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Diagnosis of cancer

Dongsheng Zhang, Weixiang Li, Zhanfang Ma, Hongliang Han
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gold-standard method for protein detection, has been widely utilized in disease diagnosis. Nevertheless, the method is constrained by its dependence on a colorimetric readout that, due to its relatively low sensitivity, prevents its use in tumor marker detection. Here we demonstrate an ELISA that incorporates an electro-readout mode in place of a colorimetric readout to achieve ultrasensitive and convenient tumor marker detection. Briefly, because hemin molecules supported by carbon sphere (CS) can catalyze dye degradation upon H2 O2 addition, CS incorporating hemin was employed as a label...
December 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Admire Chikandiwa, Pedro T Pisa, Mazvita Sengayi, Elvira Singh, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
BACKGROUND: HPV infection causes several cancers which include cervical, vaginal, vulval, penile and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Understanding the burden of HPV-related cancers is important for guiding cancer prevention and treatment interventions. METHODS: To inform policy, we analysed trends of age-standardised incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for HPV-related head and neck (HNC) and anogenital cancers (AGC) in South Africa between 1994 and 2013. RESULTS: A total of 1 028 330 incident cancers and 617 044 cancer-related deaths were reported during the study period...
December 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Nabihah Tayob, Israel Christie, Peter Richardson, Ziding Feng, Donna L White, Jessica Davila, Douglas A Corley, Fasiha Kanwal, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through surveillance reduces mortality associated with this cancer. Guidelines recommend HCC surveillance every 6 months for patients with cirrhosis, via ultrasonography, with or without measurement of serum level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). METHODS: We previously developed and internally validated an HCC early detection screening (HES) algorithm that included patient's current level of AFP, rate of AFP change, age, level of alanine aminotransferase, and platelet count in a department of Veterans affairs (VA) cohort with active hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis...
December 14, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Apar Gupta, Atif J Khan, Sharad Goyal, Rihan Millevoi, Natalia Elsebai, Salma K Jabbour, Ning J Yue, Bruce G Haffty, Rahul R Parikh
PURPOSE: Prior authorization (PA) has been widely implemented for proton beam therapy (PBT). We sought to determine the association between PA determination and patient characteristics, practice guidelines, and potential treatment delays. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A single-institution retrospective analysis was performed of all patients considered for PBT between 2015 and 2018 at a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Differences in treatment start times and denial rates over time were compared and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of initial denial...
December 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Zhi Gang Hu, Wen Xin Li, Yu Shu Ruan, Fan Jun Zeng
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to estimate the trends in 5-year incidence of metachronous second primary lung cancer(SPLC) and to establish a risk prediction model to identify candidates who were at high risk of developing metachronous SPLC. METHODS: Incidence data between 2004 and 2007 were obtained from SEER database, including 42453 participants who survived ≥ 2 years after the initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to calculate the 5-year incidence rates of metachronous SPLC per 100 000 population...
2018: PloS One
Seiji Hosokawa, Satoru Takebayashi, Yutaka Sasaki, Yuuki Nakamura, Kazuya Shinmura, Goro Takahashi, Hiroyuki Mineta
BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is frequently used for initial and/or preoperative diagnosis of tumors in the head and neck region. However, false-negative results can lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic results of FNA in the head and neck region and the reasons for false-negative cases. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,341 patients with pathologically confirmed head and neck tumors in whom FNA was performed before surgery or biopsy in the Otolaryngology Department at Numazu City Hospital between 2002 and 2016...
December 17, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
F Qiu, W-G Gu, C Li, S-L Nie, F Yu
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to investigate the expression level and diagnostic value of miR-19 miR-21 in peripheral blood of patients with undifferentiated lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 58 patients with undifferentiated lung cancer hospitalized in the oncology department of The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from September 2014 to May 2017 were selected as the experimental group, and 42 healthy volunteers in the same period as the control group at the same time...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-X Li, X Di, S Cong, Y Wang, K Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic role of microRNA let-7 in lung cancer and the relationship between the expression of HMGA2 and clinical significance of lung cancer by meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies on the correlation between the low expression of let-7 and the prognosis of lung cancer, and between the expression of HMGA2 and the occurrence and development of NSCLC were identified by searching PubMed, Web of the Science, Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, CNKI, CBM, and VIP databases...
December 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yong Li, Xin Shou, Weilei Hu, Tingting Ye, Guosheng Wang, Feng Xu, Meihua Sui, Yibing Xu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in men and the third most common in women. Although long-term survival has improved over the past 30 years, at least 50% of patients with CRC will develop metastases after diagnosis. In this study, we examined whether quantifying the mRNAs of six CRC-related genes in the blood could improve disease assessment through detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and thereby improve progression prediction in relapsed CRC patients. Cell spiking assay and RT-PCR were performed with blood samples from healthy volunteers spiked with six CRC cell lines to generate an algorithm, herein defined as Six-gene Assay, based on six genes (CEA, EpCAM, CK19, MUC1, EGFR and C-Met) for CTC detection...
December 17, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Yaqiong Zhang, Yong Wang, Huaidong Liu, Bo Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and the third of cancer mortality worldwide. Although the study of HCC has made great progress, the molecular mechanism and signal pathways of HCC are not yet clear. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the early diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers for HCC. The aim of this study is to screen the relevant genes and study the association of gene expression with the survival status of HCC patients using bioinformatics approaches, in the hope of establishing marker genes for diagnosis and prognosis of HCC...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Muriel Assunta Musti, Natalina Collina, Elisa Stivanello, Roberta Bonfiglioli, Stefano Giordani, Carla Morelli, Paolo Pandolfi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors often perceive reduced work ability upon returning to work. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of perceived reduced work ability following return to work among women treated for breast cancer and to describe workplace interventions and support after returning to work. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 18-65 years-old women (no. 1578) treated for breast cancer and residing in the catchment area of the Bologna Local Health Authority between 2010 and 2012...
