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Michael Wurm, Anja Neumann, Jürgen Wasem, Janine Biermann-Stallwitz
OBJECTIVE: In Germany there are 3,100 new HIV infections per year (2016), mainly homosexual men and intravenous drug users. According to experts from Robert Koch Institute, about 30 % of people with HIV are diagnosed late, well past the optimal moment to start the antiretroviral therapy. The high rate of late presenters seems to be a strong argument for an intensification of voluntary counseling and testing services. The main objective of this literature analysis was to describe the barriers to HIV testing...
October 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Ines Georg, Manfred Wildner
The German National Action Plan for the implementation of the WHO goal of measles elimination still faces considerable challenges regarding reaching its goal of increasing adult's vaccination rates and better outbreak management. METHODS: The description of the target population group -adults born after 1970 - as well as other potentially vulnerable groups was carried out by means of a systematic literature review. A further systematic review outlines options for the prevention of new infections...
October 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Ranmini S Kularatne, Ronelle Niit, Jane Rowley, Tendesayi Kufa-Chakezha, Remco P H Peters, Melanie M Taylor, Leigh F Johnson, Eline L Korenromp
OBJECTIVES: To estimate trends in prevalence and incidence of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia in adult men and women in South Africa. METHODS: The Spectrum-STI tool estimated trends in prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia, fitting South African prevalence data. Results were used, alongside programmatic surveillance data, to estimate trends in incident gonorrhea cases resistant to first-line treatment, and the reporting gap of symptomatic male gonorrhea and chlamydia cases treated but not reported as cases of urethritis syndrome...
2018: PloS One
Sophie Neugebauer, Christina Wichmann, Sibylle Bremer-Streck, Stefan Hagel, Michael Kiehntopf
BACKGROUND: Adequate antibiotic treatment is a prerequisite for the successful treatment of systemic infections. Based on accumulating scientific evidence, a fixed dosage regimen can lead to insufficient and ineffective antibiotic therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified, but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of antimicrobials by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the development of personalized therapy regimens using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)...
October 12, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Sri Y Irda Sari, Deni K Sunjaya, Hana Shimizu-Furusawa, Chiho Watanabe, Ardini S Raksanagara
Fecal contamination in water sources is still found globally, especially in urban slum areas of mid-low income countries. Fecal contamination as an indicator of low levels of hygiene and sanitation practices as well as poor management of drinking water supply might increase the risk of waterborne diseases in developing countries like Indonesia. This study aimed to assess quality of all water sources in one of the urban slum settlements along a contaminated river basin in Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the period of August to October 2015...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Megan S McHenry, Edith Apondi, Carole I McAteer, Winstone M Nyandiko, Lydia J Fischer, Ananda R Ombitsa, Josephine Aluoch, Michael L Scanlon, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: Overwhelmed, under-trained medical staff working in resource-limited settings need efficient resources for HIV disclosure counselling. The objective of this study was to describe providers' experiences using tablet computers for disclosure-related counselling with HIV-infected children and their caregivers in western Kenya, with additional perspectives from adolescents. METHODS: A qualitative study design was implemented at three HIV clinics in western Kenya (Bumala, Busia and Port Victoria) within the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) partnership...
October 14, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Brian R Wood, Maren S Mann, Natalia Martinez-Paz, Kenton T Unruh, Mary Annese, David H Spach, John D Scott, Joanne D Stekler
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool to prevent HIV infection for at-risk individuals, but access requires medical providers to be aware of and comfortable with prescribing PrEP. Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) was started to support hepatitis C virus treatment in rural New Mexico, but has since expanded to train health practitioners to treat other medical conditions in other locations. Methods: In 2012, a Project ECHO telehealth program was launched to mentor community HIV practitioners in our region...
October 15, 2018: Sexual Health
Amna Riaz, Anser Maxood, Saeeda Abdullah, Kiran Saba, Shahab Ud Din, Shahreen Zahid
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pain of single versus multiple visit endodontic treatment after obturation in teeth with necrotic pulps and infected canals. METHODS: The randomized controlled study was conducted from January to June 2016 at Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental patients aged 18-60 years of either gender were selected who were subjected to computer-generated randomisation. Both maxillary and mandibular single rooted teeth till second premolar were included...
October 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Stelliana Goutzamanis, Joseph Doyle, Peter Higgs, Margaret Hellard
With approximately 71 million people chronically infected worldwide and 1.75 million new infections in 2015, hepatitis C virus remains a significant public health concern. In developed countries hepatitis C transmission is predominantly driven by the sharing of injecting equipment, placing people who inject drugs (PWID) at the greatest risk of infection. It is estimated that approximately half of the PWID population are hepatitis C antibody positive. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Anita J Campbell, Christopher C Blyth, Christopher J Hewison, Yu-Ping Chen, Leanne Gough, Zoy Goff, Asha C Bowen
AIM: Bacteraemia episodes were assessed to calculate a hospital-wide central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) rate per 1000 catheter-days. Secondary objectives were to describe risk factors, microbiology and outcomes of children with CLABSI. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at an Australian tertiary paediatric hospital in children <18 years who had blood culture sampling during the 2-year period, 2014-2015. All blood culture results were extracted from the hospital's laboratory information system...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
K Rivet Amico, Jessica Miller, Christopher Balthazar, Pedro Alonso Serrano, Jennifer Brothers, Sarah Zollweg, Sybil Hosek
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men is a critical part of the HIV prevention landscape in the US. Given the unique challenges and resources of young MSM negotiating safer sex practices, including PrEP, counseling and supportive discussions to optimize both PrEP use and sexual health protection more generally may facilitate reaching HIV prevention goals. Within the context of a large, open-label PrEP study (ATN110/113), support for sexual health promotion and PrEP use was provided through use of integrated Next Step Counseling (iNSC) as part of study visits...
