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Alexander P Mela, Michelle Momany
Histone H1 is an evolutionarily conserved linker histone protein that functions in arranging and stabilizing chromatin structure and is frequently fused to a fluorescent protein to track nuclei in live cells. In time-lapse analyses, we observed stochastic exchange of photoactivated Dendra2-histone H1 protein between nuclei within the same cellular compartment. We also observed exchange of histones between genetically distinct nuclei in a heterokaryon derived from fusion of strains carrying histone H1-RFP or H1-GFP...
2018: PloS One
Qian Che, Liang Qiao, Xiaoning Han, Yankai Liu, Wei Wang, Qianqun Gu, Tianjiao Zhu, Dehai Li
Three new derivatives, anthranosides A-C (1-3), were discovered from a marine sponge-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. CMN-62. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic data, X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis, and chemical synthesis. Compounds 1 and 2 are epimers composed by linking the anthranilate unit to the fructofuranose moiety via a carbon-nitrogen bond, while 3 possessed a unique indole-containing scaffold. All compounds were tested for cytotoxicity, anti-influenza H1 N1 virus, and NFκB inhibitory activities, and 3 showed anti-influenza activity...
August 14, 2018: Organic Letters
Soo Jie Chung, Sung-Yoon Kang, Rae-Young Kang, Young-Chan Kim, Kyung-Hun Lee, Tae-Yong Kim, Sae-Won Han, Hye-Ryun Kang
PURPOSE: Desensitization is a safe alternative for patients with hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents and widely used in real practice by employing stepwise administration of multiple serial dilutions of the culprit drugs. However, its labor-intensive nature has required a simpler protocol that is easier to prepare and perform. METHODS: We performed an observational study of patients with platinum HSR who underwent a new non-dilution one-bag desensitization protocol...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Mohammed N Al-Ahdal, Valarmathy Murugaiah, Praveen M Varghese, Suhair M Abozaid, Iram Saba, Ahmed Ali Al-Qahtani, Ansar A Pathan, Lubna Kouser, Béatrice Nal, Uday Kishore
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is expressed in the mucosal secretion of the lung and contributes to the innate host defense against a variety of pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). SP-D can inhibit hemagglutination and infectivity of IAV, in addition to reducing neuraminidase (NA) activity via its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) binding to carbohydrate patterns (N-linked mannosylated) on NA and hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV. Here, we demonstrate that a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D), containing homotrimeric neck and CRD regions, acts as an entry inhibitor of IAV and downregulates M1 expression considerably in A549 cells challenged with IAV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes at 2 h treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Juhye M Lee, John Huddleston, Michael B Doud, Kathryn A Hooper, Nicholas C Wu, Trevor Bedford, Jesse D Bloom
Human influenza virus rapidly accumulates mutations in its major surface protein hemagglutinin (HA). The evolutionary success of influenza virus lineages depends on how these mutations affect HA's functionality and antigenicity. Here we experimentally measure the effects on viral growth in cell culture of all single amino acid mutations to the HA from a recent human H3N2 influenza virus strain. We show that mutations that are measured to be more favorable for viral growth are enriched in evolutionarily successful H3N2 viral lineages relative to mutations that are measured to be less favorable for viral growth...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rajesh Mani, Manish Gupta, Anshu Malik, Ravi Tandon, Rajendra Prasad, Rakesh Bhatnagar, Nirupama Banerjee
Novel adjuvants are in demand for improving the efficacy of human vaccines. The immunomodulatory properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall components have been highlighted in the formulation of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). We have explored the adjuvant potential of poly-α-L-glutamine (PLG), a lesser-known constituent of pathogenic mycobacterial cell wall. Immune parameters indicated that the adjuvant potency of PLG was statistically comparable to CFA and better than alum in the context of H1 antigen (Ag85B and ESAT-6 fusion)...