December 20, 2018: La Medicina del Lavoro
Mathias Buus Lanng, Cecilie Brochdorff Møller, Anne-Sofie Hendrup Andersen, Ásgerður Arna Pálsdóttir, Rasmus Røge, Lasse Riis Østergaard, Alex Skovsbo Jørgensen
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women worldwide. Ki67 can be used as an immunohistochemical pseudo marker for cell proliferation to determine how aggressive the cancer is and thereby the treatment of the patient. No standard Ki67 staining protocol exists, resulting in inter-laboratory stain variability. Therefore, it is important to determine the quality control of a staining protocol to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment of patients. Currently, quality control is performed by the organization NordiQC that use an expert panel-based qualitative assessment system...
December 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Wei Liu, Songyun Ouyang, Zhigang Zhou, Meng Wang, Tingting Wang, Yu Qi, Chunling Zhao, Kuisheng Chen, Liping Dai
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for approximately 40% of all lung cancer patients. There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression in LUAD and to identify useful biomarkers to predict prognosis. METHODS: In this study, Oncomine database was used to identify potential genes contributed to cancer progression. Bioinformatics analysis including pathway enrichment and text mining was used to explain the potential roles of identified genes in LUAD...
December 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Rafi Kabarriti, Sujith Baliga, Nitin Ohri, Chandan Guha, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur K Garg
BACKGROUND: To assess the association between radiation therapy (RT) use and overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). METHODS: We analyzed the National Cancer Database to identify patients with newly diagnosed metastatic HNSCC from 2004 to 2013 who were treated with up-front chemotherapy. Associations between the use of RT and OS were evaluated. RESULTS: We identified 3516 patients with metastatic HNSCC who were treated with chemotherapy; 2288 (65%) were also treated with RT...
December 16, 2018: Head & Neck
Yuhao Hu, Wanyi Tang, Pan Cheng, Quanyu Zhou, Xiaoying Tian, Xunbin Wei, Hao He
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a key role in cancer metastasis but are very difficult to detect. in vivo monitoring CTCs has been recognized as an important technique for cancer research and clinical diagnosis. Recently, a noninvasive method, in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has been developed to enable continuous, real-time, and long-duration detection of CTCs in animal models by detecting CTC fluorescence in blood vessels excited by lasers. In this study, we present a simple optical scheme for direct noninvasive CTC detection using confocal microscopes...
December 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Andrew C Poon, Jordon M Inkol, Anita K Luu, Anthony J Mutsaers
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a common bone tumor of mesenchymal origin in dogs. Chemotherapy delays metastasis, yet most dogs die of this disease within 1 year of diagnosis. The high metabolic demand of cancer cells promotes proton pump upregulation, leading to acidification of the tumor microenvironment and chemoresistance. The potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride is among a class of proton pump inhibitors prescribed for refractory heart failure treatment in dogs. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that amiloride treatment improves chemotherapy response by reducing acidification in canine OSA cells...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Anna S Holmqvist, Yanjun Chen, Jennifer Berano Teh, Canlan Sun, Jillian M Birch, Cor van den Bos, Lisa R Diller, Kimberley Dilley, Jill Ginsberg, Laura T Martin, Rajaram Nagarajan, Paul C Nathan, Joseph P Neglia, Monica Terenziani, David Tishler, Anna T Meadows, Leslie L Robison, Odile Oberlin, Smita Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in childhood have an increased risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). Herein, the authors extended the follow-up of a previously reported Late Effects Study Group cohort and identified patients at highest risk for SMNs to create evidence for risk-based screening recommendations. METHODS: The standardized incidence ratio was calculated using rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program as a reference...
December 17, 2018: Cancer
Joann G Elmore, David E Elder, Raymond L Barnhill, Stevan R Knezevich, Gary M Longton, Linda J Titus, Martin A Weinstock, Margaret S Pepe, Heidi D Nelson, Lisa M Reisch, Andrea C Radick, Michael W Piepkorn
IMPORTANCE: The recently updated American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification of cancer staging, the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual , 8th edition ( AJCC 8 ), includes revisions to definitions of T1a vs T1b or greater. The Melanoma Pathology Study database affords a comparison,of pathologists' concordance and reproducibility in the microstaging of melanoma according to both the existing 7th edition (AJCC 7 ) and the new AJCC 8 . OBJECTIVE: To compare AJCC 7 and AJCC 8 to examine whether changes to the definitions of T1a and T1b or greater are associated with changes in concordance and reproducibility...
May 2018: JAMA network open
Rotana Alsaggaf, Diane Marie M St George, Min Zhan, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Youjin Wang, Kathryn R Wagner, Mark H Greene, Sania Amr, Shahinaz M Gadalla
Background: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited trinucleotide repeat disorder in which specific cancers have been implicated as part of the disease phenotype. This study aimed to assess whether cancer risk in DM1 patients is modified by disease severity. Methods: Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (primary care electronic medical records), we identified a cohort of 927 DM1 and a matched cohort of 13 085 DM1-free individuals between January 1, 1988 and February 29, 2016...
November 2018: JNCI cancer spectrum
Diane Baylis, Julie Price, Paul Bowie
Background and aims: Laboratory test results management systems are a complex safety issue in primary care settings worldwide. Related failures lead to avoidable patient harm, medicolegal action, patient complaints and additional workload to problem solve identified issues. We aimed to review and learn from 50 clinical negligence cases involving system failures related to the management of test results. Methods: The Medical Protection Society database was searched and a convenience sample of 50 claims identified from a 3-year period covering 2014-2016...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
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