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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084751/a-healthy-dietary-pattern-associates-with-a-lower-risk-of-a-first-clinical-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#1
Lucinda J Black, Charlotte Rowley, Jill Sherriff, Gavin Pereira, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Robyn M Lucas
BACKGROUND: The evidence associating diet and risk of multiple sclerosis is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between dietary patterns and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination, a common precursor to multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2006 Ausimmune Study, a case-control study examining environmental risk factors for a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination, with participants matched on age, sex and study region...
August 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057635/is-aluminum-exposure-a-risk-factor-for-neurological-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Elif Inan-Eroglu, Aylin Ayaz
Aluminum (Al) is widely found in the nature. Although the relation between Al and neurodegenerative diseases is still controversial, Al is related with many brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Al exposure occurs mainly through environment, occupational, and dietary factors for humans. Al exposure with diet can be through foods, food additives, water, and contamination of Al equipment/utensils. The aim of this review is to summarize various hypotheses, which link Al and neurodegeneration, and to determine the roles of Al exposure through different sources including diet, environment, and occupation...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013311/dress-syndrome-and-daclizumab-failure-were-potentially-dangerous-signs-missed-in-clinical-trials
#3
Jagannadha Avasarala
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Zinbryta, an interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibody (daclizumab; Biogen and AbbVie) for the treatment of adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in May, 2016. It was also approved by the European Union in July, 2016. Zinbryta is a long-acting, self-administered monthly injection that was branded as a new MS drug for patients who needed a "new option for treatment." It blocks interleukin-2 receptor alpha (CD25) and modulates T-cell expansion...
2018: Drug Target Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987837/the-clinical-pharmacology-of-cladribine-tablets-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Robert Hermann, Mats O Karlsson, Ana M Novakovic, Nadia Terranova, Markus Fluck, Alain Munafo
Cladribine Tablets (MAVENCLAD® ) are used to treat relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). The recommended dose is 3.5 mg/kg, consisting of 2 annual courses, each comprising 2 treatment weeks 1 month apart. We reviewed the clinical pharmacology of Cladribine Tablets in patients with MS, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacometric data. Cladribine Tablets are rapidly absorbed, with a median time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax ) of 0.5 h (range 0.5-1.5 h) in fasted patients. When administered with food, absorption is delayed (median Tmax 1...
July 10, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955526/what-s-new-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Erika E Tillery, Jennifer N Clements, Zach Howard
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease state that affects and disables many people each year. The most common clinical presentation is relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In the past 7 years, new medications have been approved for the treatment of RRMS, thereby providing more treatment options for patients and providers. The purpose of this article is to provide an update on medications for the treatment of MS that have been approved since January 2010. Methods: A review was performed utilizing CenterWatch to search for medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RRMS between January 2010 and April 2017...
September 2017: The mental health clinician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914402/environmental-exposures-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Osama Al Wutayd, Ashri Gad Mohamed, Jameelah Saeedi, Hessa Al Otaibi, Mohammed Al Jumah
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common non-traumatic condition that leads to disability among young individuals. It is associated with demyelination, inflammation, and neurodegeneration within the central nervous system. Information on risk factors of multiple sclerosis is crucial for the prevention and control of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of MS among adults in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A matched multicenter case-control study, including 307 MS patients and 307 healthy controls, was conducted in MS clinics and wards in 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia...
June 19, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897610/ocrelizumab-its-efficacy-and-safety-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
A Juanatey, L Blanco-Garcia, N Tellez
INTRODUCTION: Ocrelizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen on B cells. It has recently been approved by the US (Food and Drug Administration) and European health agencies (European Medicines Agency) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the first drug marketed for both relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). The clinical trials conducted for both the relapsing forms (OPERA I/II) and the progressive forms of the disease (ORATORIO) have demonstrated its efficacy...
June 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883627/comparative-pathogenesis-of-enteric-clostridial-infections-in-humans-and-animals
#8
Francisco A Uzal, Mauricio A Navarro, Jihong Li, John C Freedman, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A McClane
Several enteric clostridial diseases can affect humans and animals. Of these, the enteric infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are amongst the most prevalent and they are reviewed here. C. perfringens type A strains encoding alpha toxin (CPA) are frequently associated with enteric disease of many animal mammalian species, but their role in these diseased mammals remains to be clarified. C. perfringens type B encoding CPA, beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins causes necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in sheep, and these strains have been recently suggested to be involved in multiple sclerosis in humans, although evidence of this involvement is lacking...
June 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779849/how-much-progress-has-there-been-in-the-second-line-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-2017-update
#9
REVIEW
A Maarouf, C Boutière, A Rico, B Audoin, J Pelletier
In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug specifically for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). More than two decades later, a dozen such treatments are now available. Of these, four are considered second-line treatments for use in escalation strategies and two new drugs are currently undergoing accreditation procedures. Soon, they will provide clinicians with a range of six effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) to thwart the inflammatory processes in MS patients with active disease...
June 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775564/the-antibody-rhigm22-facilitates-hippocampal-remyelination-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#10
Charlene Cui, Jing Wang, Ariana P Mullin, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. In addition to motor, sensory and visual deficits, MS is also characterized by hippocampal demyelination and memory impairment. We recently demonstrated that a recombinant human-derived monoclonal IgM antibody, which is designated rHIgM22 and currently in clinical development for people with MS, accelerates remyelination of the corpus callosum in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice. Here, we investigated the effects of rHIgM22 in the hippocampus and on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the same mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination and spontaneous remyelination...
