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Carla Fornaro, Maria Piubeni, Valeria Tovazzi, Deborah Cosentini, Maria Gelmi, Gabriella Rota, Barbara Berta, Wilma Barucco, Eleonora Lombardi, Luisa Moles, Tiziana Faustini, Tiziana Fettolini, Paolo Motta, Vittorio D Ferrari, Alfredo Berruti, Elisabetta Conti
Port-a-cath (PAC) system is one of the most frequently employed venous accesses for administration of chemotherapy and supportive care. To prevent late complications, the latest guidelines recommend flushing/locking procedures every four weeks. In this retrospective study, we evaluate the frequencies of late complications with a eight-week flushing/locking procedure compared to the standard one. This study retrospectively compares the frequency of complications occurred using standard versus delayed flushing schedules...
December 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
I Olaposi Omotuyi, Oyekanmi Nash, David Safronetz, A Ayodeji Ojo, H Tomisin Ogunwa, S Niyi Delakun
Lassa virus infection is clinically characterized by multi-organ failure in humans. Without an FDA-approved vaccine, ribavirin is the frontline drug for treatment but with attendant toxicities. 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide (T-705) is an emerging alternative drug with proven anti-Lassa virus activity in experimental model. One of the mechanisms of action is its incorporation into nascent single strand RNA (ssRNA) which forms complex with Lassa nucleoprotein (LASV-NP). Here, using Molecular Dynamics simulation, the structural and electrostatics changes associated with LASV-NP- ssRNA complex has been studied when none, one or four of its bases has been substituted with T-705...
December 10, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Léanne Swart, Elise Schapkaitz, Johnny N Mahlangu
INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is associated with high mortality if not managed timeously with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). TTP secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unique to sub-Saharan Africa. The management and outcome of TTP in the era of improved access to therapy has not been described. METHODS: The present study describes the clinical presentation, treatment, therapeutic endpoints, and outcome of TTP patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Richard K Gast, Prafulla Regmi, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-laying flocks is a prominent public health concern because contaminated eggs cause human illness. Deposition of this pathogen inside eggs results from bacterial colonization of reproductive tissues in infected hens. Environmental conditions can influence avian Salmonella infections, but the food safety consequences of different poultry housing systems remain uncertain. The present study assessed the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens of four commercial genetic lines (designated as white egg lines W1 and W2 and brown egg lines B1 and B2)...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Fernanda Medina, Vanina Meyssonnier, Valérie Zeller, Beate Heym, Jean-Marc Ziza, Simon Marmor
Introduction: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can be acquired hematogenously from a distant site or device. Notably, 30%-40% of patients with PJIs have Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. No case reports or series of PJIs acquired from totally implantable venous-access device (TIVAD) infection or colonization have been published. This study was undertaken to describe epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and radiological characteristics of such PJIs, their treatments and outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients, identified in a prospective French Bone-and-Joint Infections Referral Center cohort treated between 2004 and 2017, with PJI secondary to TIVAD infection, with the same microbiologically documented microorganism isolated from both...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Emmanuel C Eze, Hafizah Y Chenia, Mohamed E El Zowalaty
Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of nosocomial infections due to its increased antibiotic resistance and virulence. The ability of A. baumannii to form biofilms contributes to its survival in adverse environmental conditions including hospital environments and medical devices. A. baumannii has undoubtedly propelled the interest of biomedical researchers due to its broad range of associated infections especially in hospital intensive care units. The interplay among microbial physicochemistry, alterations in the phenotype and genotypic determinants, and the impact of existing ecological niche and the chemistry of antimicrobial agents has led to enhanced biofilm formation resulting in limited access of drugs to their specific targets...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Janet Saul, Gretchen Bachman, Shannon Allen, Nora F Toiv, Caroline Cooney, Ta'Adhmeeka Beamon
In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are 5 to 14 times more likely to be infected with HIV than their male peers. Every day, more than 750 AGYW are infected with HIV. Many factors make girls and young women particularly vulnerable to HIV, including gender-based violence, exclusion from economic opportunities, and a lack of access to secondary school. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is dedicating significant resources through the Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe (DREAMS) partnership to impact the lives of women and girls based on PEPFAR's mission to help countries achieve epidemic control of HIV/AIDS...
