafael Moreira Claro
Inadequate dietary patterns in childhood and adolescence are a major risk factor for the early onset of obesity and other chronic diseases. Objectives: To identify and to analyze dietary patterns among Brazilian adolescents. Data from the Brazilian National School Health Survey (PeNSE) of 2015 were used (n = 10,926 adolescents). The identification and analyses of dietary patterns were calculated using principal component analysis and linear regression, respectively. Two dietary patterns were identified. The first one was characterized by the presence of markers of unhealthy eating, and the second one by markers of healthy eating...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Renata Prado Vasconcelos, Milena Simões Peixoto, Keciany Alves de Oliveira, Andrea C F Ferreira, Andrelina Souza, Denise P Carvalho, Ariclecio Cunha de Oliveira, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato
The development of obesity related-metabolic disorders is more evident in male in comparison to female subjects, but the mechanisms are unknown. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, but the majority of them were performed in male animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sex-related differences in the subcutaneous adipose tissue redox homeostasis and inflammation of rats chronically fed a high fat diet. NADPH oxidase (NOX), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were evaluated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SC) of adult male and female rats fed either a standard chow (SCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 11 weeks...
December 5, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
S Safarova
The purpose of this study was to identify complex relationships between the mineral, organic component of bone and the risk of fractures under the influence of metabolic changes associated with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with T2DM (n=96) was conducted; control group, consisted of 82 individuals. All patients were studied calcitropic homons, serum bone remodeling markers and bone mineral density with (DXA). In the course of this study, there was a correlation between serum insulin levels, bone metabolism markers and bone mass density determined by lumbar DXA in patients with type 2 diabetes...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Fabio Ciccarone, Serena Castelli, Laura Ioannilli, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
SCOPE: Epigenetic aberrations caused by environmental factors and lifestyle choices have been associated with the development of a number of pathologies including cardiovascular disorders. However, whether obesity-related heart dysfunction can occur via epigenetic mechanisms is largely undisclosed. The manifested role of DNA hydroxymethylation in heart pathophysiology prompted us to investigate its levels/machinery in heart of mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its possible relation with genes linked to obesity-associated cardiac remodelling...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zong Jie Koh, Hrishikesh Pandurang Salgaonkar, Wei Jie Jonathan Lee, Guo Wei Kim, Chun Hai Tan, Anton Cheng, Davide Lomanto, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Yock Young Dan, Asim Shabbir
PURPOSE: Incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is on the rise and is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered the most significant risk factors. Bariatric surgery is the only treatment modality in morbid obesity which allows long-term weight loss with improvement in associated co-morbid conditions. However, the effects of bariatric surgery on NAFLD are not well established. NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) is a validated non-invasive scoring system used to assess advanced fibrosis...
December 4, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Priscila Alves Maranhão, Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Diogo Guarnieri Panazzolo, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Eliete Bouskela, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar
Background: Frequently, ingestion of lipids exceeds our daily requirements and constantly exposes humans to circulating lipid overload which may lead to endothelial dysfunction (ED), the earliest marker of atherosclerosis. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) technique can detect ED on microcirculation. Using NVC, we aimed to demonstrate if metabolic alterations evoked by high-fat meals can act differently on microvascular endothelial reactivity in lean and women with obesity. Methods: Women, aged between 19 and 40 years, were allocated to control group (CG) and with obesity group (OBG) and were subjected to blood analysis for determination of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and NVC evaluation at fasting and 30, 60, 120, and 180-min after high-fat meal ingestion...
2018: BioMed Research International
Marica Meroni, Miriam Longo, Raffaela Rametta, Paola Dongiovanni
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a disorder caused by excessive alcohol consumption is a global health issue. More than two billion people consume alcohol in the world and about 75 million are classified as having alcohol disorders. ALD embraces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions including steatosis, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ALD is a complex disease where environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis and progression...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aline Boveto Santamarina, Giovana Jamar, Laís Vales Mennitti, Helena de Cássia César, Verdiana Vera de Rosso, José Ronnie Vasconcelos, Lila Missae Oyama, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
Nutrigenomics is an emerging field in obesity since epigenetic markers can be modified by environmental factors including diet. Considering juçara composition-rich in anthocyanins, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and fibers-it has the potential for epigenetic modulation. We evaluated the juçara supplementation modulating the serum fatty acids profile and epigenetic markers in monocytes of adult obese humans. It was a randomized double-blind, controlled trial with 27 obese (Body mass index between 30.0 and 39...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Russell Emmons, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernandez-Saavedra, Adam Kriska, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
Obesity-induced inflammation associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity, and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alter CRC initiation and their relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Mice consumed either a control (CON) or high fat diet to induce obesity...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Martina Rudnicki, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Emmanuel Nwadozi, Sofhia V Ramos, Armin Makki, Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia, Christopher Gr Perry, Emilie Roudier, Tara L Haas
Impaired angiogenesis is a hallmark of metabolically dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms restricting angiogenesis within this context remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate that induced endothelial-specific depletion of the transcription factor Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) in male mice led to increased vascular density in adipose tissue. Upon high-fat diet feeding, endothelial cell FoxO1-deficient mice exhibited even greater vascular remodeling in the visceral adipose depot, which was paralleled with a healthier adipose tissue expansion, higher glucose tolerance and lower fasting glycemia concomitant with enhanced lactate levels...