August 13, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Ali Al-Behadili, Jay P Uhler, Anna-Karin Berglund, Bradley Peter, Mara Doimo, Aurelio Reyes, Sjoerd Wanrooij, Massimo Zeviani, Maria Falkenberg
The role of Ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) during primer removal and ligation at the mitochondrial origin of light-strand DNA synthesis (OriL) is a key, yet poorly understood, step in mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Here, we reconstitute the replication cycle of L-strand synthesis in vitro using recombinant mitochondrial proteins and model OriL substrates. The process begins with initiation of DNA replication at OriL and ends with primer removal and ligation. We find that RNase H1 partially removes the primer, leaving behind the last one to three ribonucleotides...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jeriel T R Keeney, Xiaojia Ren, Govind Warrier, Teresa Noel, David K Powell, Jennifer M Brelsfoard, Rukhsana Sultana, Kathryn E Saatman, Daret K St Clair, D Allan Butterfield
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is now widely recognized as a real and too common complication of cancer chemotherapy experienced by an ever-growing number of cancer survivors. Previously, we reported that doxorubicin (Dox), a prototypical reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing anti-cancer drug, results in oxidation of plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) leading to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated oxidative stress in plasma and brain. We also reported that co-administration of the antioxidant drug, 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium (MESNA), prevents Dox-induced protein oxidation and subsequent TNF-α elevation in plasma...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Amy Castilano, Britni Sternard, Earl D Cummings, Runhua Shi, Thomas Arnold, Sami L Bahna
BACKGROUND: Some previous reports revealed suboptimal management of anaphylaxis (ANX) in the emergency department (ED). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recorded diagnosis and management of patients who presented with ANX at our university hospital ED and to assess how the management correlated with the severity of the case and the training level of the ED staff. METHODS: A descriptive study that involved reviewing the electronic medical records of patients who presented with ANX at the ED during a period of 4 years...
July 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Gisele de Brito Brasil, Ivaneide Leal Ataíde Rodrigues, Laura Maria Vidal Nogueira, Iaci Proença Palmeira
OBJECTIVE: to validate an educational technology to support the action of health professionals with people living with HIV. METHOD: methodological study with data collection using a four-point Likert scale for evaluation by eleven judges and 51 people living with HIV. The data were tabulated, processed, and analyzed by inferential and descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha test, and Kruskal-Wallis for reliability and internal consistency analyses. RESULT: the Cronbach's alpha was 0...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Li Zou, Tingting Li, Ruidi Shen, Shaozhi Ren, Liansheng Ling
A label-free light-up fluorescent sensing strategy using hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification and DNA triplex assembly has been developed. Remarkably, the proposed fluorescence assay is successfully applied to the determination of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus DNA and thrombin. Herein, in the presence of targets, the target DNA/initiator triggers a cascade of hybridization events between H1 and H2 that yields nicked double helices analogous to alternating copolymers. With the additions of triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) and berberine, the triplex structures form between HCR products and TFO...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Wuhui Li, Hui Tan, Junmei Liu, Jie Hu, Jialin Cui, Shi Wang, Qingfeng Liu, Fangzhou Hu, Li Ren, Min Tao, Rurong Zhao, Conghui Yang, Qinbo Qin, Shaojun Liu
Spermatogenesis involves a series of cellular transformations and thousands of regulated genes. Previously, we showed that the triploid fish (3nBY) cannot produce mature spermatozoa. In the present study, evaluation of the testis microstructure revealed that germ cells of 3nBY could develop into round spermatids, but then degenerated, resulting in male infertility. In this study we comparatively analysed the testis transcriptomes from 3nBY and its diploid parent YB and identified a series of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were enriched in the Wnt signalling pathway and the apoptotic and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis processes in 3nBY...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ruth L O Lambertz, Jan Pippel, Ingo Gerhauser, Heike Kollmus, Darisuren Anhlan, Eike R Hrincius, Joern Krausze, Nora Kühn, Klaus Schughart
The haemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes has to be activated by host proteases. Previous studies showed that H1N1 virus cannot replicate efficiently in Tmprss2-/- knock-out mice whereas H3N2 viruses are able to replicate to the same levels in Tmprss2-/- as in wild type (WT) mice. Here, we investigated the sequence requirements for the HA molecule that allow IAV to replicate efficiently in the absence of TMPRSS2. We showed that replacement of the H3 for the H1-loop sequence (amino acids 320 to 329, at the C-terminus of HA1) was not sufficient for equal levels of virus replication or severe pathology in Tmprss2-/- knock-out mice compared to WT mice...
