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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504122/effect-of-dietary-additives-on-intestinal-permeability-in-both-drosophila-and-a-human-cell-co-culture
#1
Matthew T Pereira, Mridu Malik, Jillian A Nostro, Gretchen J Mahler, Laura Palanker Musselman
Increased intestinal barrier permeability has been correlated with aging and disease, including type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of these ailments has risen together with an increase in industrial food processing and food additive consumption. Additives, including sugar, metal oxide nanoparticles, surfactants and sodium chloride, have all been suggested to increase intestinal permeability. We used two complementary model systems to examine the effects of food additives on gut barrier function: a Drosophila in vivo model and an in vitro human cell co-culture model...
November 28, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416122/-b-cell-depletion-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Yusei Miyazaki, Masaaki Niino
Since the initial observation of increased immunoglobulin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the 1940s, B cells have been considered to participate in the pathology of MS through the production of autoantibodies reactive against central nervous system antigens. However, it is now recognized that B cells contribute to MS relapses by antibody-independent activities, including presenting antigens to T cells and releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the recent identification of B cell-rich follicle-like structures in the meninges of patients with MS suggests that pathogenic roles of B cells also exist at the progressive phase...
November 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375258/understanding-barriers-enablers-and-long-term-adherence-to-a-health-behavior-intervention-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Emma Barnard, Chelsea R Brown, Tracey J Weiland, George A Jelinek, Claudia H Marck
BACKGROUND: The optimal management strategy for multiple sclerosis (MS), and many other chronic diseases, likely involves health behavior modification. Multimodal behavioral interventions may be most effective, but little is known about long-term adherence in people with MS. METHODS: This qualitative study assessed barriers and enablers to long-term adherence by people with MS who self-selected for a 5-day health behavior intervention 3-5 years prior. Thirteen women and five men participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were transcribed and thematically analyzed...
October 30, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357921/what-can-primary-immunodeficiencies-teach-us-about-th9-cell-differentiation-function
#4
Lisa Worley, Stuart G Tangye, Cindy S Ma
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) producing CD4+ Th9 cells are a unique subset of effector cells involved in both health and disease. Th9 cells have been associated with protective immunity during parasitic infections with helminths, protozoans and extracellular pathogens, but implicated in disease states such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and autoimmune conditions including multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis. Here, we review the cytokine signalling pathways and downstream transcription factors required for IL-9 expression and how human primary immunodeficiencies due to monogenic mutations can help elucidate the complex requirements for human Th9 cell differentiation...
October 25, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351179/diet-quality-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-cohorts-of-us-women
#5
Dalia L Rotstein, Marianna Cortese, Teresa T Fung, Tanuja Chitnis, Alberto Ascherio, Kassandra L Munger
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between measures of overall diet quality (dietary indices/patterns) and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Over 185,000 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. There were 480 MS incident cases. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) index, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index...
October 23, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333163/use-of-newer-disease-modifying-therapies-in-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-us
#6
Kristen M Krysko, Jennifer Graves, Mary Rensel, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Gregory Aaen, Leslie Benson, Tanuja Chitnis, Mark Gorman, Manu Goyal, Lauren Krupp, Timothy Lotze, Soe Mar, Moses Rodriguez, John Rose, Michael Waltz, T Charles Casper, Emmanuelle Waubant
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use and safety of newer disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in children with multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) treated under 18 years of age. METHODS: This is a cohort study including children with MS or CIS followed at 12 outpatient practices participating in the US Network of Pediatric MS Centers. DMT use, including duration, dose, and side effects, was analyzed. Newer DMTs were defined as agents receiving Food and Drug Administration approval or with increased use in adult MS after 2005...
