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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341704/clinical-and-body-composition-predictors-of-bone-turnover-and-mineral-content-in-obese-postmenopausal-women
#1
Rim Cherif, Feten Mahjoub, Hela Sahli, Elhem Cheour, Mohsen Sakly, Nebil Attia
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone turnover markers in obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 81 postmenopausal women aged 58.40 ± 6.08 years were analyzed. Anthropometric parameters were recorded. Serum glucose parameters, serum lipid profiles, adipokines, renal, hepatic parameters, and bone markers concentrations were determined by well-validated laboratory routine methods. BMD, BMC, and body composition were measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340828/9-pahsa-promotes-browning-of-white-fat-via-activating-g-protein-coupled-receptor-120-and-inhibiting-lipopolysaccharide-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#2
Yan-Mei Wang, Hong-Xia Liu, Ning-Yuan Fang
Browning of white adipose tissue is a novel mechanism to counteract obesity in view of its thermogenic activity. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) can promote the browning of white fat. 9-PAHSA, an endogenous mammalian lipid, which is acting as the ligand of GPR120 to enhance glucose uptake and exert anti-inflammatory effect. In the study, we would like to investigate the biological effects of 9-PAHSA on adipocyte browning. Here, we show that 9-PAHSA induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat specific genes...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340811/melinjo-gnetum-gnemon-l-seed-extract-induces-uncoupling-protein-1-expression-in-brown-fat-and-protects-mice-against-diet-induced-obesity-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Manami Saito, Julia Aoyama, Mohamed Elfeky, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
Dietary supplementation with melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) has been proposed as an anti-obesity strategy. However, it remains unclear how MSE modulates energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary MSE reduces energy intake and/or increases physical activity and metabolic thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) in mice. Twenty-four C57BL/6 J mice were provided with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 1% MSE added, for 17 weeks. Food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339734/adipose-tissue-expression-of-ccl19-is-positively-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#4
Shihab Kochumon, Fatema Al-Rashed, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Sriraman Devarajan, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Chemokines produced by adipose tissue (AT) are involved in the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in obese humans and rodents. AT CCL19 expression in obesity and its association with metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCL19 gene expression on inflammatory markers in subcutaneous AT and insulin resistance. METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose samples were collected from 56 non-diabetic (26-obese, 21-overweight, and 9-lean) individuals...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339316/metabolic-syndrome-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#5
REVIEW
S S Lim, N S Kakoly, J W J Tan, G Fitzgerald, M Bahri Khomami, A E Joham, S D Cooray, M L Misso, R J Norman, C L Harrison, S Ranasinha, H J Teede, L J Moran
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The relative contribution of clinical, demographic or biochemical factors to metabolic syndrome in PCOS is not known. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and clinical trial registries. Of 4530 studies reviewed, 59 were included in the systematic review and 27 in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. In good and fair quality studies, women with PCOS had an overall increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio, OR 3...
October 19, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338616/risk-markers-for-later-cardiovascular-diseases-in-liver-transplanted-children-and-adolescents
#6
Vibeke Naeser, Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Bo Nyhuus, Lise Borgwardt, Marianne Hørby Jørgensen, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases is well described after adult liver transplantation, whereas the risk in the pediatric population still is discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pediatric liver transplant recipients and whether measurements of carotid intima media thickness and pulse wave velocity were increased compared to healthy controls. METHODS: We included 42 pediatric liver transplantation recipients and examined them for markers of metabolic syndrome, liver fibrosis measured by shear wave velocity, body fat measured by DXA scans and carotid intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity (n = 41 for the carotid scans)...
