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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553862/remnant-lipoproteins-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Hayato Tada, Atsushi Nohara, Akihiro Inazu, Hiroshi Mabuchi, Masa-Aki Kawashiri
Lipoproteins are one of the major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), among which, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles have been definitively shown to be causally associated with the development of ASCVD. Additionally, the concept of remnant lipoproteins has emerged as lipoprotein metabolism has been fully investigated. The principal concept of this lipoprotein category is triglyceride-rich lipoproteins significantly increase at the postprandial state. Although there is no clear definition of remnant lipoproteins, they typically include chylomicron remnants, which are lipolyzed particles from chylomicron, as well as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) remnants that are lipolyzed particles from VLDL and IDL particles...
December 13, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553860/hypothesis-ii-the-majority-of-vldl-apob48-remnants-in-postprandial-plasma-are-derived-from-the-liver-not-from-the-intestine
#2
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Yoshiharu Tokita, Akira Tanaka
We have long thought that remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in the postprandial plasma contain CM remnants (exogenous remnants; RLP-apoB48) and VLDL remnants (endogenous remnants; RLP-apoB100) of different origin, i.e. produced in the intestine and liver, respectively. However, the majority of CM remnants incorporated into liver from the circulation are degraded in liver and may be reused for the remodeling of VLDL. Namely, the most of the apoB48 in CM remnants are smoothly incorporated into the liver after fat intake along with lipids and other apolipoproteins via the LDL receptor and LDL-receptor-related protein (LRP)...
December 13, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553054/high-fat-diet-induces-aberrant-hepatic-lipid-secretion-in-blunt-snout-bream-by-activating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-associated-ire1-xbp1-pathway
#3
Xiu-Fei Cao, Yong-Jun Dai, Ming-Yang Liu, Xiang-Yang Yuan, Cong-Cong Wang, Yang-Yang Huang, Wen-Bin Liu, Guang-Zhen Jiang
This study was conducted to understand the effect of high-fat diet challenge on lipid transport and endoplasmic reticulum stress in blunt snout bream. Ninety fish (average weight: 41.84 ± 0.07 g) were randomly fed a control diet (6% fat) or a high-fat diet (11% fat) for 9 weeks. The growth performance and feed utilization efficiency were evaluated at the end of the trial. The liver samples of both groups were harvested for molecular analysis and histological evaluation. Compared to the Control group, the high-fat diet group showed no effects on either growth performance or energy intake in blunt snout bream...
December 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550765/novel-aspects-of-pcsk9-and-lipoprotein-receptors-in-renal-disease-related-dyslipidemia
#4
Pragyi Shrestha, Bart van de Sluis, Robin P F Dullaart, Jacob van den Born
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with a profound impact on quality of life. Cardiovascular disease is established as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Dyslipidemia is frequently observed in CKD patients, suggesting a causal relation between dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. Currently, lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, are the primary choice for lipid lowering therapy in high-risk populations. Despite many studies showing CVD risk reduction with statins, CVD still remains the leading cause of the death in CKD...
December 11, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550414/lipoprotein-metabolism-in-liver-diseases
#5
Maria Camila Perez-Matos, Bynvant Sandhu, Alan Bonder, Zhenghui Gordon Jiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The liver is the central hub of lipoprotein metabolism. A complex relationship exists between dyslipidemia and chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Recent advances in the genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) exemplify the pivotal role of lipoprotein metabolism in the pathogenesis of CLD. We review these relationships in four quintessential forms of CLD: NAFLD, ALD, cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis, with a focus on recent discoveries...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550084/-the-becoming-of-reactions-of-lipolysis-in-phylogenesis-the-palmitic-and-oleic-triglycerides-as-substrates-insulin-condition-of-normolipemia-and-formation-of-hyper-lipoproteinemia-type-iib-iv-and-v
#6
V N Titov, T A Rozhkova, A V Aripovsky, V A Amelyushkina, M Yu Karganov
According to phylogenetic theory of general pathology, when living in ocean all were carnivorous (piscivorous) fatty acids transferring to cells in form of non-polar triglycerides nitially began apoB-48 chylomicrons, continued lipoproteins of very low and low density and fnalized its apoB-100 endocytosis. The fatty acids are transferred by chylomicrons + lipoproteins of very low density + lipoproteins of low density and non-polar triglycerides are hydrolyzed by hepatic glycerolhydrogenase and co-enzyme apoC-III; according WHO classifcation, hyperlipoproteinemia corresponds to type V...
2018: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545453/associations-of-body-mass-and-fat-indexes-with-cardiometabolic-traits
#7
Joshua A Bell, David Carslake, Linda M O'Keeffe, Monika Frysz, Laura D Howe, Mark Hamer, Kaitlin H Wade, Nicholas J Timpson, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is criticized for not distinguishing fat from lean mass and ignoring fat distribution, leaving its ability to detect health effects unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare BMI with total and regional fat indexes from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in their associations with cardiometabolic traits. Duration of exposure to and change in each index across adolescence were examined in relation to detailed traits in young adulthood...
