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Diagnosis of cancer

Manjari Bhamidipati, Hyeon-Yeol Cho, Ki Bum Lee, Laura Fabris
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based biosensors have been used increasingly over the past few years for cancer detection and diagnosis. SERS-based imaging offers excellent sensitivity and has advantages over other detection techniques such as fluorescence. In this study, we developed a novel biosensor to detect the cancer biomarker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and quantify its expression at the single cell level. EpCAM is one of the most commonly expressed markers on a variety of cancer cells; importantly it has been suggested that reduction of its expression levels could be associated to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus to the onset of metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Ercan Yilmaz, Mehmet Gul, Rauf Melekoglu, Isil Koleli
PURPOSE: To investigate the place of the transcription factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB), which is a marker of chronic inflammation, in the etiology of the ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: NFkB analysis with the immunohistochemical method has been performed. To evaluate immunohistochemical NF-kB expression in the ovarian tissue, the H-score method. H-score = ∑ Pi (i+1), where ''Pi'' is the percentage of stained cells in each intensity category (0-100%) and ''i'' is the intensity indicating weak (i=1), moderate (i=2) or strong staining (i=3)...
July 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Nilgun Yildirim, Aykut Bahceci
Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of breast cancer. Until now, there have been no reports on the use of pertuzumab during pregnancy and on its potential effects on the fetus. Herein, we present a breast cancer patient who received trastuzumab and pertuzumab treatment during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. This 22-year-old patient initially diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found to be negative for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor in the immunohistochemical examination...
September 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Deepti Chopra, Richard De La Garza
OBJECTIVE: Body image is a vital and complex issue in cancer patients, but not well recognized. In the ambulatory psychiatric-oncology clinic, we assessed what portion of cancer patients endorsed appearance problems and if they differed in terms of depression, anxiety, or distress scores when compared with those who did not endorse appearance problems. METHOD: All adult patients with active cancer diagnosis seen in the outpatient psychiatry oncology clinic (June 2014-January 2016) who provided informed consent were included (N = 1,939) in the cross-sectional study design...
August 15, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Tima Davidson, Michal M Ravid, Ella Nissan, Mirriam Sklair-Levy, Johnatan Nissan, Bar Chikman
BACKGROUND: When a breast lesion is suspected based on a physical exam, mammography, or ultrasound, a stereotactic core needle biopsy (CNB) is usually performed to help establish a definitive diagnosis. CNBs are far less invasive than excisional biopsies, with no need for general anesthetics or hospitalization, and no recovery period. However, since only samples of the mass are removed in a CNB and not the whole mass, sampling errors can occur. OBJECTIVES: To compare the degree of agreement between the pathological data from CNBs and excisional biopsies from a single tertiary referral hospital...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Theresa Nguyen Wenker, Mimi C Tan, Yan Liu, Hashem B El-Serag, Aaron P Thrift
BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce mortality from esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) have focused on screening and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE). AIMS: We sought to determine the frequency of prior diagnosis of BE in patients with EA and to evaluate the impact of a prior BE diagnosis on mortality in EA patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with EA in the VA during 2002-2016. We compared the distributions of EA stage and receipt of treatment between EA patients with and without a prior BE diagnosis and used Cox proportional hazards models to compare mortality risk (all-cause and cancer specific) unadjusted and adjusted for stage and treatment to assess their impact on any survival differences...
August 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Angela C Tramontano, Ryan Nipp, Nathaniel D Mercaldo, Chung Yin Kong, Deborah Schrag, Chin Hur
BACKGROUND: Survival outcome disparities among esophageal cancer patients exist, but are not fully understood. AIMS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database to determine whether survival differences among racial/ethnic patient populations persist after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: Our study included T1-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2011...
