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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793145/mechanistic-approach-to-study-conjugation-of-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#1
Imran Uddin
Interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems turns out to be vibrant for their efficient application in biomedical field. Here, we have shown antibiotic amakicin loaded nanoparticles are responsible for the dual role as reducing and stabilizing the silver nanoparticles without the use of any undesired chemicals. Synthesized nanoparticles are well-dispersed having quasi spherical morphology with an average particle size around 10-11 nm. Crystallinity of nanoparticles was measured using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and powder XRD analysis which show that particles are perfectly crystalline with cubic phase of geometry...
May 16, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793107/biofiltration-of-methane-using-hybrid-mixtures-of-biochar-lava-rock-and-compost
#2
Helen La, J Patrick A Hettiaratchi, Gopal Achari, Tobin J Verbeke, Peter F Dunfield
Using hybrid packing materials in biofiltration systems takes advantage of both the inorganic and organic properties offered by the medium including structural stability and a source of available nutrients, respectively. In this study, hybrid mixtures of compost with either lava rock or biochar in four different mixture ratios were compared against 100% compost in a methane biofilter with active aeration at two ports along the height of the biofilter. Biochar outperformed lava rock as a packing material by providing the added benefit of participating in sorption reactions with CH4 ...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792823/principles-of-systems-biology-no-29
#3
(no author information available yet)
This month: in silico labeling of microscopy images (Christiansen/Finkbeiner), single-cell lineage trees and data integration (Rajewsky, Satija), gene expression (Weinberger/Simpson, Tavazoie, Ameres/Zuber), and signalling networks (Mercer/Wollscheid, Fussenegger).
May 23, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792820/hydrogel-tissue-chemistry-principles-and-applications
#4
Viviana Gradinaru, Jennifer Treweek, Kristin Overton, Karl Deisseroth
Over the past five years, a rapidly developing experimental approach has enabled high-resolution and high-content information retrieval from intact multicellular animal (metazoan) systems. New chemical and physical forms are created in the hydrogel-tissue chemistry process, and the retention and retrieval of crucial phenotypic information regarding constituent cells and molecules (and their joint interrelationships) are thereby enabled. For example, rich data sets defining both single-cell-resolution gene expression and single-cell-resolution activity during behavior can now be collected while still preserving information on three-dimensional positioning and/or brain-wide wiring of those very same neurons-even within vertebrate brains...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792817/macroscopic-theory-for-evolving-biological-systems-akin-to-thermodynamics
#5
Kunihiko Kaneko, Chikara Furusawa
We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792810/optogenetic-inhibition-of-g%C3%AE-q-protein-signaling-reduces-calcium-oscillation-stochasticity
#6
Pimkhuan Hannanta-Anan, Brian Y Chow
As fast terminators of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) serve critical roles in fine-tuning second messenger levels and, consequently, cellular responses to external stimuli. Here, we report the creation of an optogenetic RGS2 (opto-RGS2) that suppresses agonist-evoked calcium oscillations by the inactivation of Gαq protein. In this system, cryptochrome-mediated hetero-dimerization of the catalytic RGS2-box with its N-terminal amphipathic helix reconstitutes a functional membrane-localized complex that can dynamically suppress store-operated release of calcium...
