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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088716/unveiling-the-transformation-and-bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-contrasting-hydrothermal-vents-using-fluorescence-eem-parafac
#1
Liyang Yang, Wan-E Zhuang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Bing-Jye Wang, Fu-Wen Kuo
The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088696/cell-selective-proteomics-for-biological-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Shannon E Stone, Weslee S Glenn, Graham D Hamblin, David A Tirrell
Cells alter the proteome to respond to environmental and developmental cues. Global analysis of proteomic responses is of limited value in heterogeneous environments, where there is no 'average' cell. Advances in sequencing, protein labeling, mass spectrometry, and data analysis have fueled recent progress in the investigation of specific subpopulations of cells in complex systems. Here we highlight recently developed chemical tools that enable cell-selective proteomic analysis of complex biological systems, from bacterial pathogens to whole animals...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088624/oxidative-phospholipidomics-in-health-and-disease-achievements-challenges-and-hopes
#4
REVIEW
Ana Reis
Phospholipid peroxidation products are recognized as important bioactive lipid mediators playing an active role as modulators in signalling events in inflammation, immunity and infection. The biochemical responses are determined by the oxidation structural features present in oxPL modulating biophysical and biological properties in model membranes and lipoproteins. In spite of the extensive work conducted with model systems over the last 20 years, the study of oxPL in biological systems has virtually stagnated...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088544/off-site-impacts-of-wildfires-on-aquatic-systems-biomarker-responses-of-the-mosquitofish-gambusia-holbrooki
#5
Bruno Nunes, Vera Silva, Isabel Campos, Joana Luísa Pereira, Patrícia Pereira, Jan Jacob Keizer, Fernando Gonçalves, Nelson Abrantes
The number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including in Portugal. Wildfires are environmentally concerning, not only due to the loss of biodiversity and forest area, but also as a consequence of environmental contamination by specific compounds including metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs). These contaminants, mostly bound to ashes, can reach downstream water bodies, namely through surface runoff, being ultimately dispersed by vast areas and contacting with aquatic biota...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088496/endogenous-thrombin-potential-changes-during-the-first-cycle-of-oral-contraceptive-use
#6
Carolyn L Westhoff, Malcolm C Pike, Serge Cremers, Andrew Eisenberger, Stella Thomassen, Jan Rosing
OBJECTIVES: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk increases within months of combination oral contraceptive (COC) initiation. Because elevated endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) has been found in several studies to be a VTE risk factor, we evaluated the extent of ETP changes during the initial cycle of an ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) COC. We also assessed the relationship between ETP changes and systemic EE and LNG concentrations. STUDY DESIGN: Participants provided multiple blood samples during a first 21-day cycle of a 30 μg EE/150 μg LNG COC and after a further 7 days without an active COC...
January 11, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088491/toxicogenetic-study-of-persea-americana-fruit-pulp-oil-and-its-effect-on-genomic-instability
#7
Heloiza Diniz Nicolella, Francisco Rinaldi Neto, Mariana Beltrame Corrêa, Danillo Henrique Lopes, Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Luiz Felipe Ribeiro Dos Santos, Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira, Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti, Marcos Gomide Tozatti, Wilson Roberto Cunha, Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Denise Crispim Tavares
Persea americana Mill., commonly known as avocado, is a tree native to Central America that is widely used as a food source and for the treatment of diseases. This plant has various biological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and total cholesterol-lowering activity. In view of its pharmacological potential, we conducted a toxicogenetic study of the fruit pulp oil of P. americana (PAO) and investigated its influence on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and doxorubicin. V79 cells and Swiss mice were used for the assays...
January 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#8
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088361/purification-and-characterisation-of-dsrna-using-ion-pair-reverse-phase-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#9
Alison O Nwokeoji, An-Wen Kung, Peter M Kilby, David E Portwood, Mark J Dickman
RNA interference has provided valuable insight into a wide range of biological systems and is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. The exploitation of this pathway to block the expression of specific gene targets holds considerable promise for the development of novel RNAi-based insect management strategies. In addition, there are a wide number of future potential applications of RNAi to control agricultural insect pests as well as its use for prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The potential to synthesise large quantities of dsRNA by in-vitro transcription or in bacterial systems for RNA interference applications has generated significant demand for the development and application of high throughput analytical tools for the rapid extraction, purification and analysis of dsRNA...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088344/design-control-considerations-for-biologic-device-combination-products
#10
Dave Anderson, Roger Liu, J Anand Subramony, Jon Cammack
Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products...
