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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528660/polygonum-multiflorum-thunb-suppress-bile-acid-synthesis-by-activating-fxr-fgf15-signaling-in-the-intestine
#1
Jing Wei, Jingrui Chen, Lingling Fu, Lifeng Han, Xiumei Gao, Michael Sarhene, Limin Hu, Youcai Zhang, Guanwei Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polygonum multiflorum Thunb( Heshouwu, HSW) is commonly used in clinical medicine, while the hepatotoxicities of HSW are reported increasingly in recent years. Currently, researchers have demonstrated an essential role of Bile Acids (BAs) in liver diseases. The occurrence of hepatotoxicity cases linked to HSW are characterized by jaundice and cholestasis, suggesting an interaction that between BAs and HSW AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to investigate the HSW-induced liver functional and histological changes in mice and the role of HSW on bile acid synthesis, metabolism, clearance and intestinal absorption...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513922/health-effects-of-resveratrol-results-from-human-intervention-trials
#2
REVIEW
Sonia L Ramírez-Garza, Emily P Laveriano-Santos, María Marhuenda-Muñoz, Carolina E Storniolo, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós
The effect of resveratrol (RV) intake has been reviewed in several studies performed in humans with different health status. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of clinical trials of the last decade, in which RV was determined in biological samples such as human plasma, urine, and feces. The topics covered include RV bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, effects on cardiovascular diseases, cognitive diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), oxidative stress, and inflammation states. The overview of the recent research reveals a clear tendency to identify RV in plasma, showing that its supplementation is safe...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504769/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-yields-20-loci-associated-with-gallstone-disease
#3
Egil Ferkingstad, Asmundur Oddsson, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Stefania Benonisdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Aimee M Deaton, Stefan Jonsson, Olafur A Stefansson, Gudmundur L Norddahl, Florian Zink, Gudny A Arnadottir, Bjarni Gunnarsson, Gisli H Halldorsson, Anna Helgadottir, Brynjar O Jensson, Ragnar P Kristjansson, Gardar Sveinbjornsson, David A Sverrisson, Gisli Masson, Isleifur Olafsson, Gudmundur I Eyjolfsson, Olof Sigurdardottir, Hilma Holm, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Sigurdur Olafsson, Thora Steingrimsdottir, Thorunn Rafnar, Einar S Bjornsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Patrick Sulem, Kari Stefansson
Gallstones are responsible for one of the most common diseases in the Western world and are commonly treated with cholecystectomy. We perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of gallstone disease in Iceland and the UK, totaling 27,174 cases and 736,838 controls, uncovering 21 novel gallstone-associated variants at 20 loci. Two distinct low frequency missense variants in SLC10A2, encoding the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), associate with an increased risk of gallstone disease (Pro290Ser: OR = 1...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488336/a-gallbladder-based-enterohepatic-circulation-model-for-pharmacokinetic-studies
#4
Malek Okour, Richard C Brundage
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Strategies for modeling the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) process reported in the literature vary; however, gallbladder-based models currently provide the best physiological representation of the process. Regardless, the addition of a gallbladder to the model does not fully depict the physiology of EHC. A more physiological gallbladder-based EHC model is needed. This model should take into account a physiological representation of the bile secretion, gallbladder filling and emptying, the duration of gallbladder emptying, and irregular mealtimes...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473173/immunosuppressive-drugs-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-renal-transplant-patients
#5
REVIEW
Merel M Tielemans, Gerben A J van Boekel, Teun van Gelder, Eric T Tjwa, Luuk B Hilbrands
Gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort is common after renal transplantation and can be caused by the use of various immunosuppressive drugs. GI symptoms affect the quality of life, lead to an impaired graft survival and an increased mortality. Moreover, diseases and disturbances of the GI tract also affect the pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressive drugs. This review addresses the interaction between immunosuppressive agents and GI disorders. The GI tract is involved in the metabolism of several immunosuppressive drugs...
November 14, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465817/development-of-a-joint-population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-ezetimibe-and-its-conjugated-metabolite
#6
K Soulele, V Karalis
Ezetimibe (EZE) is an extensively used antihyperlipidemic drug with an important cholesterol lowering activity. It undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism to form its active glucuronide metabolite (EZEG). Both drugs exhibit complex pharmacokinetic profiles attributed mainly to repetitive enterohepatic kinetics. The aim of the present study was the investigation of EZE and EZEG pharmacokinetics (PK), through the development of a joint population pharmacokinetic model able to characterize their kinetic processes and enterohepatic recirculation simultaneously...