May 24, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792700/the-energy-landscapes-of-mini-dumbbell-dna-octanucleotides
#7
James S Klimavicz, Konstantin Röder, David J Wales
Single-stranded DNA structures play a significant role in biological systems, in particular during replication, translation and DNA repair. Tracts of simple repetitive DNA (srDNA) are associated with slipped-strand mispairing (SSMs), that can lead to genetic diseases. Recent NMR studies of TTTA and CCTG repeats have shown that these sequences form mini-dumbbells (MDBs), leading to frameshift mutations. Here we explore the energy landscapes of (CCTG)2 and (TTTA)2 , which are currently the smallest known molecules to form MDBs...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792692/small-molecule-targeted-recruitment-of-a-nuclease-to-rna
#8
Matthew G Costales, Yasumasa Matsumoto, Sai Pradeep Velagapudi, Matthew D Disney
The choreography between RNA synthesis and degradation is a key determinant in biology. Engineered systems such as CRISPR have been developed to rid a cell of RNAs. Here, we show that a small molecule can recruit a nuclease to a specific transcript, triggering its destruction. A small molecule that selectively binds the oncogenic microRNA(miR)-96 hairpin precursor was appended with a short 2'-5' poly(A) oligonucleotide. The conjugate locally activated endogenous, latent ribonuclease (RNase L), which selectively cleaved the miR-96 precursor in cancer cells in a catalytic and sub-stoichiometric fashion...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792671/the-chemoattractant-glorin-is-inactivated-by-ester-cleavage-during-early-multicellular-development-of-polysphondylium-pallidum
#9
Daniel Heinrich, Robert Barnett, Luke Tweedy, Robert Insall, Pierre Stallforth, Thomas Winckler
Among the amoebozoan species capable of forming fruiting bodies, the dictyostelid social amoebae stand out since they form true multicellular organisms by means of single cell aggregation. Upon food depletion, cells migrate across gradients of extracellular signals initiated by cells in aggregation centers. The model species that is widely used to study multicellular development of social amoebae, Dictyostelium discoideum, uses cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as a chemoattractant to coordinate aggregation...
May 24, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792541/interaction-of-low-frequency-external-electric-fields-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-a-mathematical-modeling-approach-to-identify-the-influence-of-excitation-parameters
#10
Sajjad Farashi, Pezhman Sasanpour, Hashem Rafii-Tabar
Purpose-Although the effect of electromagnetic fields on biological systems has attracted attraction in recent years, there has not been any conclusive result concerning the effects of interaction and the underlying mechanisms involved. Besides the complexity of biological systems, the parameters of the applied electromagnetic field have not been estimated in most of the experiments. Material and Method-In this study, we have used computational approach in order to find the excitation parameters of an external electric field which produces sensible effects in the function of insulin secretory machinery, whose failure triggers the diabetes disease...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792365/protective-effects-of-piceatannol-on-methylglyoxal-induced-cytotoxicity-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblastic-cells
#11
Kwang Sik Suh, Suk Chon, Eun Mi Choi
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive α-oxoaldehyde that increases under diabetic conditions and subsequently contributes to the complications associated with this disease. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol that possesses multiple biological functions. The present study investigated the effects of piceatannol on MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Piceatannol significantly restored MG-induced reductions in cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release in MG-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, which suggests that it suppressed MG-induced cytotoxicity...
June 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792328/transforming-nanofibers-to-woven-nanotextiles-for-vascular-application
#12
John Joseph, Aarya G Krishnan, Aleena M Cherian, Balasubramoniam K Rajagopalan, Rajesh Jose, Praveen Varma, Vijayakumar Maniyal, Sivanarayanan Balakrishnan, Shantikumar V Nair, Deepthy Menon
This study investigated the unique properties, fabrication technique and vascular applications of woven nanotextiles made from low strength nanoyarns, which are bundles of thousands of nanofibers. An innovative robotic system was developed to meticulously interweave nanoyarns in longitudinal and transverse directions, resulting in a flexible, but strong woven product. This is the only technique for producing seamless nanotextiles in tubular form from nanofibers. The porosity and mechanical properties of nanotextiles could be substantially tuned by altering the number of nanoyarns per unit area...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792024/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorder-physiology-plasticity-and-promising-pharmacotherapies
#13
Max E Joffe, Samuel W Centanni, Anel A Jaramillo, Danny G Winder, P Jeffrey Conn
Developing efficacious treatments for alcohol use disorder (AUD) has proven difficult. The insidious nature of the disease necessitates a deep understanding of its underlying biology as well as innovative approaches to ameliorate ethanol-related pathophysiology. Excessive ethanol-seeking and relapse are generated by long-term changes to membrane properties, synaptic physiology, and plasticity throughout the limbic system and associated brain structures. Each of these factors can be modulated by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, a diverse set of G protein-coupled receptors highly expressed throughout the central nervous system...