2018: PloS One
Lucy Platt, Pippa Grenfell, Rebecca Meiksin, Jocelyn Elmes, Susan G Sherman, Teela Sanders, Peninah Mwangi, Anna-Louise Crago
BACKGROUND: Sex workers are at disproportionate risk of violence and sexual and emotional ill health, harms that have been linked to the criminalisation of sex work. We synthesised evidence on the extent to which sex work laws and policing practices affect sex workers' safety, health, and access to services, and the pathways through which these effects occur. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched bibliographic databases between 1 January 1990 and 9 May 2018 for qualitative and quantitative research involving sex workers of all genders and terms relating to legislation, police, and health...
December 2018: PLoS Medicine
Sonali Wayal, Catherine R H Aicken, Catherine Griffiths, Paula B Blomquist, Gwenda Hughes, Catherine H Mercer
BACKGROUND: In the UK, people of black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity continue to be disproportionately affected by bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between bacterial STIs/TV and ethnicity (BC compared to white/white British (WB)) accounting for other risk factors; and differences between these two ethnic groups in the prevalence of risk factors associated with these STIs, sexual healthcare seeking behaviours, and contextual factors influencing STI risk...
2018: PloS One
Ian Lockart, Gail V Matthews, Mark Danta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The scale-up of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and introduction of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has changed the epidemiology of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. RECENT FINDINGS: Sexually acquired HCV continues to occur predominantly amongst HIV-positive MSM. Despite an increased uptake of DAA therapy the incidence of acute HCV has not declined consistently amongst HIV-positive MSM, likely a result of high infection and reinfection rates...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Suwellen S D de Azevedo, Edson Delatorre, Fernanda H Côrtes, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso, Thiago Moreno L Souza, Mariza G Morgado, Gonzalo Bello
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of intersubtype HIV-1 superinfection (SI) on viremia, reservoir reseeding, viral evolution, and disease progression in HIV controllers (HIC). DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of two Brazilian HIC subjects (EEC09 and VC32) previously identified as dually infected with subtypes B and F1 viruses. METHODS: Changes in plasma viremia, total HIV-1 DNA levels, CD4 T cell counts and HIV-1 quasispecies composition were measured over time...
November 27, 2018: AIDS
Weiwei Mu, Adam W Bartlett, Torsak Bunupuradah, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Penh Sun Ly, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Nguyen Van Lam, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Thahira A Jamal Mohamed, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Truong Huu Khanh, Do Chau Viet, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy Nallusamy, Nia Kurniati, Dewi Kumara Wati, Annette H Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Fujie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Virologic failure is a major threat to maintaining effective combination antiretroviral therapy, especially for children in need of lifelong treatment. With efforts to expand access to HIV viral load testing, our understanding of pediatric virologic failure is evolving. SETTING: An Asian cohort in16 pediatric HIV services across six countries. METHODS: From 2005-2014 patients aged <20 years who achieved virologic suppression and had subsequent viral load testing were included...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Margot Latimer, Sharon Rudderham, Lynn Lethbridge, Emily MacLeod, Katherine Harman, John R Sylliboy, Corey Filiaggi, G Allen Finley
BACKGROUND: Indigenous youth have higher rates of chronic health conditions interfering with healthy development, including high rates of ear, dental, chest and musculoskeletal pain, as well as headache, arthritis and mental health issues. This study explores differences in pain-related diagnoses in First Nations and non-First Nations children. METHODS: Data from a study population of age- and sex-matched First Nations and non-First Nations children and youth were accessed from a specific region of Atlantic Canada...
December 10, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Helena Rabie, Paolo Denti, Janice Lee, Mhleli Masango, Ashraf Coovadia, Sandy Pillay, Afaaf Liberty, François Simon, Helen McIlleron, Mark F Cotton, Marc Lallemant
BACKGROUND: Rifampicin reduces lopinavir concentrations in HIV and tuberculosis co-treated patients. We hypothesised that adding ritonavir to co-formulated lopinavir-ritonavir (4:1) to achieve a one-to-one ratio would overcome this drug-drug interaction in young children. METHODS: We did a prospective, open-label, one-group, one-sequence study at five sites in three South African provinces. We included HIV-infected children with tuberculosis, a bodyweight of 3-15 kg, and a post-conceptional age of more than 42 weeks...