November 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463508/coordinate-regulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-and-protein-coding-genes-in-germ-free-mice
#7
Joseph Dempsey, Angela Zhang, Julia Yue Cui
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as regulators of tissue-specific cellular functions and have been shown to regulate transcriptional and translational processes, acting as signals, decoys, guides, and scaffolds. It has been suggested that some lncRNAs act in cis to regulate the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes (PCGs) in a mechanism that fine-tunes gene expression. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a regulator of development, inflammation, host metabolic processes, and xenobiotic metabolism...
November 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458713/comparative-genomics-analysis-to-differentiate-metabolic-and-virulence-gene-potential-in-gastric-versus-enterohepatic-helicobacter-species
#8
Anthony Mannion, Zeli Shen, James G Fox
BACKGROUND: The genus Helicobacter are gram-negative, microaerobic, flagellated, mucus-inhabiting bacteria associated with gastrointestinal inflammation and classified as gastric or enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) according to host species and colonization niche. While there are over 30 official species, little is known about the physiology and pathogenic mechanisms of EHS, which account for most in the genus, as well as what genetic factors differentiate gastric versus EHS, given they inhabit different hosts and colonization niches...
November 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449821/evidence-for-the-involvement-of-fxr-signaling-in-ovarian-granulosa-cell-function
#9
Kentaro Takae, Mizuho Nakata, Takafumi Watanabe, Hiroshi Sasada, Hiroshi Fujii, Ikuo Tomioka
FXR (farnesoid X receptor) is mainly present in enterohepatic tissues and regulates cholesterol, lipid, and glucose homeostasis in coordination with target genes such as SHP and FABP6. Although FXR has been revealed to be expressed in reproductive tissues, FXR function and expression levels in the ovary remain unknown. In this study, we investigated FXR expression in mouse ovaries and its target genes in ovarian granulosa cells. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining showed that FXR was mainly distributed in secondary and tertiary follicles...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405595/dietary-exposure-to-the-environmental-chemical-pfos-on-the-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Keng Po Lai, Alice Hoi-Man Ng, Hin Ting Wan, Aman Yi-Man Wong, Cherry Chi-Tim Leung, Rong Li, Chris Kong-Chu Wong
The gut microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem formed by thousands of diverse bacterial species. This bacterial diversity is acquired early in life and shaped over time by a combination of multiple factors, including dietary exposure to distinct nutrients and xenobiotics. Alterations of the gut microbiota composition and associated metabolic activities in the gut are linked to various immune and metabolic diseases. The microbiota could potentially interact with xenobiotics in the gut environment as a result of their board enzymatic capacities and thereby affect the bioavailability and toxicity of the xenobiotics in enterohepatic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399434/oral-sirna-delivery-using-dual-transporting-systems-to-efficiently-treat-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#11
Eun-Ju Hyun, Mohammad Nazmul Hasan, Sung Hun Kang, Sungpil Cho, Yong-Kyu Lee
Oral siRNA delivery is an ideal way to translate siRNA therapeutic effects in the clinic due to its ability to be administered in convenient and multiple dosages. However, an effective oral delivery system requires overcoming both a hostile gastrointestinal (GI) environment and non-specific targeting. Here, an HTsRP-NC system is a new oral siRNA delivery system consisting of a siRNA/protamine (sRP) nano-complex protected by a multi-functional hyaluronic acid-taurocholic acid (HA-TCA) conjugate. The HTsRP-NC promotes cell penetration and enhances endosomal escape in cancer cells...
November 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383974/bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-diarrhea-in-acute-phase-of-colitis
#12
Rui-Gang Hou, Lei Fan, Jun-Jin Liu, Yao Cheng, Zhuang-Peng Chang, Bei Wu, Yun-Yun Shao
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) critically depends on BA transporters and enzymes, which can be affected by inflammatory bowel disease. Diarrhea in colitis is believed to result in part from BA malabsorption. The work aimed to investigate whether diarrhea in colitis was associated with the expression of BA transporters, enzymes, and nuclear receptors. RT-qPCR and Western blot techniques were used to evaluate the gene and protein levels of Cyp7a1, Asbt, SHP, FXR, Ostβ in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid-induced rat model of colitis...
November 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365223/gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-expression-by-helicobacter-saguini-an-enterohepatic-helicobacter-species-isolated-from-cotton-top-tamarins-with-chronic-colitis
#13
Anthony Mannion, Zeli Shen, Yan Feng, Stephen C Artim, Kodihalli Ravindra, Zhongming Ge, James G Fox
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter saguini is a novel enterohepatic Helicobacter species isolated from captive cotton top tamarins with chronic colitis and colon cancer. Monoassociated H. saguini infection in gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice causes typhlocolitis and dysplasia; however, the virulent mechanisms of this species are unknown. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is an enzymatic virulence factor expressed by pathogenic Helicobacter and Campylobacter species that inhibits host cellular proliferation and promotes inflammatory-mediated gastrointestinal pathology...
