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Alessandra Misto, Gustavo Provensi, Valentina Vozella, Maria Beatrice Passani, Daniele Piomelli
The conversion of lipolysis-derived fatty acids into ketone bodies (ketogenesis) is a crucial metabolic adaptation to prolonged periods of food scarcity. The process occurs primarily in liver mitochondria and is initiated by fatty-acid-mediated stimulation of the ligand-operated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). Here, we present evidence that mast cells contribute to the control of fasting-induced ketogenesis via a paracrine mechanism that involves secretion of histamine into the hepatic portal circulation, stimulation of liver H1 receptors, and local biosynthesis of the high-affinity PPAR-α agonist, oleoylethanolamide (OEA)...
October 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Qingyuan Li, Feng Li, Jizhong Che, Yang Zhao, Chengjian Qiao
BACKGROUND B7 homolog 1 (B7H1) plays an important role in regulating tumor immunity. The purpose of this study was to probe the relationship between B7H1 expression and clinical outcomes in urothelial bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS We investigated 110 urothelial bladder cancer cases. The expressions of B7H1 in tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The correlation between B7H1 expression and survival rate was analyzed by log-rank test. RESULTS B7H1 expression was significantly increased in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues (p<0...
October 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Alexandre M Harris, Nandita R Garud, Michael DeGiorgio
Positive natural selection can lead to a decrease in genomic diversity at the selected site and at linked sites, producing a characteristic signature of elevated expected haplotype homozygosity. These selective sweeps can be hard or soft. In the case of a hard selective sweep, a single adaptive haplotype rises to high population frequency, whereas multiple adaptive haplotypes sweep through the population simultaneously in a soft sweep, producing distinct patterns of genetic variation in the vicinity of the selected site...
October 12, 2018: Genetics
Guoru Ren, Maofa Yang, Wenqin Liang, Lixia Xie
Two new species of Lohmanniidae, Papillacarus (Papillacarus) retinervius sp. nov. from soil in Hainan Province, South China and Papillacarus (Papillacarus) mammilatus sp. nov. from moss and soil in Guizhou Province, Southwest China are described and illustrated. Papillacarus (P.) retinervius sp. nov. is most similar to Papillacarus (P.) polygonatus (Ermilov Anichkin, 2011), however, it can be distinguished from the latter by the following characterstics: 20-21 pairs of additional neotrichal setae, setae d2, e2, h1, p1 shorter, as long as d1, epimeral setal formula 10-8-4-3...
August 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Fangxue Xu, Hui Cao, Xiaowei Cui, Hong Guo, Chunchao Han
(1) Background: Application of echinacoside has become increasingly important for its significant biological activities. However, there are many disadvantages in existing synthesis methods such as contaminating the environment, harsh reaction conditions and so on. Therefore, it is urgent to invent a novel alternative method that can increase the yield of echinacoside. (2) Methods: In this study, we isolated and purified an endophyte from the leaves of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Then, we improved the yield of echinacoside by optimizing the fermentation condition with an endophytic fungus...
October 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Arvind Kumar, Harpreet Singh, Amrita Mishra, Arun K Mishra
OBJECTIVE: Aripiprazole,a synthetic compound, obtained by chemical modification of the structure of quinolinone is considered as an atypical antipsychotic drug. The present review is an attempt to summarize the updated information related to reported chemistry and pharmacology of Aripiprazole. DEVELOPMENT: Aripiprazole, under development by Otsuka Pharmaceutical, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in the end months of 2002 to with an aim to treat patients with schizophrenia...
October 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Fatéméh Dubois, Bastien Jean-Jacques, Hélène Roberge, Magalie Bénard, Ludovic Galas, Damien Schapman, Nicolas Elie, Didier Goux, Maureen Keller, Elodie Maille, Emmanuel Bergot, Gérard Zalcman, Guénaëlle Levallet
BACKGROUND: By allowing intercellular communication between cells, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) could play critical role in cancer progression. If TNT formation is known to require cytoskeleton remodeling, key mechanism controlling their formation remains poorly understood. METHODS: The cells of human bronchial (HBEC-3, A549) or mesothelial (H2452, H28) lines are transfected with different siRNAs (inactive, anti-RASSF1A, anti-GEFH1 and / or anti-Rab11). At 48 h post-transfection, i) the number and length of the nanotubes per cell are quantified, ii) the organelles, previously labeled with specific tracers, exchanged via these structures are monitored in real time between cells cultured in 2D or 3D and in normoxia, hypoxia or in serum deprivation condition...
