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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096068/transmission-dynamics-among-participants-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-upon-diagnosis-of-early-acute-hiv-1-infection-in-thailand
#1
Eugène Kroon, Phuc T Pham, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Rapee Trichavaroj, Donn J Colby, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Nittaya Phanuphak, Eric Sanders-Buell, Frits Van Griensven, Gustavo H Kijak, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich, Mark S De Souza, Sodsai Tovanabutra
OBJECTIVE: To assess transmission characteristics in a predominantly men who have sex with men (MSM) cohort initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART) immediately following diagnosis of acute HIV-1infection (AHI). METHODS: A longitudinal study (2009-2017) was performed in participants with AHI (n = 439) attending a single clinic in Bangkok. Plasma samples obtained prior to ART were used to obtain HIV-1 pol sequences and combined with clinical and epidemiologic data to assess transmission dynamics (cluster formation and size) using phylogenetic analysis...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096067/modeling-the-implementation-of-population-level-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-tuberculosis-control-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#2
Allison Shelton Rhines, Marcus William Feldman, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We model the epidemiological impact of providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to South African adolescents, among whom HIV prevalence is low, latent TB prevalence is high, and school-based programs may enable population-level coverage. METHODS: We simulate a dynamic compartmental model of age-structured HIV and TB co-epidemics in South Africa. HIV dynamics are modeled by infection status, CD4 count, and antiretroviral therapy; TB dynamics are modeled by disease stage, diagnosis, treatment, and IPT status...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096058/congenital-tuberculosis-a-new-concern-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#3
Desi M Newberry, Tracey Robertson Bell
BACKGROUND: Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in the United States. Recent immigration patterns to the United States have made the diagnosis of congenital TB an important public health issue. PURPOSE: To explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis for congenital TB. The implications for exposed healthcare professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting are also explored. METHODS/SEARCH STRATEGY: Relevant articles were accessed via PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096025/increasing-access-to-high-value-care-preventing-complications-in-common-disorders
#4
Lauren Brin Hermans, Bridget E Shields, Catharine B Garland, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, David Wargowski, Carrie Kovarik, Lisa M Arkin
Most infantile hemangiomas (IHs), the most common vascular tumors of childhood, evolve without complications; however 10% to 12% require specialty referral for treatment. To emphasize the complications of late referral, we present a case of necrotizing infection within a segmental IH leading to sepsis. Early evaluation by a pediatric dermatologist could have prevented this life-threatening and disfiguring complication. We discuss how teledermatology would enable rapid triage of such critical cases in underserved areas, increasing access to high-value care and optimizing outcomes for our most vulnerable patients...
August 10, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095785/an-original-suprapannicular-incision-technique-for-cesarean-delivery-in-the-morbidly-obese-parturient
#5
Nisha A Lakhi, Katherine Williamson, Michael L Moretti
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are at an increased risk of cesarean delivery and its associated wound complications. We present an alternative incision technique for obese parturients that avoids making a Pfannenstiel incision under the panniculus while still providing access to the lower uterine segment. TECHNIQUE: For our technique, an assistant uses Allis clamps to exert caudal traction on the patient's panniculus and a transverse skin incision is made under the umbilicus, 3 cm below the line joining the anterosuperior iliac crests...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095499/complication-and-failures-of-central-vascular-access-device-in-adult-critical-care-settings
#6
Mari Takashima, Jessica Schults, Gabor Mihala, Amanda Corley, Amanda Ullman
OBJECTIVES: To examine the proportion and rate of central venous access device failure and complications across central venous access device types in adult intensive care. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was undertaken in the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (MEDLINE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) in September 2017...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095346/currarino-syndrome-repair-of-the-dysraphic-anomalies-and-resection-of-the-presacral-mass-in-a-combined-neurosurgical-and-general-surgical-approach
#7
Michael D Cearns, Samantha Hettige, Paolo De Coppi, Dominic N P Thompson
OBJECTIVE It is well established that Currarino syndrome (CS) may be associated with spinal dysraphism. Here, the authors report on 10 CS patients with dysraphic anomalies who had undergone a combined neurosurgical and general surgical approach to repair the dysraphic anomalies and resect the presacral mass in a single operation. They discuss the spectrum of spinal dysraphism that may coexist in CS in the context of its developmental etiology. METHODS Children with a confirmed CS diagnosis who had undergone the combined operative approach were identified from a departmental database...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094942/-i-think-we-ve-had-a-health-screen-new-offshore-screening-new-refugee-health-guidelines-new-syrian-and-iraqi-cohorts-recommendations-reality-results-and-review
#8
Rachel C Heenan, Thomas Volkman, Simon Stokes, Shidan Tosif, Hamish Graham, Andrea Smith, David Tran, Georgia Paxton
