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Tuberculosis AND Brazil

Yuri F van der Heijden, Fareed Abdullah, Bruno B Andrade, Jason R Andrews, Devasahayam J Christopher, Julio Croda, Heather Ewing, David W Haas, Mark Hatherill, C Robert Horsburgh, Vidya Mave, Helder I Nakaya, Valeria Rolla, Sudha Srinivasan, Retna Indah Sugiyono, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Carol Hamilton
RePORT International is a global network of research sites in India, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, China, and the Philippines dedicated to collaborative tuberculosis research in the context of HIV. A standardized research protocol (the Common Protocol) guides the enrollment of participants with active pulmonary tuberculosis and contacts into observational cohorts. The establishment of harmonized clinical data and bio-repositories will allow cutting-edge, large-scale advances in the understanding of tuberculosis, including identification of novel biomarkers for progression to active tuberculosis and relapse after treatment...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Emilyn Costa Conceição, Arthur Emil Dos Santos Guimarães, Maria Luíza Lopes, Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Yan Corrêa Rodrigues, Marília Lima da Conceição, Wandyra Araújo Barros, Ninarosa Calzavara Cardoso, Abhinav Sharma, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Rafael Silva Duarte, Cristiane Frota, Liliana K Rutaihwa, Sebastien Gagneux, Philip Noel Suffys, Karla Valéria Batista Lima
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease with a higher risk for infection and disease among household contacts (HHC). Here, we report a molecular epidemiology-based approach to study disease transmission and the genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains among HHC in the city of Belem, the capital of the state of Para in north Brazil. The study included 63 TB patients belonging to 26 HHC groups (HHC1 to HHC26). Spoligotyping and 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit - Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) revealed indistinguishable bacterial genotypes among 26 patients in 14 (53...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Francine Teixeira, Sonia M Raboni, Clea El Ribeiro, João Cb França, Anne C Broska, Nathalia Ls Souza
Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. This cross-sectional study involved a retrospective analysis of data for patients with TB/HIV coinfection who attended from 2006 to 2015 through a review of medical records...
2018: Microbiology Insights
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
Juan Manuel Cubillos-Angulo, María B Arriaga, Elisângela C Silva, Beatriz L A Müller, Daniela M P Ramalho, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Pryscila F C Miranda, Adriana S R Moreira, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Jose R Lapa E Silva, Timothy R Sterling, Afrânio L Kritski, Martha M Oliveira, Bruno B Andrade
Background: The role of genetic polymorphisms in latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and progression to active TB is not fully understood. Methods: We tested the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs5743708 (TLR2), rs4986791 (TLR4), rs361525 (TNFA), rs2430561 (IFNG) rs1143627 (IL1B) as risk factors for tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion or development of active TB in contacts of active TB cases. Contacts of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for longitudinal evaluation up to 24 months, with clinical examination and serial TST, between 1998 and 2004 at a referral center in Brazil...
November 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hareton Teixeira Vechi, Eduardo Teodoro Gurgel de Oliveira, Marise Reis de Freitas, Flávia Rossi, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca de Britto, Manoella do Monte Alves
Rhodococcus equi is a facultative aerobic, intracellular, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive, weakly acid-fast coccobacillus belonging to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes. R. equi infections are rare opportunistic illnesses in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), associated with a high mortality rate. The most common clinical presentation of R. equi infections is a chronic cavitary pneumonia. Due to its acid-fastness, R. equi can be mistaken for others acid-fast organisms, as Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
November 14, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Valeria Saraceni, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Kleydson Bonfim Andrade, Patricia Bartholomay Oliveira, Denise Arakaki-Sanchez, Alessandro Caruso, Flavia Moreno Alves de Souza
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the burden of tuberculosis (TB) in reported AIDS cases, to compare the characteristics of TB/HIV subjects with those without TB and to evaluate survival with or without TB in Brazil. METHODS: The data source was the linked database between AIDS (2011-2014) and TB (2011-2014) databases from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). The sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory results and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) data were compared by TB occurrence or not...