December 4, 2018: ELife
Anna Pedrinolla, Massimo Venturelli, Emine Kirmizi, Federica Moschetta, Monica Zardini, Doriana Rudi, Elisabetta Bacchi, Federico Schena, Paolo Moghetti, Massimo Lanza
In western countries, aging is often accompanied by obesity and age-related obesity is characterized by vascular dysfunction and a low-grade inflammatory profile. Exercise is a nonpharmacological strategy able to decrease the development and incidence of risk factors for several health-threatening diseases. Nonetheless, its long-term effect on vascular function and inflammation in age-related obesity is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular, supervised exercise on inflammatory profile and vascular function in age-related obesity...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Alpna Tyagi, Christy U Nguyen, Thomas Chong, Cole R Michel, Kristofer S Fritz, Nichole Reisdorph, Leslie Knaub, Jane E B Reusch, Subbiah Pugazhenthi
SIRT3, the primary mitochondrial deacetylase, plays a significant role in enhancing the function of mitochondrial proteins. Downregulation of SIRT3 is a key component of metabolic syndrome, a precondition for obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of brain mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in western diet-fed Sirt3-/- mice, a model for metabolic syndrome. Brain mitochondrial proteins were hyperacetylated, following western diet feeding and Sirt3 deletion. To identity these hyperacetylated proteins, we performed a comprehensive acetylome analysis by label-free tandem mass spectrometry...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Letícia Baltieri, Everton Cazzo, Aglecio Luiz de Souza, Sarah Monte Alegre, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, Edson Antunes, Glaucia Coelho de Mello, Luiz Claudio Martins, Elinton Adami Chaim
BACKGROUND: Individuals with obesity are more likely to develop asthma, but the exact mechanism is still uncertain and several hypotheses have been raised, such as the release of inflammatory mediators secreted by adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of weight loss in patients submitted to bariatric surgery on pulmonary and systemic inflammation. METHOD: The study evaluated patients undergoing bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) with the diagnosis of asthma, except smokers...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Rachel Whooten, Liya Kerem, Takara Stanley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent developments relating to the role of physical activity in improving insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: The current literature strengthens previous findings on the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health in children; suggests a protective role for physical activity in the setting of obesity; examines population-specific findings; addresses specific effects of different modalities of physical activity in improving health; reveals potential mediators in the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health; and suggests new markers of metabolic health that could potentially be used as outcomes in future physical activity studies...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sara Karjoo
Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) evaluated by ultrasound are non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis. Increased cIMT in adults has been correlated to early vascular damage. Several studies show similar correlations of elevated cIMT in children with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, several articles have correlated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with elevated cIMT, indicating early atherosclerosis. It is alarming that these vascular changes may be seen in children as young as 10 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Ritesh K Baboota, Sneha Jagtap, Vijay Kumar, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Ravneet K Boparai, Shyam S Sharma, Romesh Khardori, Sanjay K Bhadada, Kanthi K Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Glucagon mediated mechanisms have been shown to play clinically significant role in energy expenditure. The present study was designed to understand whether pharmacological mimicking of cold using menthol (TRPM8 modulator) can induce glucagon-mediated energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and related complications. Acute oral and topical administration of TRPM8 agonists (menthol and icilin) increased serum glucagon concentration which was prevented by pre-treatment with AMTB, a TRPM8 blocker. Chronic administration of menthol (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) to HFD fed animals prevented weight gain, insulin resistance, adipose tissue hypertrophy and triacylglycerol deposition in liver...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Leticia Coín-Aragüez, Francisco Javier Pavón, Alba Contreras, Adriana-Mariel Gentile, Said Lhamyani, Yolanda De Diego-Otero, Yolanda Casado, Wilfredo Oliva Olivera, Gabriel Olveira, Francisco J Tinahones, Lucía Pérez Costillas, Rajaa El Bekay
Psychiatric disorders have been widely reported to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation and adiposity. However, there are no data that link adipose tissue inflammation to these mental disorders. The analysis of adipokines and inflammation-related markers in adipose tissue could help to elucidate the potential association between obesity and mental health. An observational study was conducted in samples of patients consisting of non-obese and obese subjects, who were diagnosed with anxiety or mood disorders...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thaís Fonte-Faria, Marta Citelli, Georgia C Atella, Helena Fonseca Raposo, Lilia Zago, Thamiris de Souza, Simone Vargas da Silva, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
OBJECTIVE: Chia seed oil is the richest source of plant-based ω-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid, but its potential and mechanisms of action to treat obesity are unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of chia oil (ChOi) supplementation on body composition and insulin signaling in skeletal muscles of obese mice. METHODS: Male C57 BL/6 mice (n = 8/group) were fed regular control chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 135 d. Another HFD group additionally received ChOi from 90 to 135 d...
August 22, 2018: Nutrition
Jenny Y Mei, Alexandra L Havard, Amanda J Mularz, Melanie M Maykin, Stephanie L Gaw
OBJECTIVE:  Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including increased risk of cesarean delivery (CD). Data are limited on associations between GWG and outcomes in women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC). We aimed to investigate whether appropriate GWG impacts TOLAC outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:  We performed a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing TOLAC at a single institution from May 2007 to April 2016...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
T McLaughlin, F Abbasi, C Lamendola, G Yee, S Carter, S W Cushman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Overweight and obesity increase risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, largely through development of insulin resistance. Benefits of dietary weight loss are documented for obese individuals with insulin resistance. Similar benefits have not been shown in overweight individuals. We sought to quantify whether dietary weight loss improves metabolic risk profile in overweight insulin-resistant individuals, and evaluated potential mediators between weight loss and metabolic response...
October 11, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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