December 18, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542628/current-trends-of-cardiovascular-risk-determinants-in-pakistan
#8
Afrose Liaquat, Qamar Javed
We carried out a case control study to determine the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors in a Pakistani population. A total of 835 patients (555 males and 280 females) and 794 control subjects (486 males and 308 females) were recruited in this study. Patients with documented history of coronary artery disease (CAD) were included. We assessed major risk factors such as age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension and dyslipidemia, using pre-specified definitions. A comparative analysis of the biochemical and clinical parameters was carried out between controls and patients using student's t test...
October 4, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542533/novel-tricyclic-glycal-based-trib1-inducers-that-reprogram-ldl-metabolism-in-hepatic-cells
#9
Marek M Nagiec, Jeremy R Duvall, Adam P Skepner, Eleanor A Howe, Jessica Bastien, Eamon Comer, Jean-Charles Marie, Stephen E Johnston, Joseph Negri, Michelle Eichhorn, Julien Vantourout, Clary Clish, Kiran Musunuru, Michael Foley, Jose R Perez, Michelle A J Palmer
Increased expression of the Tribbles pseudokinase 1 gene ( TRIB1 ) is associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, higher levels of HDL cholesterol and decreased risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. We identified a class of tricyclic glycal core-based compounds that upregulate TRIB1 expression in human HepG2 cells and phenocopy the effects of genetic TRIB1 overexpression as they inhibit expression of triglyceride synthesis genes and ApoB secretion in cells...
November 1, 2018: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542383/resveratrol-protects-against-oxidative-stress-by-activating-the-keap-1-nrf2-antioxidant-defense-system-in-obese-asthmatic-rats
#10
Xiao-Nan Li, Lu-Yi Ma, Hong Ji, Yuan-Hua Qin, Shan-Shan Jin, Li-Xin Xu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential mechanism underlying the anti-obesity-asthmatic effects of resveratrol (RSV) in a rat model of obese-asthma. Rat models of obesity and asthma were established using a high-fat diet and the administration of ovalbumin, respectively. Rats were divided into 7 different groups: A normal control, a normal obese, a normal asthma, a normal obese + asthma, a RSV obese, a RSV asthma and a RSV obese + asthma group. Body weight, Lee index, body fat and lung histopathological changes were evaluated...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538126/evaluation-of-the-non-hdl-cholesterol-to-apolipoprotein-b-ratio-as-a-screening-test-for-dysbetalipoproteinemia
#11
Christopher S Boot, Elizabeth Middling, Joy Allen, Robert D G Neely
BACKGROUND: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia is associated with the accumulation of remnant lipoproteins and premature cardiovascular disease. Identification of dysbetalipoproteinemia is important because family members may be affected. Diagnostic testing involves demonstration of β-lipoprotein in the VLDL fraction or characterization of apo E3 . These investigations are complex and relatively expensive. The ratios of apo B to total cholesterol and triglycerides have been proposed as screening tests...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535534/the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-genetic-and-metabolic-profiles-in-patients-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Mahtab Babadi, Ahmad Khorshidi, Esmat Aghadavood, Mansooreh Samimi, Elham Kavossian, Fereshteh Bahmani, Alireza Mafi, Rana Shafabakhsh, Mahbobeh Satari, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on genetic and metabolic profiles in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who were not on oral hypoglycemic agents. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 48 patients with GDM. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to intake either probiotic capsule containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus fermentum (2 × 109  CFU/g each) (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 6 weeks...
December 8, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532573/quantifying-the-effects-of-spirulina-supplementation-on-plasma-lipid-and-glucose-concentrations-body-weight-and-blood-pressure
#13
Haohai Huang, Dan Liao, Rong Pu, Yejia Cui
Purpose: Spirulina is generally used as a nutraceutical food supplement due to its nutrient profile, lack of toxicity, and therapeutic effects. Clinical trials have investigated the influence of spirulina on metabolic-related risk factors but have yielded conflicting results in humans. Here, we summarize the evidence of the effects of spirulina on serum lipid profile, glucose management, BP, and body weight by conducting a meta-analysis. Materials and methods: Relevant studies were retrieved by systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus databases, and reference lists of relevant original studies from inception to July 2018...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532249/cdhr3-extracellular-domains-ec1-3-mediate-rhinovirus-c-interaction-with-cells-and-as-recombinant-derivatives-are-inhibitory-to-virus-infection
#14
Kelly Watters, Ann C Palmenberg
Viruses in the rhinovirus C species (RV-C) are more likely to cause severe wheezing illnesses and asthma exacerbations in children than related isolates of the RV-A or RV-B. The RV-C capsid is structurally distinct from other rhinoviruses and does not bind ICAM-1 or VLDL receptors. The RV-C receptor is instead, human cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3), a protein unique to the airway epithelium. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6967330, encoding C529Y) in CDHR3 regulates the display density of CDHR3 on cell surfaces and is among the strongest known genetic correlates for childhood virus-induced asthma susceptibility...
