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Sleep apnea review

Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Carolina Di Somma, Daniela Laudisio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Epidemiological studies suggested an association between obesity and sleep disturbances. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most prevalent type of obesity-related sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. In addition the increased visceral adipose tissue might be responsible for the secretion of inflammatory cytokines that could contribute to alter the sleep-wake rhythm. Unhealthy food characterized by high consumption of fat and carbohydrate seems to negatively influence the quality of sleep while diet rich of fiber is associated to more restorative and deeper sleep...
October 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Julia Cohen-Levy, Marie-Claude Quintal, Anthony Abela, Pierre Rompré, Fernanda R Almeida, Nelly Huynh
PURPOSE: To determine the long-term prevalence of persistent sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children, after adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy, and to assess the relationship between baseline characteristics and persistent nocturnal symptoms. METHODS: The clinical charts of children operated for adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy in a tertiary hospital, between January 2000 and March 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients who had signs of SDB prior to surgery received a six-question validated pediatric questionnaire, the Hierarchic Severity Clinical Scale (HSCS)...
October 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Laura G Cooney, Anuja Dokras
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic disorder affecting millions of women worldwide. Women with PCOS are often identified in adolescence or early adulthood with symptoms of oligomenorrhea or hirsutism or when presenting for infertility care. The health risks associated out of PCOS, however, go far beyond management of these common presenting symptoms or fertility treatment and likely extend past the reproductive years through and beyond menopause. International surveys suggest that most patients are dissatisfied with long-term counseling related to medical and psychologic issues...
October 2018: Fertility and Sterility
D Visca, P Pignatti, A Spanevello, E Lucini, E La Rocca
Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder affecting the entire body with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The major complications related to diabetes are mostly due to the macrovascular and microvascular bed impairment due to metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors. However, studies over the past decades have added also the lung as a target organ in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes has always been addressed as a major comorbidity conditioning the disease behaviour and the natural history of several respiratory diseases...
October 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Marco Zaffanello, Franco Antoniazzi, Laura Tenero, Luana Nosetti, Michele Piazza, Giorgio Piacentini
Childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by anatomical and functional upper airway abnormalities as pathophysiological determinants, and clinical symptoms are frequently clear. OSAS is widely described in rare genetic disorders, such as achondroplasia, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Pierre Robin sequence, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Craniofacial and upper airway involvement is frequently morbid conditions. In children with genetic diseases, the clinical symptoms of OSAS are often slight or absent, and related morbidities are usually more severe and can be observed at any age...
September 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Olivia de Freitas Mendes Martins, Cauby Maia Chaves Junior, Rowdley Robert Pereira Rossi, Paulo Afonso Cunali, Cibele Dal-Fabbro, Lia Bittencourt
INTRODUCTION: Occlusal side effects or development of pain and/or functional impairment of the temporomandibular complex are potential reasons for poor compliance or abandonment of mandibular advancement splints treatment for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at providing a comprehensive review evaluating the craniofacial side effects of oral appliance therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: An electronic search was systematically conducted in PubMed and Virtual Health Library from their inception until October 2016...
August 1, 2018: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
Melinda Y Chang, John L Keltner
BACKGROUND: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common acute optic neuropathy in individuals older than 50 years. Demographic, ocular, and systemic risk factors for NAION have been identified, and we sought to determine which, if any, of these factors also increase risk of NAION in the fellow eye. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with "ischemic optic neuropathy" (based on International Classification of Disease [ICD] codes) seen at a single eye center between 2007 and 2017...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Simone Bazurro, Lorenzo Ball, Paolo Pelosi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The volume of bariatric and nonbariatric surgical procedures on obese patients is dramatically increasing worldwide over the past years. In this review, we discuss the physiopathlogy of respiratory function during anesthesia in obese patients, the stratification of perioperative risk to develop intraoperative and postoperative pulmonary complications, the optimization of airway management, and perioperative ventilation, including postoperative respiratory assistance...
October 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Amr Salama, Abdullah Abdullah, Abdul Wahab, George Eigbire, Ryan Hoefen, Ruth Kouides, Nathan Ritter, Hanna Mieszczanska, Richard Alweis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known independent risk factor for a multiple cardiovascular morbidities and mortality. The association of OSA and ventricular arrhythmias is less well understood. The aim of this analysis to study the relationship between OSA and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. HYPOTHESIS: OSA is associated with increased ventricular arrhythmias METHODS: Data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2012 - 2014, were reviewed. Discharges associated with OSA were identified as the target population using the relevant ICD-9-CM codes...
October 7, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Stephane Besnard, Brahim Tighilet, Christian Chabbert, Martin Hitier, Joseph Toulouse, Anne Le Gall, Marie-Laure Machado, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system encodes linear and angular head motion supporting numerous functions from gaze stabilization and postural control, to high-level cortical functions involving spatial cognition, including self-body perception, verticality perception, orientation, navigation and spatial memory. At the brainstem and mesencephalic levels, the vestibular organs also influence postural blood pressure regulation, bone density and muscle composition via specific vestibulo-sympathetic efferences and have been shown to act as a powerful synchronizer of circadian rhythms...