August 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Takeshi Urade, Shigeteru Oka, Shinya Iimori, Mariko Man-I, Tomoki Abe, Hidehiro Sawa, Yoshiteru Iwatani, Yukiko Morinaga, Daisuke Kuroda
Gallbladder metastasis from breast cancer, especially from ductal carcinoma, is rare. Herein, we report a rare case of gallbladder metastasis from ductal carcinoma of the breast that was diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for acute cholecystitis. A 78-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal tenderness and positive Murphy's sign during chemotherapy for advanced multiple metastases of the breast cancer. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a slightly thickened gallbladder wall and two calculi...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Chieko Kawakita, Masaru Kinomura, Yoshie Gon, Chika Okita, Katsuyoshi Katayama, Mana Nishikawa, Noriaki Shimada, Kenji Notohara, Masaki Fukushima, Kenichiro Asano
A 40-year-old male was hospitalized with renal impairment and severe hypercalcemia. His concentration of serum IgG4 was high, but serum whole PTH, 1-25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and PTHrP were not elevated. Computed tomography showed swelling of the bilateral lacrimal glands and systemic lymphadenopathy. The histological findings of lacrimal gland biopsy fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4ROD). Bone scintigraphy showed increased ectopic uptake in the stomach, heart, lungs, and kidneys...
August 14, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Thierry Almont, Fadila Farsi, Ivan Krakowski, Rabih El Osta, Pierre Bondil, Éric Huyghe
PURPOSE: To assess, focusing on population of healthcare professionals providing oncosexology care to men with cancer, clinical practice, attitudes, knowledge, communication, and professional interaction. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study with an online self-administered e-questionnaire addressed to all medical, paramedical, or administrative professionals attending the 4th "Cancer, Sexuality and Fertility" Meeting in Toulouse, France...
August 14, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Leonardo L Monteiro, J Alfred Witjes, Piyush K Agarwal, Christopher B Anderson, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Bernard H Bochner, Joost L Boormans, Sam S Chang, Jose L Domínguez-Escrig, James M McKiernan, Colin Dinney, Guilherme Godoy, Girish S Kulkarni, Paramananthan Mariappan, Michael A O'Donnell, Cyrill A Rentsch, Jay B Shah, Eduardo Solsona, Robert S Svatek, Antoine G van der Heijden, F Johannes P van Valenberg, Wassim Kassouf
PURPOSE: To provide a summary of the Third International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations for the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: A detailed review of the literature was performed focusing on original articles for the management of NMIBC. An international committee assessed and graded the articles based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system. The entire spectrum of NMIBC was covered such as prognostic factors of recurrence and progression, risk stratification, staging, management of positive urine cytology with negative white light cystoscopy, indications of bladder and prostatic urethral biopsies, management of Ta low grade (LG) and high risk tumors (Ta high grade [HG], T1, carcinoma in situ [CIS]), impact of BCG strain and host on outcomes, management of complications of intravesical therapy, role of alternative therapies, indications for early cystectomy, surveillance strategies, and new treatments...
August 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Nguyen Vu Quoc Huy, Vo Van Khoa, Le Minh Tam, Truong Quang Vinh, Nguyen Sanh Tung, Cao Ngoc Thanh, Linus Chuang
Objectives: To evaluate the validity of serum CA-125, Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk of Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) at standard and optimal cut-offs, in preoperative prediction of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) in Vietnam. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study on 277 patients with ovarian masses hospitalized at the OBGYN Departments, Hue University Hospital and Hue Central Hospital, Vietnam, from 01/2016 to 11/2017. All patients had measurements of serum CA-125 by Elecsys 2010 system and HE4 by immunoassay ARCHITECT® HE4 kits; ROMA calculated, and preoperative malignancy risk estimated...