2018: PloS One
Carlos Acuña-Villaorduña, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt-Castellani, Patricia Marques-Rodrigues, Laura F White, David Jamil Hadad, Mary Gaeddert, Jerrold J Ellner, Kevin P Fennelly, Moises Palaci, Reynaldo Dietze, Edward C Jones-López
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures of cough-generated aerosols from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are a quantitative method to measure infectiousness and to predict secondary outcomes in exposed contacts. However, their reproducibility has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of colony-forming units (CFU) of M. tuberculosis in cough aerosols on secondary infection and disease in household contacts in Brazil. METHODS: Adult sputum smear+ and culture+ pulmonary TB cases underwent a standard evaluation and were categorized according to aerosol CFU...
2018: PloS One
Janine Nascimento Dos Santos, Carolina Maia Martins Sales, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Ethel Leonor Maciel
OBJECTIVE: to analyze factors associated with cure when treating tuberculosis (TB) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2014. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study with data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN); logistic regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: of the 57,142 cases reported, 49,691 (86.96%) were included in the study; schooling ≥13 years (odds ratio (OR) 3.48; 95%CI 2.74;4.41) and residing in rural areas (OR 2...
October 22, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Karina M de Castro-Silva, Anna C Carvalho, Maria T Cavalcanti, Pedro da S Martins, José R França, Maria Oquendo, Afrânio L Kritski, Annika Sweetland
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (pre-PTB, defined by cough lasting ≥ 3 weeks) and compare it between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and without PTB. METHODS: Patients with pre-PTB (n=260) were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Those individuals with scores ≥ 10 were subsequently assessed with the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) to confirm diagnosis...
October 22, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Beatriz Lopez, Rosangela Siqueira de Oliveira, Juliana M W Pinhata, Erica Chimara, Edson Pacheco Ascencio, Zully M Puyén Guerra, Ingrid Wainmayer, Norberto Simboli, Mirtha Del Granado, Juan Carlos Palomino, Viviana Ritacco, Anandi Martin
Objectives: To describe the distributions of bedaquiline and linezolid MIC values for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis WT population and to define the corresponding epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) in three Latin American countries. Methods: MICs of bedaquiline and linezolid were determined by the resazurin microtitre assay (REMA). In phase 1, interlaboratory reproducibility was assessed using a panel of 10 fully susceptible M. tuberculosis strains. Phase 2 involved MIC determination for 248 clinical isolates from Argentina (n = 58), Brazil (n = 100) and Peru (n = 90) from patients who were treatment-naive for bedaquiline and linezolid...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
R A de Souza, J S Nery, D Rasella, R A Guimarães Pereira, M L Barreto, L Rodrigues, S M Pereira
BACKGROUND: Social protection can reduce poverty and act on the determinants of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and the Bolsa Família Programme on TB-related mortality in Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study in which the units of analysis were Brazilian municipalities between 2001 and 2012. The principal independent variables were the levels of coverage of the primary health care system and the conditional cash transfer programme...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Luciana N Avila, Vitor S P Gonçalves, Andres M Perez
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease, endemic in Brazil, with an impact on public health and trade. TB causes direct and indirect financial losses to infected farms and regions. Our study aimed at quantifying the risk of introduction of TB into TB-free herds of southern Bahia, Brazil, via movement of live cattle from other regions of the State. Results suggest that the annual risk of introducing TB into free farms of southern Bahia, either through legal or illegal trade of live cattle, is very low, varying, on average, between 0...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Carolina Maia Martins Sales, Mauro Niskier Sanchez, Walter Ramalho, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to analyze social factors involved in the spatial distribution and under-reporting of tuberculosis (TB) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study of the reported cases of TB between 2009 and 2011, according to census tracts. The outcome was TB incidence for the study period and the variables of exposure were proportions of literacy, inhabitants with an income of up to half the minimum monthly wage (MMW), and inhabitants associated with sewer mains or with access to safe drinking water...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Anália Zuleika de Castro, Adriana Rezende Moreira, Jaqueline Oliveira, Paulo Albuquerque Costa, Carolyne Lalucha Alves Lima Da Graça, Mauricio de Andrade Pérez, Afrânio Kritski, Maria Claudia Vater