December 6, 2018: Lancet HIV
Theodoros Kratimenos, Constantine N Antonopoulos, Dimitrios Tomais, Panagiotis Dedeilias, Vasileios Patris, Ilias Samiotis, John Kokotsakis, Dimosthenis Farsaris, Michalis Argiriou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to present the results for patients with atherosclerotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) treated with a novel thoracic stent graft. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed. We extracted demographic variables as well as atherosclerotic comorbidities and operation-related and imaging-related data from patients' medical records. We estimated technical success rate, in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and mortality at the end of follow-up as well as complication and reintervention rate in our study cohort...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Young Erben, Gustavo S Oderich, Hence J M Verhagen, Maarten Witsenburg, Allard T van den Hoven, Eike S Debus, Tilo Kölbel, Frank R Arko, Giovanni B Torsello, Giovanni F Torsello, Peter F Lawrence, Michael P Harlander-Locke, J Michael Bacharach, William D Jordan, Mark K Eskandari, Donald J Hagler
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of endovascular treatment of aortic coarctation in adults. METHODS: Clinical data and imaging studies of 93 consecutive patients treated at nine institutions from 1999 to 2015 were reviewed. We included newly diagnosed aortic coarctation (NCO), recurrent coarctation, and aneurysmal/pseudoaneurysmal degeneration (ANE) after prior open surgical repair (OSR) of coarctation. Primary end points were morbidity and mortality...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jason K Wagner, Ellen Dillavou, Uttara Nag, Adham Abou Ali, Sandra Truong, Rabih Chaer, Eric Hager, Theodore Yuo, Michel Makaroun, Efthymios D Avgerinos
BACKGROUND: No independent comparisons, with midterm follow-up, of standard arteriovenous grafts (SAVGs) and immediate-access arteriovenous grafts (IAAVGs) exist. The goal of this study was to compare "real-world" performance of SAVGs and IAAVGs. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a hemodialysis graft between November 2014 and April 2016 were retrospectively identified from the electronic medical record and Vascular Quality Initiative database at two tertiary centers...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Hiren Patel, Sebastian Suarez, Lance Shaull, Jeffrey Edwards, Zaid Altawil, Joseph Owuor, Debora Rogo, Kevin Schwartz, Luate Richard, Thomas F Burke
BACKGROUND: Emergency care is a neglected area of focus in many low- and middle-income countries. There is a paucity of research on types and frequencies of acute illnesses and injuries in low-resource settings. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics and emergency conditions of patients that presented to a new emergency care center (ECC) at Sagam Community Hospital in Luanda, Kenya. METHODS: Patient demographic characteristics, modes of arrival, chief symptoms, triage priorities, self-reported human immunodeficiency virus status, tests performed, interventions, discharge diagnoses, and dispositions were collected for all patients that presented to the Sagam Community Hospital ECC...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Osama Shaeer, Kamal Shaeer, Islam Fathi AbdelRahman
INTRODUCTION: A shorter penis is a frequent complaint following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI), and a large redundant suprapubic fat pad can conceal the penis and possibly compromise patient and partner satisfaction with length. AIM: To evaluate feasibility and outcome of same-session, same-incision, PPI and suprapubic lipectomy (SPL). METHODS: In 22 patients, SPL was performed through an abdominal crease incision. Through the same incision, the superficial perineal pouch was opened to gain access to the base of the penis...
December 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Jenna E Coalson, Lauren M Cohee, Jenny A Walldorf, Andrew Bauleni, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Mark L Wilson, Miriam K Laufer
Prompt and effective treatment is key to malaria control and prevention, as it reduces disease morbidity and mortality and minimizes the number of transmission reservoirs. Transmission reduction may be particularly important among school-age children (SAC, 5-15 years old), who have the highest prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in southern Malawi. We hypothesized that one factor contributing to this difference in prevalence is that SAC are less likely to seek appropriate treatment for fever than children younger than 5 years...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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