December 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526168/mipomersen-and-its-use-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#15
Johnathon Seth Parham, Anne Carol Goldberg
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder characterized by a defect in the binding and internalization of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, resulting in markedly elevated LDL levels and premature atherosclerosis. It is one of the most common inherited disorders of lipid metabolism. Many FH patients, especially those with homozygous FH do not reach LDL goals with traditional LDL therapies and may require additional, less often used, therapies. Areas covered: Mipomersen is an anti-sense oligonucleotide that prevents production of apolipoprotein B leading to decreased levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL...
December 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526076/guggulsterone-a-farnesoid-x-receptor-antagonist-lowers-plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-an-evidence-from-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#16
A Gautam, Y N Paudel, Saz Abidin, U Bhandari
The current study investigated the role of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, in the choline metabolism and its trimethylamine (TMA)/flavin monooxygenases/trimethylamine- N-oxide (TMAO) inhibiting potential in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS), and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS techniques. Atherosclerosis (AS) was successfully induced in a group of experimental animals fed with 2% choline diet for 6 weeks...
December 9, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525347/metabolomic-consequences-of-genetic-inhibition-of-pcsk9-compared-with-statin-treatment
#17
Eeva Sliz, Johannes Kettunen, Michael Holmes, Clare Williams, Charles Boachie, Qin Wang, Minna Männikkö, Sylvain Sebert, Robin Walters, Kuang Lin, Lona Millwood, Robert Clarke, Liming Li, N Rankin, Paul Welsh, Christian Delles, J Jukema, Stella Trompet, Ian Ford, Markus Perola, Veikko Salomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Zhengming Chen, Debbie Lawlor, Mika Ala-Korpela, John Danesh, George Smith, Naveed Sattar, Adam Butterworth, Peter Würtz
BACKGROUND: Both statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors lower blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. To assess potential differences between metabolic effects of these 2 lipid-lowering therapies, we performed detailed lipid and metabolite profiling of a large randomized statin trial and compared the results with the effects of genetic inhibition of PCSK9, acting as a naturally occurring trial. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-eight circulating metabolic measures were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including lipoprotein subclass concentrations and their lipid composition, fatty acids, and amino acids, for 5359 individuals (2659 on treatment) in the PROSPER (Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) trial at 6 months postrandomization...
November 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524650/distribution-of-paraoxonase-1-pon-1-and-lipoprotein-phospholipase-a2-lp-pla2-across-lipoprotein-subclasses-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Battista Vigna, Arianna Romani, Juana M Sanz, Carlotta Cavicchio, Gloria Bonaccorsi, Giuseppe Valacchi, Carlo Cervellati
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) may exert an important protective role by preventing the oxidative transformation of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively). The activity of both enzymes is influenced by lipidome and proteome of the lipoprotein carriers. T2DM typically presents significant changes in the molecular composition of the lipoprotein subclasses. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the interaction of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 with the subspecies of HDL, LDL, and other lipoproteins in T2DM...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524137/metabolomic-consequences-of-genetic-inhibition-of-pcsk9-compared-with-statin-treatment
#19
Eeva Sliz, Johannes Kettunen, Michael V Holmes, Clare Oliver Williams, Charles Boachie, Qin Wang, Minna Männikkö, Sylvain Sebert, Robin Walters, Kuang Lin, Iona Y Millwood, Robert Clarke, Liming Li, Naomi Rankin, Paul Welsh, Christian Delles, J Wouter Jukema, Stella Trompet, Ian Ford, Markus Perola, Veikko Salomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Zhengming Chen, Debbie A Lawlor, Mika Ala-Korpela, John Danesh, George Davey Smith, Naveed Sattar, Adam Butterworth, Peter Würtz
Background: Both statins and PCSK9 inhibitors lower blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. To assess potential differences between metabolic effects of these two lipid-lowering therapies, we performed detailed lipid and metabolite profiling of a large randomized statin trial and compared the results with the effects of genetic inhibition of PCSK9, acting as a naturally occurring trial. Methods: 228 circulating metabolic measures were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including lipoprotein subclass concentrations and their lipid composition, fatty acids, and amino acids, for 5,359 individuals (2,659 on treatment) in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial at 6-months post-randomization...
November 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517533/alterations-in-the-lipid-profiles-and-circulating-liver-enzymes-in-individuals-infected-by-schistosoma-mansoni
#20
Fabiana Letícia da Silva, Rodrigo Pimenta Del-Rei, Déborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Leonardo Maia Leony, Alina Maria Gonzaga Carlos de Souza, Fred Luciano Neves Santos
INTRODUCTION: Portal hypertension and periportal fibrosis commonly occur in severe Schistosoma mansoni infection. Changes in lipid profile and elevated levels of circulating liver enzymes have also been described in infected individuals. The present study sought to assess the alterations in laboratory parameters associated with liver disorder in individuals infected by S. mansoni who visited a private routine laboratory service. Levels of circulating liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase [γ-GT], aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) and a lipid panel (total cholesterol [COL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides [TRI]) were evaluated in both infected and non-infected individuals and relative risk was used to measure associations...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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