September 8, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Mahesh Nagappa, David T Wong, Crispiana Cozowicz, Satya Krishna Ramachandran, Stavros G Memtsoudis, Frances Chung
BACKGROUND: Difficult airway management and obstructive sleep apnea may contribute to increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) is to evaluate the evidence of a difficult airway being associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: The standard databases were searched from 1946 to April 2017 to identify the eligible articles. The studies which included adult surgical patients with either suspected or diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea must report at least one difficult airway event [either difficult intubation (DI), difficult mask ventilation (DMV), failed supraglottic airway insertion or difficult surgical airway] in sleep apnea and non-sleep apnea patients were included...
2018: PloS One
Sameer K Singh, David Gu, Robson Capasso, Stanley Liu, Christopher J Gouveia
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Examine US and international clinical trials in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to characterize researchers involved, interventions being studied, and opportunities for future investigation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database review. METHODS: The information from was used to assess OSA clinical trials between 1999 and 2017. Information was gathered on principle investigator (PI) demographics, interventions studied, study funding source, and regional distribution of research institutions...
October 3, 2018: Laryngoscope
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Edward O Bixler
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent sleep disorder characterized by upper airway obstruction during sleep, resulting in breathing pauses, intermittent hypoxia, and fragmented sleep. In parallel, the constellation of adverse health outcomes associated with prolonged obesity, such as insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol - termed metabolic syndrome -raises the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality...
September 3, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Lun Wang, Tao Jiang, Jinfa Wang
With the development of social economy and the change of lifestyle and working environment, the number of obese and diabetic population has increased significantly. Obesity is closely related to diabetes mellitus with interaction. Among the patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the cardiovascular risk of T1DM with obesity is significantly higher than those of lean T1DM. The mortality of T1DM with obesity is significantly higher than that of the general population, which poses a great threat to human health, making it become one of the serious public health problems we have to face at present...
September 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Yasser Al-Khadra, Fahed Darmoch, Mohammad Alkhatib, Motaz Baibars, M Chadi Alraies
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) that is principally driven by left atrial enlargement. The impact of hypoventilation caused by obesity-induced hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) on left atrial diameter has not been examined. We investigated the association between OHS and left atrial diameter in obese patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 210 consecutive medical records of patients diagnosed as obese (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2 ) and as having OHS and OSA for the period January 2010 through December 2016 at St...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Lina Liu, Guang Su, Shuling Wang, Bingqian Zhu
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common during pregnancy. Nevertheless, prevalence estimates of OSA have varied widely due to variabilities in the assessment methods. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the prevalence of objectively assessed OSA and its association with pregnancy-related health outcomes in pregnant women. METHODS: This review was developed following the PRISMA guideline. A systematic search was conducted in major electronic databases to identify studies conducted from inception to January 2018...
September 25, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Irma Rukhadze, Victor B Fenik
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder that is associated with cognitive, cardiovascular, and metabolic morbidities. The major cause of OSA is the sleep-related reduction of upper airway muscle tone that leads to airway obstructions in individuals with anatomically narrow upper airway. This reduction is mainly due to the suppressant effect of sleep on hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate upper airway muscles. The hypoglossal motoneurons have state-dependent activity, which is decreased during the transition from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement sleep and is further suppressed during rapid eye movement sleep...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Chou-Han Lin, Elisa Perger, Owen D Lyons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The relationship between OSA and CKD is likely to be bi-directional. On one hand, the presence of OSA leads to intermittent hypoxia, sympathetic nervous system activity, and hypertension, all of which may have deleterious effects on kidney function. On the other hand, in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), intensification of renal replacement therapy has been shown to attenuate sleep apnea severity, suggesting that the renal disease itself contributes to the pathogenesis of OSA...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Annia Schreiber, Francesca Cemmi, Nicolino Ambrosino, Piero Ceriana, Cinzia Lastoria, Annalisa Carlucci
The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programs (PRPs). A retrospective data review of consecutive stable patients with a known diagnosis of COPD, admitted for PRP between January 2007 and December 2013. Full overnight polysomnography (PSG) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were assessed in all patients. Out of 422 evaluated patients, 190 (45%) showed an Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/hour and underwent OSA treatment...
September 21, 2018: COPD
Carla R Jungquist, Elizabeth Card, Jean Charchaflieh, Bhargavi Gali, Meltem Yilmaz
PURPOSE: To enhance the role of nursing interventions in the management of perioperative opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Narrative review of the literature. METHODS: Literature reviewed with emphasis on recommendations by professional and accrediting organizations. FINDINGS: Postsurgical OIRD increases hospital stay (55%), cost of care (47%), 30-day readmission (36%), and inpatient mortality (3...
October 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
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