October 11, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Emma Briggs, Graham Hamilton, Kathryn Crouch, Craig Lapsley, Richard McCulloch
R-loops are stable RNA-DNA hybrids that have been implicated in transcription initiation and termination, as well as in telomere maintenance, chromatin formation, and genome replication and instability. RNA Polymerase (Pol) II transcription in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is highly unusual: virtually all genes are co-transcribed from multigene transcription units, with mRNAs generated by linked trans-splicing and polyadenylation, and transcription initiation sites display no conserved promoter motifs...
October 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Subhash T Kumbhar, Shriniwas P Patil, Hemant D Une
Canna indica L. (Cannaceae) roots and rhizomes were reported to possess various biological properties like antimicrobial, anthelmintic potential and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition. In our previous studies, they showed antidiabetic activity on normal rats and rats co-addicted with caffeine and nicotine. In the pursuit of the phytochemical/s responsible for these biological activities, present study was aimed at phytochemical evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of C. indica L. roots and rhizomes; including preliminary screening, thin layer chromatography, H1 -NMR and HR-LC/MS-MS analysis...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Abigail L Turner, Matthew Watson, Oscar G Wilkins, Laura Cato, Andrew Travers, Jean O Thomas, Katherine Stott
Disordered proteins play an essential role in a wide variety of biological processes, and are often posttranslationally modified. One such protein is histone H1; its highly disordered C-terminal tail (CH1) condenses internucleosomal linker DNA in chromatin in a way that is still poorly understood. Moreover, CH1 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner that correlates with changes in the chromatin condensation level. Here we present a model system that recapitulates key aspects of the in vivo process, and also allows a detailed structural and biophysical analysis of the stages before and after condensation...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tatsuya Fujii, Yoshiaki Kitamura, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Kentaro Okamoto, Nanae Sanada, Takuya Yamada, Manabu Sugiyama, Shotaro Michinaga, Mika Kitayama, Hiroyuki Fukui, Noriaki Takeda
Narrowband-ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy is used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Previously, we reported that irradiation with 200 mJ/cm2 of 310 nm NB-UVB suppressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene expression without induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells. However, the effect of NB-UVB irradiation on nasal symptoms is still unclear. Here, we show that low dose irradiation with 310 nm NB-UVB alleviates nasal symptoms in toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized allergy model rats...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Marisa Iborra, Inés Moret, Francisco Rausell, Enrique Busó, Elena Cerrillo, Esteban Sáez-González, Pilar Nos, Belén Beltrán
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increased oxidative stress and decreased immune cell apoptosis have been reported to be important factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Our aim was to characterize the genetic expression of molecules implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis in peripheral white mononuclear cells of 18 healthy volunteers (controls) and 20 patients at the onset of CD (active CD [aCD]): 10 who achieved remission (inactive CD [iCD]) and 10 who did not present a complete and deep response to treatment (aCD-T)...
October 9, 2018: Digestion
Pan Deng, Qing-Yu Xu, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
It is noted that insect insulin/insulin-like growth factor/target of rapamycin signaling is critical for the regulation of metamorphosis in holometabolous insects. However, the molecular mechanism remains undetermined. Our previous findings reveal that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of an insulin gene (LdILP2) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata disturbs both 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, and impairs pupation. In the present paper, we further observed that the expression of the insulin receptor substrate gene chico (Ldchico) and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase gene pi3k (Ldpi3k92E) was repressed in LdILP2 depleted larvae...
October 5, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jin-Yuan Wu, Yan Zhou, Guang-Ming Zhang, Guo-Fa Mu, Shan Yi, Na Yin, Yu-Ping Xie, Xiao-Chen Lin, Hong-Jun Li, Mao-Sheng Sun
AIM: To determine the distribution of rotavirus VP7 gene in hospitalized children in Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 366 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized children in hospitals in Yunnan Province from September 2010 to December 2013. The genomic RNA electropherotypes and the G genotypes of the rotaviruses were determined. A phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene was performed. Rotavirus isolation was performed, and characterized by plaque, minimum essential medium, and all genes sequence analysis...