May 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#14
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791883/relationship-between-modification-of-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment-and-changes-in-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria
#15
Ewa Korzeniewska, Monika Harnisz
Biological treatment processes at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which are the most common methods of sewage treatment, could cause selective elimination and/or changes in the proportions of phenotypes/genotypes within bacterial populations in effluent. Therefore, WWTPs based on activated sludge used in sewage treatment constitute an important reservoir of enteric bacteria which harbour potentially transferable resistance genes. Together with treated wastewater, these microorganisms can penetrate the soil, surface water, rural groundwater supplies and drinking water...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791871/network-based-disease-module-discovery-by-a-novel-seed-connector-algorithm-with-pathobiological-implications
#16
Rui-Sheng Wang, Joseph Loscalzo
Understanding the genetic basis of complex diseases is challenging. Prior work shows that disease-related proteins do not typically function in isolation. Rather, they often interact with each other to form a network module that underlies dysfunctional mechanistic pathways. Identifying such disease modules will provide insights into a systems-level understanding of molecular mechanisms of diseases. Owing to the incompleteness of our knowledge of disease proteins and limited information on the biological mediators of pathobiological processes, the key proteins (seed proteins) for many diseases appear scattered over the human protein-protein interactome and form a few small branches, rather than coherent network modules...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791834/molecular-and-functional-sex-differences-of-noradrenergic-neurons-in-the-mouse-locus-coeruleus
#17
Bernard Mulvey, Dionnet L Bhatti, Sandeep Gyawali, Allison M Lake, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Christopher P Ford, Michael R Bruchas, Nathaniel Heintz, Joseph D Dougherty
Preclinical work has long focused on male animals, though biological sex clearly influences risk for certain diseases, including many psychiatric disorders. Such disorders are often treated by drugs targeting the CNS norepinephrine system. Despite roles for noradrenergic neurons in behavior and neuropsychiatric disease models, their molecular characterization has lagged. We profiled mouse noradrenergic neurons in vivo, defining over 3,000 high-confidence transcripts expressed therein, including druggable receptors...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791787/dna-barcoding-of-microgastrine-parasitoid-wasps-hymenoptera-braconidae-using-high-throughput-methods-more-than-doubles-the-number-of-species-known-for-australia
#18
Erinn P Fagan-Jeffries, Steven J B Cooper, Terry Bertozzi, Tessa M Bradford, Andrew D Austin
The Microgastrinae are a hugely diverse subfamily of endoparasitoid wasps of lepidopteran caterpillars. They are important in agriculture as biological control agents, and play a significant ecological role in the regulation of caterpillar populations. Whilst the group has been the focus of intensive rearing and DNA barcoding studies in the Northern Hemisphere, the Australian fauna has received little attention. In total, 100 species have been described from or have been introduced into Australia, but the real species diversity for the region is clearly much larger than this...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791779/a-recent-perspective-on-noncovalently-formed-polymeric-hydrogels
#19
REVIEW
Kun Xue, Sing Shy Liow, Anis Abdul Karim, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
Chemically crosslinked covalent hydrogels form a permanent and often strong network, and have been extensively used so far in drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, it is more difficult to induce dynamic and highly tunable changes in these hydrogels. Noncovalently formed hydrogels show promise as inherently reversible systems with an ability to change in response to dynamic environments, and have garnered strong interest recently. In this Personal Account, we elucidate a few key attractive properties of noncovalent hydrogels and describe recent developments in hydrogels crosslinked using various different noncovalent interactions...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791721/persistence-of-treatment-with-biologics-for-patients-with-psoriasis-a-real-world-analysis-of-16-545-biologic-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-from-the-french-national-health-insurance-database-sniiram
#20
E Sbidian, M Mezzarobba, A Weill, J Coste, J Rudant
BACKGROUND: Long-term clinical effectiveness of biologics in psoriasis is needed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the long-term persistence of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a real-life setting. METHODS: All adults with psoriasis having been registered in the French national health insurance database (SNIIRAM) between 2008 and 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Psoriasis was defined as the fulfilment of at least two prescriptions for topical formulations of vitamin D derivative within a two-year period...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
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