AIM: To examine refugee health assessments in Syrian and Iraqi children in the context of changes to offshore immigration screening, updated Australian refugee health guidelines and the primary care refugee health model in Victoria. METHODS: This is a retrospective audit of Syrian and Iraqi children aged 0-17 years attending a specialist immigrant health service from January 2015 to September 2017. RESULTS: We saw 128 children (7 months-16 years, 64...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093906/construction-of-a-protective-vaccine-against-lipopolysaccharide-heterologous-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-based-on-expression-profiling-of-outer-membrane-proteins-during-infection
#9
Chang Liu, Xiaolei Pan, Bin Xia, Fei Chen, Yongxin Jin, Fang Bai, Gregory Priebe, Zhihui Cheng, Shouguang Jin, Weihui Wu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, which causes infectious disease in patients with cystic fibrosis and compromised immunity. P. aeruginosa is difficult to eradicate because of its intrinsic resistance to most traditional antibiotics as well as acquired resistance mechanisms after decades of antibiotic usage. A full understanding of the P. aeruginosa pathogenesis mechanisms is necessary for the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. To identify novel vaccine candidates, here we comprehensively examined the expression levels of all the known outer membrane proteins in two P...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091654/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-children-how-do-we-prevent-it-and-how-do-we-treat-it
#10
Anuli Nwaohiri, Sarah Schillie, Marc Bulterys, Athena P Kourtis
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is an important contributor to the worldwide burden of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Mother-to-child transmission of HCV ranges from 6-11% in different populations globally, but accurate estimates on the burden of pediatric HCV infection are limited because screening approaches are not consistent. Areas covered: The advent of new direct-acting antiviral agents that achieve very high rates of sustained virologic response, (representing virologic cure) with short (i...
August 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091449/preventing-congenital-toxoplasmosis-implementation-of-clinical-practice-guidelines
#11
Maria Biskupska, Adam Kujawa, Jacek Wysocki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate obstetric care of pregnant women with regard to prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Additionally, we attempted to determine the frequency of markers for past infection with Toxoplasma gondii in order to characterize the current significance of preventive measures in the Polish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis of the medical records - pregnancy charts of women who presented for delivery - was performed...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091137/factors-determining-the-choice-between-subcutaneous-or-transvenous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-in-poland-in-comparison-with-other-european-countries-a-sub-study-of-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-prospective-survey
#12
Ewa Jędrzejczyk-Patej, Serge Boveda, Zbigniew Kalarus, Michał Mazurek, Kinga Gościńska-Bis, Marek Kiliszek, Andrzej Przybylski, Tatjana S Potpara, Roland Tilz, Stefano Fumagalli, Nikolaos Dagres, Radosław Lenarczyk
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) may be alternative to transvenous ICD (TV-ICD). AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate factors which determine the use of S- versus TV-ICD in Polish patients in comparison with other European countries. METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent TV- or S-ICD implantation in centres, participating in European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) prospective snapshot survey, were included...
August 9, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090837/impact-of-a-multidisciplinary-infection-prevention-initiative-on-central-line-and-urinary-catheter-utilization-in-a-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#13
Suganya Chandramohan, Bhagyashri Navalkele, Ammara Mushtaq, Amar Krishna, John Kacir, Teena Chopra
Background: Prolonged central line (CL) and urinary catheter (UC) use can increase risk of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Methods: This interventional study conducted in a 76-bed long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) in Southeast Michigan was divided into 3 periods: pre-intervention (January 2015-June 2015), intervention (July-November 2015), and postintervention (December 2015-March 2017)...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090780/comparative-morbidity-profile-of-patients-attending-an-ayurveda-clinic-and-a-modern-medicine-clinic-of-a-primary-health-center-in-rural-haryana-india
#14
Shashi Kant, Ayush Lohiya, Farhad Ahamed, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Arvind Kumar Singh, Vijay Silan
Context: There is a paucity of data on the profile of patients accessing traditional systems of medicine. A comparison of profile of patients attending an Ayurveda clinic with that of modern medicine clinic will help in better understanding of utilization of services and preference for system of medicine by the patients seeking health care. Aim: The aim was to study the morbidity profile of patients who attended the Ayurveda clinic of a primary health center (PHC) in rural Haryana over 1 year and compared it with that of the modern medicine clinic attendees at the same facility...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087831/-bordetella-pertussis-and-bordetella-bronchiseptica-filamentous-hemagglutinins-are-processed-at-different-sites
#15
David Jurnecka, Petr Man, Peter Sebo, Ladislav Bumba
Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) mediates adherence and plays an important role in lower respiratory tract infections by pathogenic Bordetellae . The mature FHA proteins of B. pertussis (Bp-FHA) and the B. bronchiseptica (Bb-FHA) are generated by processing of the respective FhaB precursors by the autotransporter subtilisin-type protease SphB1. We have used bottom-up proteomics with differential 16 O/18 O labeling and show that despite high-sequence conservation of the corresponding FhaB segments, the mature Bp-FHA (~ 230 kDa) and Bb-FHA (~ 243 kDa) proteins are processed at different sites of FhaB, after the Ala-2348 and Lys-2479 residues, respectively...
