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Centromere protein

Malwina Michalak, Uwe Warnken, Martina Schnölzer, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Jürgen Kopitz
Emerging evidence on efficient tumor growth regulation by endogenous lectins directs interest to determine on a proof-of-principle level the range of information on alterations provided by full-scale analysis using phosphoproteomics. In our pilot study, we tested galectin-4 (gal-4) that is a growth inhibitor for colon cancer cells (CRC), here working with the LS 180 line. In order to cover monitoring of short- and long-term effects stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analyses were conducted on LS 180 cell preparations collected 1 and 72 h after adding gal-4 to the culture medium...
December 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
Chen-Hsi Chu, Cheng-Yi Yen, Bo-Wei Chen, Min-Guan Lin, Lyu-Han Wang, Kai-Zhi Tang, Chwan-Deng Hsiao, Yuh-Ju Sun
ParABS, an important DNA partitioning process in chromosome segregation, includes ParA (an ATPase), ParB (a parS binding protein) and parS (a centromere-like DNA). The homologous proteins of ParA and ParB in Helicobacter pylori are HpSoj and HpSpo0J, respectively. We analyzed the ATPase activity of HpSoj and found that it is enhanced by both DNA and HpSpo0J. Crystal structures of HpSoj and its DNA complexes revealed a typical ATPase fold and that it is dimeric. DNA binding by HpSoj is promoted by ATP. The HpSoj-ATP-DNA complex non-specifically binds DNA through a continuous basic binding patch formed by lysine residues, with a single DNA-binding site...
December 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Tingting Zhao, Lijun Ren, Xiaojun Chen, Hengxiu Yu, Chengjie Liu, Yi Shen, Wenqing Shi, Ding Tang, Guijie Du, Yafei Li, Bojun Ma, Zhukuan Cheng
Response regulators play significant roles in controlling various biological processes; however, their roles in plant meiosis remain unclear. Here, we report the identification of OsRR24/LEPTOTENE1 (LEPTO1), a rice (Oryza sativa) type-B response regulator that participates in the establishment of key molecular and morphological features of chromosomes in leptotene, an early stage of prophase I in meiosis. Although meiosis initiates normally, as indicated by staining of the centromere-specific histone CENH3, the meiotic chromosomes in lepto1 mutant pollen mother cells (PMCs) fail to form the thin thread-like structures that are typical of leptotene chromosomes in wild-type PMCs...
December 11, 2018: Plant Cell
Q Zhang, Y-D Li, S-X Zhang, Y-Y Shi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine centromere protein U (CENPU) expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identify the clinical values of CENPU, as well as investigate the potential molecular mechanisms in NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression levels and clinical significance of CENPU were systematically evaluated in human protein atlas datasets and TCGA datasets. CENPU protein expression was studied by Western blotting. CENPU mRNA expression was studied by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Veronika Kinterova, Jiri Kanka, Petruskova Veronika, Tereza Toralova
The mechanism of maternal protein degradation during preimplantation development has not been clarified yet. It is thought that a lot of maternal proteins are degraded by ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this study, we focused on the role of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box) complexes during early bovine embryogenesis. We inhibited it using MLN4924, an inhibitor of SCF complex ligases controlled by neddylation. Oocytes maturated in MLN4924 could be fertilized, but we found no cumulus cells expansion and a high number of polyspermy after in vitro fertilization...
December 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Muhammad Shahid, Minyoung Lee, Honit Piplani, Allen M Andres, Bo Zhou, Austin Yeon, Minjung Kim, Hyung L Kim, Jayoung Kim
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and is the second leading cause of male cancer-related death in North America. Metabolic adaptations in malignant PC cells play a key role in fueling the growth and progression of the disease. Unfortunately, little is known regarding these changes in cellular metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that centromere protein F (CENPF), a protein associated with the centromere-kinetochore complex and chromosomal segregation during mitosis, is mechanically linked to altered metabolism and progression in PC...