August 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Anna Török, Sebastian G Gornik
In this chapter, a short evolutionary history and comparative analysis of sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs) in marine invertebrates are presented based on some of the most recent publications in the field and building upon previously published reviews on the topic. Putative functions of SNBPs in sperm chromatin beyond DNA packaging will also be discussed with a primary focus on outstanding research questions.In somatic cells of all metazoans, DNA is packaged into tightly folded and dynamically accessible chromatin by canonical histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Y I Grinshtein, A A Kosinova, I Y Grinshtein, T N Subbotina, A A Savchenko
PURPOSE: to investigate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2046934, rs1126643, rs5918, rs6065, rs4244285; rs4986893 with cardiovascular complications (CVC) in patients after CABG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled in this study 130 patients with stable functional class II-IV angina. After CABG 69 patients received ASA (100 mg of enteric form), 61 patients received dual antiplatelet therapy (ASA 100 mg + clopidogrel 75 mg). Mean follow up period was 10...
July 2018: Kardiologiia
Wakchaure Padmaja D, Ravichandiran Velayutham, Kuldeep K Roy
We report herein detailed structural insights into the ligand recognition modes guiding bromodomain selectivity, enrichment analysis and docking-based database screening for the identification of the FDA-approved drugs that have potential to be the human BRD4 inhibitors. Analysis of multiple X-ray structures prevailed that the lysine-recognition sites are highly conserved, and apparently, the dynamic ZA loop guides the specific ligand-recognition. The protein-ligand interaction profiling revealed that both BRD2 and BRD4 shared hydrophobic interaction of bound ligands with PRO-98/PRO-82, PHE-99/PHE-83, LEU-108/LEU-92, and direct H-bonding with ASN-156/ASN-140 (BRD2/BRD4), while on the other hand the water-mediated H-bonding of bound ligands with PRO-82, GLN-85, PRO-86, VAL-87, ASP-88, LEU-92, TYR-97 and MET-132, and aromatic π - π stacking with TRP-81 prevailed as unique interaction in BRD4, and were not observed in BRD2...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yang Zhao, Dong Liu, Peter Proksch, Demin Zhou, Wenhan Lin
Chemical examination of the EtOAc extract of the sponge-associated fungus Truncatella angustata in solid culture led to the isolation of eight undescribed isoprenylated cyclohexanols, namely truncateols O-V together with 14 known analogues. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including the modified Mosher's method and ECD data for the assignment of their absolute configurations. Truncateol O exhibited significant inhibition toward both HIV-1 and H1 N1 virus, while truncateol P exerted inhibitory effect against HIV-1 virus...
August 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
Joy B Winbourne, Benjamin Z Houlton
Free-living heterotrophic nitrogen fixation (FNF) is a widespread nitrogen input pathway in terrestrial ecosystems. However, questions remain over the relative influence of co-occurring controls on patterns of heterotrophic FNF activity, especially across generalized stages of primary succession, from biomass accumulation to retrogressive phases. Here, we experimentally test two alternative hypotheses regarding FNF rates during ecosystem development: (H1) site (i.e., changes in soil fertility during succession) is the primary driver of leaf-litter FNF rates, versus (H2) leaf-litter chemistry is the primary determinant of FNF activity across a broad range of ecosystem conditions...
August 4, 2018: Ecology
Nadine L Samara, Wei Yang
Catalysis by members of the RNase H superfamily of enzymes is generally believed to require only two Mg2+ ions that are coordinated by active-site carboxylates. By examining the catalytic process of Bacillus halodurans RNase H1 in crystallo, however, we found that the two canonical Mg2+ ions and an additional K+ failed to align the nucleophilic water for RNA cleavage. Substrate alignment and product formation required a second K+ and a third Mg2+ , which replaced the first K+ and departed immediately after cleavage...
August 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Věra Králová, Veronika Hanušová, Kateřina Caltová, Petr Špaček, Martina Hochmalová, Lenka Skálová, Emil Rudolf
Benzimidazole anthelmintics flubendazole and mebendazole are microtubule-targeting drugs that showed considerable anti-cancer activity in different preclinical models. In this study, the effects of flubendazole and mebendazole on proliferation, migration and cadherin switching were studied in a panel of oral cell lines in vitro. Both compounds reduced the viability of the PE/CA-PJ15 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells and of the premalignant oral keratinocytes DOK with the IC50 values in the range of 0.19-0...
July 31, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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