August 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087756/a-novel-approach-for-the-management-and-prevention-of-self-induced-masticatory-lingual-trauma-in-the-neurologically-injured-patient
#16
REVIEW
Yash Avashia, Peter Bittar, Visakha Suresh, David B Powers
Self-induced masticatory trauma is an unfortunate complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, including epileptic seizures, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, psychiatric disease, and brain trauma, in addition to other described etiologies. While single or occasional occurrences of tongue biting are relatively benign, recurrent self-injury can pose major issues and predispose a patient to chronic, severe complications. To prevent the complications associated with ongoing trauma to the tongue, steps must be taken to protect individuals from chronic self-injurious behavior...
September 2018: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087741/tuberculosis-in-the-prisons-in-the-republic-of-macedonia-2008-2017
#17
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Karolina Pilovska-Spasovska, Ljiljana Simonovska, Vladimir Mitreski
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in penitentiary institutions (prisons), and its prevalence was reported to be multiple times higher compared to that of the general population. Conditions such as overcrowding, malnutrition and limited access to medical care which often exist in prisons increase the risk of reactivation, transmission and poor prognosis of tuberculosis disease among inmates. AIM: The main objective of this study was to present the epidemiological situation of TB in the prisons from 2008 till 2017 in the Republic of Macedonia (RM)...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087070/efficacy-and-safety-of-ultrasound-guided-totally-implantable-venous-access-ports-via-the-right-innominate-vein-in-adult-patients-with-cancer-single-centre-experience-and-protocol
#18
Xingwei Sun, Jin Xu, Rui Xia, Caishan Wang, Ziyang Yu, Jian Zhang, Xuming Bai, Yong Jin
BACKGROUND: Totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are widely used and are an essential tool in the efficient delivery of chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of implantation of ultrasound (US)-guided TIVAPs via the right innominate vein (INV) for adult patients with cancer. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 283 adult patients with cancer who underwent US-guided INV puncture for TIVAPs between September 2015 and September 2017...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087047/factors-influencing-vaccine-acceptance-and-hesitancy-in-three-informal-settlements-in-lusaka-zambia
#19
Miguel Pugliese-Garcia, Leonard Heyerdahl, Chanda Mwamba, Sharon Nkwemu, Roma Chilengi, Rachel Demolis, Elise Guillermet, Anjali Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Heterogeneous coverage threatens to compromise the effectiveness of immunization programs in Zambia. Demand-creation initiates are needed to address this; however, there is incomplete understanding of why vaccine coverage is suboptimal. We investigated overarching perceptions on vaccine acceptability, hesitancy, and accessibility at three informal settlements in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Nested within a cholera vaccination uptake study, we sought to understand overarching perceptions on vaccines' hesitancy in three informal settlements in Lusaka, Zambia...
August 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086999/catheter-related-infections-in-patients-with-acute-type-ii-intestinal-failure-admitted-to-a-national-centre-incidence-and-outcomes
#20
A Bond, A Teubner, M Taylor, C Cawley, J Varden, A Abraham, P R Chadwick, M Soop, G L Carlson, S Lal
INTRODUCTION: The management of intestinal failure (IF) requires safe and sustained delivery of parenteral nutrition (PN). The long-term maintenance of central venous catheter (CVC) access is therefore vital, with meticulous catheter care and salvage of infected CVCs being of prime importance. CVC-related infection and loss of intravenous access are important causes of morbidity and mortality in IF. Avoidance, prompt recognition and appropriate management of CVC-related infections are crucial components of IF care...
July 27, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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