January 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088197/production-of-human-pro-relaxin-h2-in-the-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#11
D Cimini, K Della Corte, R Finamore, L Andreozzi, A Stellavato, A V A Pirozzi, F Ferrara, R Formisano, M De Rosa, M Chino, L Lista, A Lombardi, V Pavone, C Schiraldi
BACKGROUND: Initially known as the reproductive hormone, relaxin was shown to possess other therapeutically useful properties that include extracellular matrix remodeling, anti-inflammatory, anti-ischemic and angiogenic effects. All these findings make relaxin a potential drug for diverse medical applications. Its precursor, pro-relaxin, is an 18 kDa protein, that shows activity in in vitro assays. Since extraction of relaxin from animal tissues raises several issues, prokaryotes and eukaryotes were both used as expression systems for recombinant relaxin production...
January 14, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087932/the-complexity-of-fungal-vision
#12
Reinhard Fischer, Jesus Aguirre, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis M Corrochano
Life, as we know it, would not be possible without light. Light is not only a primary source of energy, but also an important source of information for many organisms. To sense light, only a few photoreceptor systems have developed during evolution. They are all based on an organic molecule with conjugated double bonds that allows energy transfer from visible (or UV) light to its cognate protein to translate the primary physical photoresponse to cell-biological actions. The three main classes of receptors are flavin-based blue-light, retinal-based green-light (such as rhodopsin), and linear tetrapyrrole-based red-light sensors...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087837/off-target-effects-of-neuroleptics-and-antidepressants-on-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
M Caldara, S Graziano, M Gullì, S Cadonici, Nelson Marmiroli
Over the past years, the use of antidepressants and neuroleptics has steadily increased. Although incredibly useful to treat disorders like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or mental retardation, these drugs display many side effects. Toxicogenomic studies aim to limit this problem by trying to identify cellular targets and off-targets of medical compounds. The baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a key player in this approach, as it represents an incredible toolbox for the dissection of complex biological processes...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087534/mechanisms-of-horizontal-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-wolbachia-spp-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087486/enhanced-articular-cartilage-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-enzymatically-mediated-transiently-rgds-functionalized-collagen-mimetic-hydrogels
#15
Paresh A Parmar, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Lesley W Chow, Christopher D Spicer, Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Jerome A Werkmeister, John A M Ramshaw, Molly M Stevens
: Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087455/correlation-between-antigenicity-and-variability-in-the-vls-antigenic-variation-system-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#16
Wei Zhou, Dustin Brisson
Many parasites have evolved antigenic variation systems that alter surface proteins in order to evade recognition by presently expressed antibodies and subsequent death. Although the amino acid positions in antigens to which antibodies most commonly target are expected to be the most variable, this assumption has not been investigated. Using the vls antigenic variation system of Borrelia burgdorferi as a model, we first investigated this assumption computationally and then developed a sensitive immunoassay to experimentally validate the computational results...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087422/nano-qsar-in-cell-biology-model-of-cell-viability-as-a-mathematical-function-of-available-eclectic-data
#17
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov
The prediction of biochemical endpoints is an important task of the modern medicinal chemistry, cell biology, and nanotechnology. Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is a tool for representation of the molecular structure. In particular, SMILES can be used to build up the quantitative structure - property / activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs). The QSPR/QSAR is a tool to predict an endpoint for a new substance, which has not been examined in experiment. Quasi-SMILES are representation of eclectic data related to an endpoint...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#18
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087174/hgdb-a-web-retrieving-cardiovascular-associated-gene-data
#19
Faezeh Noorabad-Ghahroodi, Samaneh Abdi, Amir Hossein Zand, Mohammad Najafi
BACKGROUND: The use of data obtained from high throughput techniques in genetics studies is an essential subject in biology. The system approaches of networking and enriching may improve the data management. Here, we annotated the molecular features for cardiovascular-associated genes and presented the HGDB search-based database (www.hgdb.ir). METHODS: The initial seed data was primarily used from Gene Ontology and was automatically enriched with other molecular features...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087127/the-route-from-problem-to-solution-in-multistep-continuous-flow-synthesis-of-pharmaceutical-compounds
#20
Péter Bana, Róbert Örkényi, Klára Lövei, Ágnes Lakó, György István Túrós, János Éles, Ferenc Faigl, István Greiner
Recent advances in the field of continuous flow chemistry allow the multistep preparation of complex molecules such as APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) in a telescoped manner. Numerous examples of laboratory-scale applications are described, which are pointing towards novel manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical compounds, in accordance with recent regulatory, economical and quality guidances. The chemical and technical knowledge gained during these studies is considerable; nevertheless, connecting several individual chemical transformations and the attached analytics and purification holds hidden traps...
December 29, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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