October 6, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Azim Parandakh, Azadeh Anbarlou, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Substrate stiffness and topography are two powerful means by which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) activities can be modulated. The effects of substrate stiffness on the MSCs mechanical properties were investigated previously, however, the role of substrate topography in this regard is not yet well understood. Moreover, in vessel wall, these two physical cues act simultaneously to regulate cellular function, hence it is important to investigate their cooperative effects on cellular activity. Herein, we investigated the combined effects of substrate stiffness, substrate topography and culture time on the mechanical behavior of MSCs...
September 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Qing Cai, Luying He, Silin Wang, Wei Chu, Lingli Zhou, Wenli Pan, Lu Zhang, Shan Jiang, Dangyang Ma, Xue Liang, Jingxin Gou, Tian Yin, Yu Zhang, Xing Tang, Haibing He
This work describes the preparation of aripiprazole sustained-release microcrystals for intramuscular injection, through recrystallization, drying, wet grinding, and solidification steps, which had a great impact on the product quality. Here, we evaluated the crystal form of the drug in each step by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), demonstrating that there is no change in the crystal form of aripiprazole monohydrate (H1) during grinding and freeze-drying...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Seiya Yamayoshi, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Mutsumi Ito, Ryuta Uraki, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
BACKGROUND: Broadly protective human monoclonal antibodies that recognize the conserved epitopes in the HA of influenza A virus are being developed as therapeutic agents. Emergence of resistant viruses must always be considered when developing therapeutic agents against influenza. OBJECTIVES: We examined human hetero-reactive mAbs against the HA stem of influenza A virus for the ease with which escape mutant viruses emerged. STUDY DESIGN: We attempted to generate the mutant viruses escaped from the hetero-reactive anti-HA stem antibodies...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Pedro P G Guimaraes, Mingchee Tan, Tuomas Tammela, Katherine Wu, Amanda Chung, Matthias Oberli, Karin Wang, Roman Spektor, Rachel S Riley, Celso T R Viana, Tyler Jacks, Robert Langer, Michael J Mitchell
Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes lung cancer progression and contributes to poor patient prognosis. The porcupine inhibitor LGK974, a novel orally bioavailable cancer therapeutic in Phase I clinical trials, induces potent Wnt signaling inhibition and leads to suppressed growth and progression of multiple types of cancers. The clinical use of LGK974, however, is limited in part due to its low solubility and high toxicity in tissues that rely on Wnt signaling for normal homeostasis. Here, we report the use of host-guest chemistry to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of LGK974 in mice through complexation with cyclodextrins (CD)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Miguel F Sanmamed, Lieping Chen
Harnessing an antitumor immune response has been a fundamental strategy in cancer immunotherapy. For over a century, efforts have primarily focused on amplifying immune activation mechanisms that are employed by humans to eliminate invaders such as viruses and bacteria. This "immune enhancement" strategy often results in rare objective responses and frequent immune-related adverse events (irAEs). However, in the last decade, cancer immunotherapies targeting the B7-H1/PD-1 pathway (anti-PD therapy), have achieved higher objective response rates in patients with much fewer irAEs...
October 4, 2018: Cell
Caroline Van Hemert, Timothy J Spivey, Brian D Uher-Koch, Todd C Atwood, David R Sinnett, Brandt W Meixell, Jerry W Hupp, Kaijun Jiang, Layne G Adams, David D Gustine, Andrew M Ramey, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are maintained in wild waterbirds and have the potential to infect a broad range of species, including wild mammals. The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska supports a diverse suite of species, including waterfowl that are common hosts of IAVs. Mammals co-occur with geese and other migratory waterbirds during the summer breeding season, providing a plausible mechanism for interclass transmission of IAVs. To estimate IAV seroprevalence and identify the subtypes to which geese, loons, Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus), caribou ( Rangifer tarandus), and polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) are potentially exposed, we used a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to screen for antibodies to IAVs in samples collected during spring and summer of 2012-16...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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