November 6, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319182/neurochemical-and-behavioral-dysfunctions-in-pesticide-exposed-farm-workers-a-clinical-outcome
#7
REVIEW
Rajesh Kumar Kori, Manish Kumar Singh, Abhishek Kumar Jain, Rajesh Singh Yadav
The problem of pesticides is not new and its exposure to human due to indiscriminate use is largely associated with the health related problems including neurotoxicological alterations. High levels of pesticide residues and their metabolites in the dietary constituents, food materials, maternal blood, cord blood, placenta breast milk have been reported and linked to alterations in birth weight, crown heel length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference and ponderal index of the neonates. Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure of pesticide to human could be a significant risk factor for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275700/analysis-nutrition-and-health-benefits-of-tryptophan
#8
REVIEW
Mendel Friedman
Tryptophan is an essential plant-derived amino acid that is needed for the in vivo biosynthesis of proteins. After consumption, it is metabolically transformed to bioactive metabolites, including serotonin, melatonin, kynurenine, and the vitamin niacin (nicotinamide). This brief integrated overview surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the reported multiple analytical methods for free and protein-bound tryptophan in pure proteins, protein-containing foods, and in human fluids and tissues, the nutritional significance of l-tryptophan and its isomer d-tryptophan in fortified infant foods and corn tortillas as well the possible function of tryptophan in the diagnosis and mitigation of multiple human diseases...
2018: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215191/association-between-exposure-to-heavy-metals-and-systemic-sclerosis-the-levels-of-al-cd-hg-and-pb-in-blood-and-urine-of-patients
#9
Giovanni Forte, Carlo Fadda, Beatrice Bocca, Gian Luca Erre, Giuseppe Passiu, Roberto Madeddu
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease; exogenous factors-including heavy metals-may have a role in the disease pathogenesis. In this context, a study on the quantification of Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb in blood and urine of 27 SSc patients and 30 controls was carried out. Main findings were that Al was significantly depleted in blood and increased in urine of SSc patients respect to controls; and Pb was found slightly increased in blood and significantly decreased in SSc group. In addition, higher Hg levels in urine were found in SSc subjects with the higher severity of the disease...
September 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170268/is-there-an-effect-of-dietary-intake-on-ms-related-fatigue-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Uwe Martin Pommerich, John Brincks, Marie Ernst Christensen
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is considered the most common symptom of persons with multiple sclerosis MS (pwMS), occurring in up to 90% of the patients at some point with two-thirds of pwMS experience fatigue as their most disturbing symptom. Pharmacological treatment options for MS-related fatigue show only limited and contradicting results. Consequently, many pwMS search for alternative options to control the symptom. A considerable interest in dietary interventions as a means of MS symptom management has advanced in the MS community...
October 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136689/release-of-interleukin-10-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-the-choroid-plexus-possible-inductors-of-neurogenesis-following-copolymer-1-immunization-after-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Yolanda Cruz, Edna E García, Jessica V Gálvez, Stella V Arias-Santiago, Horacio G Carvajal, Raúl Silva-García, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime, Julio Rojas-Castañeda, Antonio Ibarra
Copolymer-1 (Cop-1) is a peptide with immunomodulatory properties, approved by the Food and Drug Administration of United States in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Cop-1 has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects and induce neurogenesis in cerebral ischemia models. Nevertheless, the mechanism involved in the neurogenic action of this compound remains unknown. The choroid plexus (CP) is a network of cells that constitute the interphase between the immune and central nervous systems, with the ability to mediate neurogenesis through the release of cytokines and growth factors...
October 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118877/the-frequency-of-dysphagia-and-its-impact-on-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis-based-on-patient-reported-questionnaires
#12
REVIEW
Dalal Alali, Kirrie Ballard, Hans Bogaardt
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) refers to a chronic inflammation of the central nervous system including the brain and spinal cord. Dysphagia is one of the symptoms that represent challenges in clinical practice for the management of MS patients. Dysphagia can result in serious complications leading to morbidity and death in late stages of MS. However, little attention is given to dysphagia, its symptoms and how it affects the quality of life of adults with MS. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to identify the frequency of dysphagia in adults with MS and determine the main symptoms suggestive of dysphagia and its impact on the patients' quality of life...
October 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084751/a-healthy-dietary-pattern-associates-with-a-lower-risk-of-a-first-clinical-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#13
Lucinda J Black, Charlotte Rowley, Jill Sherriff, Gavin Pereira, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Robyn M Lucas
BACKGROUND: The evidence associating diet and risk of multiple sclerosis is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between dietary patterns and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination, a common precursor to multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2006 Ausimmune Study, a case-control study examining environmental risk factors for a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination, with participants matched on age, sex and study region...