December 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Qi Yi, Qinfu Chen, Haiyan Yan, Miao Zhang, Cai Liang, Xingfeng Xiang, Xuan Pan, Fangwei Wang
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a master regulator of mitosis. CPC consists of inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin, Borealin, and the kinase Aurora B, plays key roles in regulating kinetochore-microtubule attachments and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. However, the role of CPC in sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, remains incompletely understood. Here we show that Aurora B kinase activity contributes to centromeric cohesion protection partly through promoting kinetochore localization of the kinase Bub1...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cindy E Jiménez-Ávila, Vanessa Villegas-Ruíz, Marta Zapata-Tarres, Alejandra E Rubio-Portillo, Eleazar I Pérez López, Juan C Zenteno, Sergio Juárez-Méndez
The alternative splicing plays an important role to generate protein diversity. Recent studies have shown alterations in alternative splicing, resulting in loss, gain or changes of functions in the resulting protein. Specific products of alternative splicing are known to contribute in cancer-related mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, migration, adhesion and cell proliferation, among others. We using high-density microarrays reported a CENP-E as a one of significant transcript expressed and potentially is alternatively spliced in cancer...
2018: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Manu Shukla, Pin Tong, Sharon A White, Puneet P Singh, Angus M Reid, Sandra Catania, Alison L Pidoux, Robin C Allshire
Active centromeres are defined by the presence of nucleosomes containing CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, which alone is sufficient to direct kinetochore assembly. Once assembled at a location, CENP-A chromatin and kinetochores are maintained at that location through a positive feedback loop where kinetochore proteins recruited by CENP-A promote deposition of new CENP-A following replication. Although CENP-A chromatin itself is a heritable entity, it is normally associated with specific sequences. Intrinsic properties of centromeric DNA may favor the assembly of CENP-A rather than H3 nucleosomes...
November 15, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Cai Liang, Zhenlei Zhang, Qinfu Chen, Haiyan Yan, Miao Zhang, Xingfeng Xiang, Qi Yi, Xuan Pan, Hankun Cheng, Fangwei Wang
The inner centromere region of a mitotic chromosome critically regulates sister chromatid cohesion and kinetochore-microtubule attachments. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inner centromere assembly remains elusive. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing in HeLa cells, we disrupted the interaction of Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) with histone H2A phosphorylated on Thr-120 (H2ApT120) to selectively release Sgo1 from mitotic centromeres. Interestingly, cells expressing the H2ApT120-binding defective mutant of Sgo1 have an elevated rate of chromosome missegregation accompanied by weakened centromeric cohesion and decreased centromere accumulation of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an integral part of the inner centromere and a key player in the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kei-Ichiro Ishiguro
Cohesin is an evolutionary conserved multi-protein complex that plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. It plays a role both in sister chromatid cohesion and in establishing higher order chromosome architecture, in somatic and germ cells. Notably, the cohesin complex in meiosis differs from that in mitosis. In mammalian meiosis, distinct types of cohesin complexes are produced by altering the combination of meiosis-specific subunits. The meiosis-specific subunits endow the cohesin complex with specific functions for numerous meiosis-associated chromosomal events, such as chromosome axis formation, homologue association, meiotic recombination and centromeric cohesion for sister kinetochore geometry...
November 27, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Yuichi Ichikawa, Paul D Kaufman
In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is packaged into the nucleus together with histone proteins, forming chromatin. The fundamental repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, a naturally symmetric structure that wraps DNA and is the substrate for numerous regulatory post-translational modifications. However, the biological significance of nucleosomal symmetry until recently had been unexplored. To investigate this issue, we developed an obligate pair of histone H3 heterodimers, a novel genetic tool that allowed us to modulate modification sites on individual H3 molecules within nucleosomes in vivo...
November 26, 2018: Current Genetics
Gaku Shimoi, Masaru Tomita, Marino Kataoka, Yuichi Kameyama
Mammalian oocyte quality degrades over time after ovulation in vitro, which can cause fatal defects such as chromosomal aneuploidy. As various oocyte manipulations employed in assisted reproductive technology are time consuming, post-ovulatory aging is a serious problem to overcome in reproductive medicine or ova research. In this study, we investigated the effects of postovulatory aging on the incidence of chromosome aneuploidy during meiosis II, with a focus on the expression of functional proteins from the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Xiaowu Chen, Jianpeng Chen, Yawei Shen, Yanhui Bi, Wenjie Hou, Guiping Pan, Xugan Wu
The swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus, Portunus) can tolerate low salinity, but the mechanism of its varied salinity adaptation at the molecular level remains unclear. In this study, we prepared four mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) libraries using the gills collected from four salinity groups and performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the genes related to the low salinity. We set 25 ppt as the control group. A total of 659 genes were differentially expressed in at least one of the six comparison groups (25 ppt vs...