October 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Xiang Ao, Yong Zhong, Xiaohe Yu, Mark Marshall, Tao Feng, Jianping Ning, Qiaoling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill neonates, and peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be a lifesaving option. In China, however, much of the equipment for PD in neonates is not available. We describe results with a novel system for PD, which has been developed locally to improve access to therapy and care for critically ill neonates requiring PD in China. METHODS: The system comprises a 14-gauge single-lumen central venous catheter serving as a PD catheter, inserted by Seldinger technique, with an adapted twin bag PD system...
October 12, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Patrícia Gonzaga Paulino, Marcus Sandes Pires, Claudia Bezerra da Silva, Maristela Peckle, Renata Lins da Costa, Gabriela Vivas Vitari, Joice Aparecida Rezende Vilela, Ana Paula Martinez de Abreu, Carlos Luiz Massard, Huarrisson Azevedo Santos
This cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study aims to investigate the epidemiology of Ehrlichia canis in healthy owned dogs from the Southeastern region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 390 households dogs. During the visits, an epidemiological questionnaire was filled out concerning the dogs' characteristics as well as the environments in which they lived. The variables were analyzed using a bivariate test, while the correlation analysis between the variables was performed via a phi test...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Corissa A J Miller, James R Young, Sonevilay Nampanya, Syseng Khounsy, Nagendrakumar B Singanallur, Wilna Vosloo, Ronello Abila, Samuel A Hamilton, Russell D Bush, Peter A Windsor
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a significant endemic transboundary animal disease in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). The disease has been shown to perpetuate the cycle of smallholder poverty through reduced animal production, plus limitations on market access for trading in livestock and their products. Despite significant national and multilateral efforts to control FMD over the past two decades, endemic FMD viruses (FMDVs) continue to circulate in Lao PDR...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maria I Poole, Inmaculada Sorribes, Harsh Vardhan Jain
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Individuals with chronic HCV infection and without access to treatment are at high risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a liver cancer that is rapidly fatal after diagnosis. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to HCV-driven carcinogenesis such as scarring of the liver, and chronic inflammation. Recent evidence indicates a direct role for HCV-encoded proteins themselves in oncogenesis of infected hepatocytes...
October 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Lai Wei, Ji Dong Jia, Fu Sheng Wang, Jun Qi Niu, Xu Min Zhao, Shengmei Mu, Li Wen Liang, Zaiqi Wang, Peggy Hwang, Michael N Robertson, Paul Ingravallo, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Bo Wei, Barbara Evans, George J Hanna, Rohit Talwani, Zhong Ping Duan, Konstantin Zhdanov, Pin-Nan Cheng, Tawesak Tanwandee, Van Kinh Nguyen, Jeong Heo, Vasily Isakov, Jacob George
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although treatment with direct-acting antivirals has dramatically improved morbidity and mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus infection, universal access to these medicines has been slow in the Asia-Pacific region and Russia. This study evaluated efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir in participants with HCV infection from Asia-Pacific countries and Russia (C-CORAL). METHODS: C-CORAL was a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Gabriel Alejandro Molina, Antonio Rolando Torres, Paul Sebastián Llerena, Alberto Yu, Andrea Carolina Sánchez, María Mercedes Cobo
Parasitic infections are still a burden in developing countries. The lack of sanitation and hygiene measures can result in an increase in morbidity and mortality due to parasitic infections. Surgery may be needed to treat serious complications caused by some of these parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasites and although infections are usually mild, severe complications, although rare, still exist. We present a case of a patient from the Ecuadorean Amazon region with limited access to drinking water...
October 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Issam I Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Harrys A Torres, Ehab Mouris Ayoub, Liliane Iskander Narouz, Jalen Bartek, Ray Hachem
Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, mostly with genotype 4 that is highly associated with severe fibrosis. As a consequence, hepatocellular carcinoma has become the leading cause of cancer in this country. Mauritania is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV and HCV could both be iatrogenically transmitted through infected blood products, infected needles, and medical equipment improperly sterilized. Adequate and efficient healthcare and public health measures with good surveillance programs, access for screening, prevention strategies, and successful treatment are needed to halt the spread of these diseases...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
John V Forrester, Paul G McMenamin, Samantha J Dando
Classically, the CNS is described as displaying immune privilege, as it shows attenuated responses to challenge by alloantigen. However, the CNS does show local inflammation in response to infection. Although pathogen access to the brain parenchyma and retina is generally restricted by physiological and immunological barriers, certain pathogens may breach these barriers. In the CNS, such pathogens may either cause devastating inflammation or benefit from immune privilege in the CNS, where they are largely protected from the peripheral immune system...
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Naomi Lince-Deroche, Craig van Rensburg, Jaqueline Roseleur, Busola Sanusi, Jane Phiri, Pam Michelow, Jennifer S Smith, Cindy Firnhaber
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer incidence is significant in countries, such as South Africa, with high burdens of both HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is largely preventable if dysplasia is diagnosed and treated early, but there is debate regarding the best approaches for screening and treatment, especially for low-resource settings. Currently South Africa provides Pap smears followed by colposcopic biopsy and LEEP if needed in its public health facilities. We estimated the costs and cost-effectiveness of two approaches for treating cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) among HIV-infected women, most of whom were taking antiretroviral treatment, at a public HIV treatment facility in Johannesburg, South Africa...
2018: PloS One
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