October 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338401/inflammation-markers-in-type-2-diabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-pediatric-population
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338117/association-of-plasma-nitrite-levels-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-old-order-amish
#8
F Akram, D Fuchs, M Daue, G Nijjar, A Ryan, M E Benros, O Okusaga, E Baca-Garcia, L A Brenner, C A Lowry, K A Ryan, M Pavlovich, B D Mitchell, S Snitker, T T Postolache
Objectives: Plasma nitrite is a metabolite of nitric oxide and reflects endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Although plasma nitrites were previously linked with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), the direction of association remains inconsistent, possibly due to sample heterogeneity. In a relatively homogeneous population, we hypothesized that nitrite levels will be positively associated with overweight/obesity and MetS. Methods: Fasting nitrite levels were measured in 116 Old Order Amish (78% women)...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338116/effect-of-exercise-modality-on-markers-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-blood-glucose-control-in-pregnancies-complicated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
A Cremona, C O'Gorman, A Cotter, J Saunders, A Donnelly
Background/aim: Exercise can be used as a strategy to attenuate hyperglycaemia experienced during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To maximize its use for clinical management, the most effective modality should be identified. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the most effective modality of exercise on insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control in pregnant women with or at risk of GDM. Methods: A search was undertaken in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase and the Maternity & Infant Healthcare Database...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337653/a-low-visceral-fat-proportion-independent-of-total-body-fat-mass-protects-obese-adolescent-girls-against-fatty-liver-and-glucose-dysregulation-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Giuseppina R Umano, Veronika Shabanova, Bridget Pierpont, Mariana Mata, Jessica Nouws, Domenico Tricò, Alfonso Galderisi, Nicola Santoro, Sonia Caprio
BACKGROUND: The relative proportion of visceral fat (VAT) to subcutaneous fat (SAT) has been described as a major determinant of insulin resistance (IR). Our study sought to evaluate the effect of body fat distribution on glucose metabolism and intrahepatic fat content over time in a multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We examined markers of glucose metabolism by oral glucose tolerance test, and body fat distribution by abdominal MRI at baseline and after 19...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336615/effects-of-obesity-and-gastric-bypass-surgery-on-nutrient-sensors-endocrine-cells-and-mucosal-innervation-of-the-mouse-colon
#11
Madusha Peiris, Rubina Aktar, Sarah Raynel, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, L Ashley Blackshaw
BACKGROUND: Nutrient-sensing receptors located on enteroendocrine (EEC) cells modulate appetite via detection of luminal contents. Colonic 'tasting' of luminal contents may influence changes to appetite observed in obesity and after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. We assessed the effects of obesity and gastric bypass-induced weight loss on expression of nutrient-sensing G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), EEC and enterochromaffin (EC) cells and mucosal innervation. METHODS: qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to study colonic tissue from (a) chow-fed/lean, (b) high-fat fed/obese, (c) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and (d) calorie restriction-induced weight loss mice...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335612/the-association-of-hs-crp-and-fibrinogen-with-anthropometric-and-lipid-parameters-in-non-obese-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Ilijana Mažibrada, Tatjana Djukić, Svetlana Perović, Marija Plješa-Ercegovac, Ljiljana Plavšić, Dragana Bojanin, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Petar D Simić, Tatjana Simić, Ana Savić-Radojević, George Mastorakos, Djuro Macut
Background The aim of the study was to evaluate high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in non-obese normoinsulinemic adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their relationship with anthropometric and lipid parameters. Methods The study comprised a total of 26 adolescent girls newly diagnosed with PCOS and 12 healthy controls with regular ovulatory menstrual cycles. The concentration of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical and hormonal testing were assessed...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333571/imatinib-reduces-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-mice-by-targeting-inflammatory-and-lipogenic-pathways-in-macrophages-and-liver
#13
Shefaa AlAsfoor, Theresa V Rohm, Angela J T Bosch, Thomas Dervos, Diego Calabrese, Matthias S Matter, Achim Weber, Claudia Cavelti-Weder
Macrophages have been recognized as key players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to assess whether pharmacological attenuation of macrophages can be achieved by imatinib, an anti-leukemia drug with known anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, and how this impacts on NAFLD. We analyzed the pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression of murine macrophages and human monocytes in vitro in the presence or absence of imatinib. In a time-resolved study, we characterized metabolic disease manifestations such as hepatic steatosis, systemic and adipose tissue inflammation as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in obese mice at one and three months of imatinib treatment...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328152/longitudinal-birth-cohort-study-found-that-a-significant-proportion-of-children-had-abnormal-metabolic-profiles-and-insulin-resistance-at-6-years-of-age
#14
Emma Kjellberg, Josefine Roswall, Stefan Bergman, Gerd Almqvist-Tangen, Bernt Alm, Jovanna Dahlgren
AIM: Metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and we investigated whether otherwise healthy 6-year-olds showed metabolic alterations. METHODS: This study followed up a representative Swedish population-based cohort of full-term infants recruited on the maternity ward at Hallands Hospital Halmstad, Sweden, from 2008 to 2011. They were examined at a mean of 6.6 years of age (range 6.5-6.9) using various measures for signs of metabolic syndrome...