September 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774057/ocrelizumab-a-new-milestone-in-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Patricia Mulero, Luciana Midaglia, Xavier Montalban
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS): they are involved in the activation of pro-inflammatory T cells, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the use of B cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies as therapy for autoimmune diseases, including MS, has increased in recent years. Previous results with rituximab, the first therapeutic B cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody that showed efficacy in MS clinical trials, encouraged researchers to evaluate the efficacy of a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, ocrelizumab, in MS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772185/therapies-for-mobility-disability-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Jessica F Baird, Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl
Mobility disability is one of the most widespread and impactful consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). Disease modifying drugs (DMDs) may delay the progression of disability over time; however, there is minimal evidence supporting the efficacy of DMDs for reversing mobility disability or restoring ambulatory function in persons with MS. Areas covered: This review outlines symptomatic pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapeutic approaches that target mobility disability with the goal of restoring and improving walking function...
June 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764226/oral-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-middle-eastern-and-north-african-mena-region-an-overview
#13
Dirk Deleu, Boulenouar Mesraoua, Beatriz Canibaño, Gayane Melikyan, Hassan Al Hail, Lubna El-Sheikh, Musab Ali, Hassan Al Hussein, Faiza Ibrahim, Yolande Hanssens
BACKGROUND: The introduction of new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RRMS) has considerably transformed the landscape of therapeutic opportunities for this chronic disabling disease. Unlike injectable drugs, oral DMTs promote patient satisfaction and increase therapeutic adherence. REVIEW: This article reviews the salient features about the mode of action, efficacy, safety, and tolerability profile of approved oral DMTs in RRMS, and reviews their place in clinical algorithms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region...
June 18, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750734/evolution-of-visual-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-for-multiple-sclerosis-disease-modifying-therapies
#14
Rachel C Nolan, Omar Akhand, John-Ross Rizzo, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
: BACKGROUND:: The visual pathways are increasingly recognized as an ideal model to study neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are validated measures of function and structure in MS. In fact, LCLA was the topic of a recent review by the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) to qualify this visual measure as a primary or secondary clinical trial endpoint with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies...
June 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749716/comparative-randomized-single-dose-two-way-crossover-open-label-study-to-determine-the-bioequivalence-of-two-formulations-of-dalfampridine-tablets
#15
Abdel Qader Al Bawab, Bashar A Alkhalidi, Esra'a Albarahmieh, Sami M A Qassim, Mohammad A D Al-Saifi
Dalfampridine is a medication that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to improve walking impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The branded dalfampridine is enormously expensive; hence, the availability of generic dalfampridine will provide better access to the medication, especially for uninsured patients with MS. Bioequivalence studies are demanded by the regulatory authorities to allow the marketing of new generics of dalfampridine. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability of the generic (test) and branded (reference) formulations of 10 mg dalfampridine of extended-release tablets after oral administration to healthy adults under fed conditions...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728521/financial-relationships-between-neurologists-and-industry-the-2015-open-payments-database
#16
Aditi Ahlawat, Pushpa Narayanaswami
OBJECTIVE: To analyze research and nonresearch payments from the pharmaceutical and device industry to neurologists in 2015 using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Open Payments database. METHODS: In this retrospective database analysis, we computed the percentage of neurologists in the United States receiving payments, the median/mean payments per neurologist, payment categories, regional trends, and sponsors. We computed the number of practicing neurologists from the Association of American Medical Colleges State Physician Workforce data book, 2015...
June 5, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724339/detection-of-the-suspected-neurotoxin-%C3%AE-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-in-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-multiple-water-bodies-in-eastern-australia
#17
Brendan J Main, Lee C Bowling, Matthew P Padula, David P Bishop, Simon M Mitrovic, Gilles J Guillemin, Kenneth J Rodgers
The emerging toxin β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been linked to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases in humans including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. BMAA has been found to be produced by a range of cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates worldwide, and is present in freshwater, saltwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. Surface scum samples were collected from waterways in rural and urban New South Wales, Australia and algal species identified...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719400/new-horizons-for-multiple-sclerosis-therapeutics-milestones-in-the-development-of-ocrelizumab
#18
REVIEW
Jessica Frau, Giancarlo Coghe, Lorena Lorefice, Giuseppe Fenu, Eleonora Cocco
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, and both T and B cells are involved in its pathogenesis. The vast majority of disease-modifying drugs used for MS act on the inflammatory component of the disease and are approved for use in relapsing-remitting (RR) patients. Ocrelizumab (OCR) is the only MS drug that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for patients with RRMS but also for patients with primary progressive (PP) MS...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681490/safety-and-efficacy-of-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate-in-pediatric-patients-with-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-focus
#19
Raed Alroughani, Rajiv Das, Natasha Penner, Joe Pultz, Catherine Taylor, Satish Eraly
BACKGROUND: No therapies have been formally approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in pediatric multiple sclerosis, a rare disease. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of dimethyl fumarate in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: FOCUS, a phase 2, multicenter study of patients aged 10 to 17 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, comprised an eight-week baseline and 24-week treatment period; during treatment, patients received dimethyl fumarate (120 mg twice daily on days one to seven; 240 mg twice a day thereafter)...
June 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602912/acute-acalculous-cholecystitis-a-new-safety-risk-for-patients-with-ms-treated-with-alemtuzumab
#20
David Croteau, Charlene Flowers, Corrinne G Kulick, Allen Brinker, Cindy M Kortepeter
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) as a potential safety risk for patients treated with alemtuzumab. METHODS: The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and the medical literature were searched for cases of AAC in conjunction with alemtuzumab for all clinical indications. RESULTS: Eight spontaneously reported cases meeting the case definition of AAC in close temporal association with alemtuzumab use were identified...
May 1, 2018: Neurology
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