August 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057635/is-aluminum-exposure-a-risk-factor-for-neurological-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Elif Inan-Eroglu, Aylin Ayaz
Aluminum (Al) is widely found in the nature. Although the relation between Al and neurodegenerative diseases is still controversial, Al is related with many brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Al exposure occurs mainly through environment, occupational, and dietary factors for humans. Al exposure with diet can be through foods, food additives, water, and contamination of Al equipment/utensils. The aim of this review is to summarize various hypotheses, which link Al and neurodegeneration, and to determine the roles of Al exposure through different sources including diet, environment, and occupation...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013311/dress-syndrome-and-daclizumab-failure-were-potentially-dangerous-signs-missed-in-clinical-trials
#15
Jagannadha Avasarala
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Zinbryta, an interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibody (daclizumab; Biogen and AbbVie) for the treatment of adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in May, 2016. It was also approved by the European Union in July, 2016. Zinbryta is a long-acting, self-administered monthly injection that was branded as a new MS drug for patients who needed a "new option for treatment." It blocks interleukin-2 receptor alpha (CD25) and modulates T-cell expansion...
2018: Drug Target Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987837/the-clinical-pharmacology-of-cladribine-tablets-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Robert Hermann, Mats O Karlsson, Ana M Novakovic, Nadia Terranova, Markus Fluck, Alain Munafo
Cladribine Tablets (MAVENCLAD® ) are used to treat relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). The recommended dose is 3.5 mg/kg, consisting of 2 annual courses, each comprising 2 treatment weeks 1 month apart. We reviewed the clinical pharmacology of Cladribine Tablets in patients with MS, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacometric data. Cladribine Tablets are rapidly absorbed, with a median time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax ) of 0.5 h (range 0.5-1.5 h) in fasted patients. When administered with food, absorption is delayed (median Tmax 1...
July 10, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955526/what-s-new-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Erika E Tillery, Jennifer N Clements, Zach Howard
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease state that affects and disables many people each year. The most common clinical presentation is relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In the past 7 years, new medications have been approved for the treatment of RRMS, thereby providing more treatment options for patients and providers. The purpose of this article is to provide an update on medications for the treatment of MS that have been approved since January 2010. Methods: A review was performed utilizing CenterWatch to search for medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RRMS between January 2010 and April 2017...
September 2017: The mental health clinician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914402/environmental-exposures-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-saudi-arabia
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Osama Al Wutayd, Ashri Gad Mohamed, Jameelah Saeedi, Hessa Al Otaibi, Mohammed Al Jumah
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common non-traumatic condition that leads to disability among young individuals. It is associated with demyelination, inflammation, and neurodegeneration within the central nervous system. Information on risk factors of multiple sclerosis is crucial for the prevention and control of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of MS among adults in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A matched multicenter case-control study, including 307 MS patients and 307 healthy controls, was conducted in MS clinics and wards in 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia...
June 19, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897610/ocrelizumab-its-efficacy-and-safety-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
A Juanatey, L Blanco-Garcia, N Tellez
INTRODUCTION: Ocrelizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen on B cells. It has recently been approved by the US (Food and Drug Administration) and European health agencies (European Medicines Agency) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the first drug marketed for both relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). The clinical trials conducted for both the relapsing forms (OPERA I/II) and the progressive forms of the disease (ORATORIO) have demonstrated its efficacy...
June 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883627/comparative-pathogenesis-of-enteric-clostridial-infections-in-humans-and-animals
#20
Francisco A Uzal, Mauricio A Navarro, Jihong Li, John C Freedman, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A McClane
Several enteric clostridial diseases can affect humans and animals. Of these, the enteric infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are amongst the most prevalent and they are reviewed here. C. perfringens type A strains encoding alpha toxin (CPA) are frequently associated with enteric disease of many animal mammalian species, but their role in these diseased mammals remains to be clarified. C. perfringens type B encoding CPA, beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins causes necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in sheep, and these strains have been recently suggested to be involved in multiple sclerosis in humans, although evidence of this involvement is lacking...
June 5, 2018: Anaerobe
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