October 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347638/trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-link-among-diet-gut-microbiota-gene-regulation-of-liver-and-intestine-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-hdl-function
#14
REVIEW
Marina Canyelles, Mireia Tondo, Lídia Cedó, Marta Farràs, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil, Francisco Blanco-Vaca
Recent evidence, including massive gene-expression analysis and a wide-variety of other multi-omics approaches, demonstrates an interplay between gut microbiota and the regulation of plasma lipids. Gut microbial metabolism of choline and l-carnitine results in the formation of trimethylamine (TMA) and concomitant conversion into trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO) by liver flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). The plasma level of TMAO is determined by the genetic variation, diet and composition of gut microbiota. Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between TMAO plasma levels and the risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344125/dysregulated-bile-acid-signaling-contributes-to-the-neurological-impairment-in-murine-models-of-acute-and-chronic-liver-failure
#15
Guoxiang Xie, Xiaoning Wang, Runqiu Jiang, Aihua Zhao, Jingyu Yan, Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Xinzhu Liu, Jun Panee, Cynthia Rajani, Chun Yao, Herbert Yu, Weiping Jia, Beicheng Sun, Ping Liu, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a severe neuropsychiatric complication, is associated with increased blood levels of ammonia and bile acids (BAs). We sought to determine (1) whether abnormally increased blood BAs in liver cirrhotic patients with HE is caused by elevation of apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT)-mediated BA reabsorption; and (2) whether increased BA reabsorption would exacerbate ammonia-induced brain injuries. METHODS: We quantitatively measured blood BA and ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis patients with or without HE and healthy controls...
October 18, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342317/association-of-serum-bilirubin-in-newborns-affected-by-jaundice-with-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis
#16
Shaoming Zhou, Zhangxing Wang, Fusheng He, Huixian Qiu, Yan Wang, Huihui Wang, Jianli Zhou, Jiaxiu Zhou, Guoqiang Cheng, Wenhao Zhou, Ruihuan Xu, Mingbang Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Breast milk jaundice (BMJ) is common and benign, but neonatal cholestasis (NC) is rare and not benign, so early differentiation between NC and non-NC jaundice is important and may facilitate diagnosis and treatment. Gut microbiota plays an important role in enterohepatic circulation, which in turn plays an important role in the secretion of bilirubin. We aimed to determine the composition of gut microbiota in patients with NC and BMJ, and to identify the gut microbiota composition associated with NC and BMJ...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337679/in-silico-proteomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-outer-membrane-protein-repertoire-of-gastric-helicobacter-species
#17
Eva Bauwens, Myrthe Joosten, Joemar Taganna, Mirko Rossi, Ayla Debraekeleer, Alfred Tay, Fanny Peters, Steffen Backert, James Fox, Richard Ducatelle, Han Remaut, Freddy Haesebrouck, Annemieke Smet
Helicobacter (H.) pylori is an important risk factor for gastric malignancies worldwide. Its outer membrane proteome takes an important role in colonization of the human gastric mucosa. However, in zoonotic non-H. pylori helicobacters (NHPHs) also associated with human gastric disease, the composition of the outer membrane (OM) proteome and its relative contribution to disease remain largely unknown. By means of a comprehensive survey of the diversity and distribution of predicted outer membrane proteins (OMPs) identified in all known gastric Helicobacter species with fully annotated genome sequences, we found genus- and species-specific families known or thought to be implicated in virulence...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332763/metabolomic-profiling-of-portal-blood-and-bile-reveals-metabolic-signatures-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#18
Pamela S Tietz-Bogert, Minsuk Kim, Angela Cheung, James H Tabibian, Julie K Heimbach, Charles B Rosen, Madhumitha Nandakumar, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Nicholas F LaRusso, Jaeyun Sung, Steven P O'Hara
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a pathogenically complex, chronic, fibroinflammatory disorder of the bile ducts without known etiology or effective pharmacotherapy. Emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence support fundamental pathophysiologic mechanisms in PSC centered on enterohepatic circulation. To date, no studies have specifically interrogated the chemical footprint of enterohepatic circulation in PSC. Herein, we evaluated the metabolome and lipidome of portal venous blood and bile obtained at the time of liver transplantation in patients with PSC ( n = 7) as compared to individuals with noncholestatic, end-stage liver disease (viral, metabolic, etc...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325543/stool-colour-test-can-help-to-decide-which-infants-with-neonatal-hyperbilirubinaemia-need-phototherapy
#19
Srinivasa M Doreswamy, Prajwala H Vasudev, Deepti Thandaveshwara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306382/bile-acids-and-their-effects-on-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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