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Yaohui Wang, Wenjin Yin, Yanping Lin, Kai Yin, Liheng Zhou, Yueyao Du, Tingting Yan, Jinsong Lu
Success in curing breast cancer largely depends on the stage at diagnosis. Circulating microRNAs are becoming a promising noninvasive biomarker. We postulate that a postoperative decline in circulating microRNAs might have diagnostic and prognostic value. Applying high-throughput microarrays, we screened the dysregulated microRNAs in paired serum samples before and after surgery. The relative concentrations of putative markers between the early breast cancer and cancer-free groups were evaluated in the training set and verified in the validation set...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Mohini Guleria, Chandan Kumar, Tapas Das, Jeyachitra Amirdhanayagam, Rohit Sharma, Haladhar D Sarma, Ashutosh Dash
Porphyrins, owing to their inherent tendency to accumulate in tumorous lesions, are considered suitable for developing agents for theranostic applications involving tumor diagnosis and targeted tumor therapy. The aim of the present work is to study the potential of a porphyrin derivative namely, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis( p -carboxymethyleneoxyphenyl)porphyrin (SPTA) as a theranostic agent for applications in positron emission tomography (PET) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). SPTA was synthesized in-house following a three-step reaction process and characterized by using spectroscopic techniques, viz...
April 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Zhenlang Guo, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Chiming Gu, Songtao Xiang, Jianfu Zhou, Leiliang Gong, Franky Leung Chan, Shusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a contributory psychological stress that causes excess risk of suicide among affected men remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate suicide incidence and associated risk factors among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 2018. The inverse variance method with random-effects modeling was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Camille Maringe, Bernard Rachet, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Francisco Javier Rubio
BACKGROUND: Reducing hospital emergency admissions is a key target for all modern health systems. METHODS: We analysed colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2011-13 in England. We screened their individual Hospital Episode Statistics records in the 90 days pre-diagnosis, the 90 days post-diagnosis, and the 90 days pre-death (in the year following diagnosis), for the occurrence of hospital emergency admissions (HEAs). RESULTS: Between a quarter and two thirds of patients experience HEA in the three 90-day periods examined: pre-diagnosis, post-diagnosis and before death...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Minal S Kale, Deborah Korenstein
Overdiagnosis, is defined as the diagnosis of a condition that, if unrecognized, would not cause symptoms or harm a patient during his or her lifetime, and it is increasingly acknowledged as a consequence of screening for cancer and other conditions. Because preventive care is a crucial component of primary care, which is delivered to the broad population, overdiagnosis in primary care is an important problem from a public health perspective and has far reaching implications. The scope of overdiagnosis as a result of services delivered in primary care is unclear, though overdiagnosis of indolent breast, prostate, thyroid, and lung cancers is well described and overdiagnosis of chronic kidney disease, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also recognized...
August 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
C Teixeira, C Martins, E Dantas, D Trabulo, J Mangualde, R Freire, A L Alves, I Cremers, A P Oliveira
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Interval colorectal cancer (iCRC) can occur due to missed lesions or to a newly developed lesion. The present study aimed to assess the iCRC rate and its characteristics in our population and find possible explanations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed between January 2011 and January 2015 at our department. Demographics, endoscopic data, and tumor characteristics (location, histology, staging) were collected...
August 11, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Yizhou Zhao, Mathieu Castonguay, Derek Wilke, Zhaolin Xu, Madelaine Plourde, Liam Mulroy, Mary MacNeil, David Bowes
INTRODUCTION: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare type of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. The study objective is to investigate its survival outcomes, incidence of brain metastases, and patterns of recurrence. METHODS: This is a single center study of patients with pathologic diagnosis of pulmonary LCNEC. Patient data were collected retrospectively and analyzed, including survival, incidence of brain metastases, and patterns of recurrence...
May 24, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Daniele Paixão, Marcos Duarte Guimarães, Kelvin César de Andrade, Amanda França Nóbrega, Rubens Chojniak, Maria Isabel Achatz
BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant disease that is associated with germline TP53 mutations and it predisposes affected individuals to a high risk of developing multiple tumors. In Brazil, LFS is characterized by a different pattern of TP53 variants, with the founder TP53 p.R337H mutation being predominant. The adoption of screening strategies to diagnose LFS in its early stages is a major challenge due to the diverse spectrum of tumors that LFS patients can develop...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
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