October 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325733/leptin-and-adiposity-as-mediators-on-the-association-between-early-puberty-and-several-biomarkers-in-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#15
Tara Rendo-Urteaga, Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes, Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal, Yannis Manios, Frederic Gottand, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Kurt Widhalm, Stefaan De Henauw, Dénes Molnár, Ascensión Marcos, Marcela González-Gross, Marika Ferrari, Heráclito B Carvalho, Luis A Moreno
Background Adolescents having early puberty (EP) are more likely to have obesity and increased cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk. We aimed to assess the indirect and mediated effects of leptin and adiposity on the relation between EP and cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in European adolescents. Methods A sample of 511 adolescents with EP (12.5-17.5 years) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study was studied. To assess whether leptin levels and adiposity mediate the relation between EP and several biomarkers, linear regression models for mediation analyses were performed...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322882/consumer-credit-chronic-disease-and-risk-behaviours
#16
Lorraine T Dean, Emily A Knapp, Sevly Snguon, Yusuf Ransome, Dima M Qato, Kala Visvanathan
BACKGROUND: Credit scores have been identified as a marker of disease burden. This study investigated credit scores' association with chronic diseases and health behaviours that are associated with chronic diseases. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included data on 2083 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA in 2015. Nine-digit ZIP code level FICO credit scores were appended to individual self-reported chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, hypertension) and related health behaviours (smoking, exercise, and salt intake and medication adherence among those with hypertension)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321750/reduction-of-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-proinflammatory-state-by-eicosapentaenoic-acid-plus-hydroxytyrosol-supplementation-involvement-of-resolvins-rve1-2-and-rvd1-2
#17
F Echeverría, R Valenzuela, A Espinosa, A Bustamante, D Álvarez, D Gonzalez-Mañan, M Ortiz, S A Soto-Alarcon, L A Videla
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice show obesity with development of liver steatosis and a proinflammatory state without establishing an inflammatory reaction. The aim of this work was to assess the hypothesis that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) supplementation prevents the inflammatory reaction through enhancement in the hepatic resolvin content in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or a control diet and supplemented with EPA (50 mg/kg/day) and HT (5 mg/kg/day) or their respective vehicles for 12 weeks...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321272/impact-of-a-poly-phenol-rich-extract-from-the-brown-algae-ascophyllum-nodosum-on-dna-damage-and-antioxidant-activity-in-an-overweight-or-obese-population-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Francina R Baldrick, Kevin McFadden, Maria Ibars, Chris Sung, Tanya Moffatt, Kate Megarry, Keith Thomas, Peter Mitchell, Julie M W Wallace, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Nigel G Ternan, Giulia Corona, Jeremy Spencer, Parveen Yaqoob, Sarah Hotchkiss, Ross Campbell, José Manuel Moreno-Rojas, Francisco Julián Cuevas, Gema Pereira-Caro, Ian Rowland, Chris I R Gill
Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in (poly)phenols has beneficial effects on many chronic diseases. Brown seaweed is a rich source of (poly)phenols. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and effect of a brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) (poly)phenol extract on DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in vivo. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in 80 participants aged 30-65 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥25...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319230/impaired-pulmonary-lung-functions-in-workers-exposed-to-bagasse-is-obesity-an-added-risk
#19
Yogita S Khade, Shrilaxmi Bagali, Manjunatha Aithala
Context: Effect of obesity and dust exposure on lung functions. Aim: To assess the pulmonary functions in asymptomatic, dust-exposed sugarcane factory workers with obesity as an added risk. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in one of the reputed sugarcane factories in Karnataka. One hundred and fifty asymptomatic male workers working in sugarcane factory were included in the study...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319187/citral-a-monoterpene-inhibits-adipogenesis-through-modulation-of-adipogenic-transcription-factors-in-3t3-l1-cells
#20
Subramaniam Sri Devi, Natarajan Ashokkumar
Obesity is considered as a major global human health problem which significantly increases the risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Citral, a bioactive compound widely found in a variety of foods that are consumed daily. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of citral against adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 cells. The mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes using adipogenic cocktail (5 g/ml insulin, 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine and 10 M dexamethasone). Differentiation of adipocytes was evaluated by assessing triglyceride accumulation assay and cell viability by MTT assay...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
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