November 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Mingrui Ding, Jiying Jiang, Fengrui Yang, Fan Zheng, Jingwen Fang, Qian Wang, Jiangyu Wang, William W Yao, Xu Liu, Xinjiao Gao, McKay Mullen, Ping He, Cathy Rono, Xia Ding, Jingjun Hong, Chuanhai Fu, Xing Liu, Xuebiao Yao
Centromere is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein machinery essential for precision segregation of parental genome into two daughter cells during mitosis. CENP-A organizes functional centromere via constitutive centromere associated network composing CENP-T complex. However, it remains elusive how CENP-T assembles onto centromere. Here, we show CENP-T directly binds to HJURP, an evolutionarily conserved chaperone involving in loading CENP-A. The binding interface of HJURP was mapped to the C-terminal CENP-T...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chenshu Liu, Ruijun Zhu, Yinghui Mao
Centromeres are specialized chromosomal regions epigenetically defined by the histone H3 variant centromere protein A (CENP-A). CENP-A needs to be replenished in every cell cycle, but how new CENP-A is stably incorporated into centromeric chromatin remains unclear. We have discovered that a cytoskeletal protein, diaphanous formin mDia2, is essential for the stable incorporation of new CENP-A proteins into centromeric nucleosomes. Here we report that mDia2-mediated formation of dynamic and short nuclear actin filaments in G1 nucleus is required to maintain CENP-A levels at the centromere...
November 2, 2018: iScience
Roxanne E Debaugny, Aurore Sanchez, Jérôme Rech, Delphine Labourdette, Jérôme Dorignac, Frédéric Geniet, John Palmeri, Andrea Parmeggiani, François Boudsocq, Véronique Anton Leberre, Jean-Charles Walter, Jean-Yves Bouet
Chromosome and plasmid segregation in bacteria are mostly driven by ParAB S systems. These DNA partitioning machineries rely on large nucleoprotein complexes assembled on centromere sites ( parS ). However, the mechanism of how a few parS -bound ParB proteins nucleate the formation of highly concentrated ParB clusters remains unclear despite several proposed physico-mathematical models. We discriminated between these different models by varying some key parameters in vivo using the F plasmid partition system...
November 16, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Eftychia Kyriacou, Patrick Heun
BACKGROUND: The centromere is a specialized chromosomal locus that forms the basis for the assembly of a multi-protein complex, the kinetochore and ensures faithful chromosome segregation during every cell division. The repetitive nature of the underlying centromeric sequence represents a major obstacle for high-resolution mapping of protein binding using methods that rely on annotated genomes. Here, we present a novel microscopy-based approach called "APEX-chromatin fibers" for localizing protein binding over the repetitive centromeric sequences at kilobase resolution...
November 16, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Chanell O Haley, Aoife M Waters, D M Bader
Centromere-binding protein F (CENP-F) is a large and complex protein shown to play critical roles in mitosis and various other interphase functions. Previous studies have shown that the disruption of CENP-F function leads to detrimental effects on human development. Still, it is important to note the lack of studies focusing on the effects that the loss of this essential protein may have on specific adult organs. In the current study, we used a novel global knockout murine model to analyze the potential consequences deletion of CENP-F has on adult kidney structure and function...
November 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Shuang-Yan Lin, Yan-Bo Lv, Gen-Xiang Mao, Xu-Jiao Chen, Fang Peng
Centromere protein U (CENPU) is a novel transcriptional repressor that is associated with different types of cancer. However, its function in breast cancer is poorly understood. In the present study, it was identified that CENPU was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with expression in normal breast tissues (P=0.001). Furthermore, the CENPU mRNA level in tumors was often elevated, compared with the matched adjacent normal breast cancer tissue specimens in the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (n=106; P<0...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
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