INTRODUCTION: The molecular test Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) has been recommended for use in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, data on the cost of incorporating it under routine conditions in high-burden countries are scarce. The clinical impact and costs incurred in adopting the Xpert test in routine PTB diagnosis was evaluated in a prospective study conducted from November 2012 to November of 2013, in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The diagnostic and therapeutic cascade for TB treatment was evaluated using Xpert in the first stage (S1), and sputum smear microscopy (SSM) in the second stage (S2)...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
M B V Silveira, M A G Ferrarini, P O Viana, R C Succi, M T Terreri, B Costa-Carvalho, F Carlesse, M I de Moraes-Pinto
SETTING: As conclusive data on the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in paediatric TB are lacking, many guidelines do not recommend their use for TB diagnosis in this population in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of an IGRA by investigating its concordance with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the role of IGRAs in clinical management and treatment outcomes in children with TB. DESIGN: A historic cohort study was used to evaluate the performance of T-SPOT®...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
D M Pelissari, D C Kuhleis, P Bartholomay, D Barreira, C L P Oliveira, R S de Jesus, L A Possa, C A Jarczewski, L T Nemeth, N D de Araujo, P B L Alves, R de Souza, D Arakaki, D B Dal Molin, P Werlang, M Brouwer
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Brazil, particularly among prison inmates. OBJECTIVE: To assess TB prevalence by active case finding in a public prison in southern Brazil. DESIGN: Prison inmates were screened for TB using the presence of cough and chest X-ray (CXR) from October 2014 to August 2016. Presence of cough, irrespective of duration, and abnormal CXRs were further investigated using laboratory tests. RESULTS: Of 10 326 inmates screened, 196 had confirmed TB (1898/100 000 inmates screened)...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Alexandre Baumgarten, Juliana B Hilgert, Ione C Pinto, Fabiana C M Zacharias, Alexandre F Bulgarelli
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health problem in many countries, including Brazil. Primary health care (PHC) services are a set of important services with infrastructure and resources to diagnose, treat, and cure several diseases, including the TB.AimThe aim of this study is to analyse aspects of the facility infrastructure of Brazilian PHC, regarding the control and treatment of TB from a countrywide perspective. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on PHC services...
September 17, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Jennifer M Ross, Nathaniel J Henry, Laura A Dwyer-Lindgren, Andrea de Paula Lobo, Fatima Marinho de Souza, Molly H Biehl, Sarah E Ray, Robert C Reiner, Rebecca W Stubbs, Kirsten E Wiens, Lucas Earl, Michael J Kutz, Natalia V Bhattacharjee, Hmwe H Kyu, Mohsen Naghavi, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Brazil has high burdens of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, as previously estimated for the 26 states and the Federal District, as well as high levels of inequality in social and health indicators. We improved the geographic detail of burden estimation by modelling deaths due to TB and HIV and TB case fatality ratios for the more than 5400 municipalities in Brazil. METHODS: This ecological study used vital registration data from the national mortality information system and TB case notifications from the national communicable disease notification system from 2001 to 2015...
September 6, 2018: BMC Medicine
Maria Celeste de Freitas Quintero, Silvia Helena Figueiredo Vendramini, Maria de Lourdes Sperli Geraldes Santos, Marilene Rocha Dos Santos, Claudia Eli Gazetta, Luciano Garcia Lourenção, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes Soler, Sonia Aparecida da Cruz Oliveira, Natalia Sperli Geraldes Marin Dos Santos Sasaki, Maria Amélia Zanon Ponce, Anneliese Domingues Wysocki, Lucia Marina Scatena, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa
OBJETIVO : Evaluating access to tuberculosis diagnosis, from the perspective of patients. METHODS : Cross-sectional study with 108 tuberculosis patients. Data were collected using the brazilian instrument Primary Care Assessment Tool - PCAT-Brazil, adapted for attention to tuberculosis, including socio-economic and demographic indicators, location of diagnosis and diagnostic access tuberculosis. The analysis of the data was of frequency, average, standard deviation, confidence interval and Chi-square test...
January 2018: Revista de Salud Pública
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