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Diagnosis of cancer

Yanyan Xia, Yuanying Zhang, Mengjiao Shen, Hongpan Xu, Zhiyang Li, Nongyue He
Golgi protein 73 (GP73, also referred to as Golph 2) with 400 amino acids is a 73 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein typically found in the cis-Golg complex. It is primarily expressed in epithelial cells, which has been found upregulated in hepatocytes in patients suffering from both viral and non-viral liver diseases. GP73 has drawn increasing attention for its potential application in the diagnosis of liver diseases such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Herein, we reviewed the discovery history of GP73 and summarized studies by many groups around the world, aiming at understanding its structure, expression, function, detection methods and the relationship between GP73 and liver diseases in various settings...
October 19, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Haitang Yang, Jianlin Xu, Feng Yao, Shunqing Liang, Heng Zhao
PURPOSE: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a systemic disease and surgery is generally not recommended to treat it. High heterogeneity within the tumor and preoperative diagnostic capabilities can sometimes fail to identify SCLC correctly, leading to a subset of unexpected SCLC patients that are diagnosed only after pulmonary resections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients who were diagnosed as having SCLC only after surgery between 2008 and 2015 at a single institution...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Amy K Otto, Emily C Soriano, Scott D Siegel, Stefanie T LoSavio, Jean-Philippe Laurenceau
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is associated with greater health care utilization (HCU) in early-stage breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Three hundred early-stage breast cancer survivors diagnosed within the past 7 years reported on FCR as well as calls and visits to oncology providers and primary care providers during the preceding 3 months. Participants also reported on use of mental health services and psychotropic medications since diagnosis...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Xiao-Hui Jiang, Zou-Ying Yao, Xu He, Jian-Bo Zhang, Ke Xie, Jie Chen, Mei Cao, Jian Zhang, Shang-Mian Yie
PURPOSE: To examine the clinical significance of an autoantibody (AAb) against a novel tumor-associated antigen (TAA) derived from human DNA-topoisomerase I, termed as TOPO48 AAb, and peripheral blood survivin-expressing circulating cells (CCC) in patients with early stage endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 80 patients with early stage EC and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. Plasma levels of the TOPO48 AAb were measured with a specific antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and blood survivin-expressing CCC assessed with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products based on a hybridization-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA)...
October 19, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
M Rodríguez-Barranco, E Salamanca-Fernández, M L Fajardo, E Bayo, Y-L Chang-Chan, J Expósito, C García, J Tallón, P Minicozzi, M Sant, D Petrova, M A Luque-Fernandez, M-J Sánchez
PURPOSE: The third most frequently diagnosed cancer in Europe in 2018 was lung cancer; it is also the leading cause of cancer death in Europe. We studied patient and tumor characteristics, and patterns of healthcare provision explaining regional variability in lung cancer survival in southern Spain. METHODS: A population-based cohort study included all 1196 incident first invasive primary lung cancer (C33-C34 according to ICD-10) cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 with follow-up until April 2015...
October 19, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Hui Liu, Junyun Luo, Siyu Luan, Chongsheng He, Zhaoyong Li
Metabolic reprogramming has now been accepted as a hallmark of cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells exhibit different metabolic features, including increased glucose uptake, aerobic glycolysis, enhanced glutamine uptake and glutaminolysis, altered lipid metabolism, and so on. Cancer metabolic reprogramming, which supports excessive cell proliferation and growth, has been widely regulated by activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. Here, we review that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can affect cancer metabolism by mutual regulation with oncogenes or tumor suppressors...
October 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
George Z Rassidakis, Nikolas Herold, Ida Hed Myrberg, Nikolaos Tsesmetzis, Sean G Rudd, Jan-Inge Henter, Torsten Schaller, Siok-Bian Ng, Wee Joo Chng, Benedict Yan, Chin Hin Ng, Farhad Ravandi, Michael Andreeff, Hagop M Kantarjian, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Ioanna Xagoraris, Joseph D Khoury
Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) limits the efficacy of cytarabine (ara-C) used in AML by hydrolyzing its active metabolite ara-CTP and thus represents a promising therapeutic target. SAMHD1 has also been implicated in DNA damage repair that may impact DNA damage-inducing therapies such as anthracyclines, during induction therapy. To determine whether SAMHD1 limits ara-C efficacy during induction or consolidation therapy, SAMHD1 protein levels were assessed in two patient cohorts of de novo AML from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (USA) and the National University Hospital (Singapore), respectively, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays...
October 19, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
Stephen Andrew Deppen, Pierre P Massion, Jeffrey Blume, Ronald C Walker, Sanja Antic, Heidi Chen, Michelle M Durkin, L Joseph Wheat, Eric L Grogan
BACKGROUND: Granulomas caused by infectious lung diseases present as indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) on radiography. Newly available serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for histoplasmosis has not been studied for the evaluation of IPNs. We investigated serum biomarkers of histoplasmosis antibodies as an indication of benign disease in IPNs from a highly endemic region. METHODS: 152 serum samples from patients presenting with pulmonary nodules ≤30mm in maximum diameter were analyzed for histoplasmosis antibodies by immunodiffusion and EIA IgG and IgM tests...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Se Jong Kim, Su Joa Ahn, Seung Joon Choi, Dae Hong Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Jeong Ho Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the radiologic diagnostic performance of arterial phase, portal phase and combined phase computed tomography (CT) for traumatic abdominal injury. In addition, this study is attempted to decrease lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of cancer due to radiation exposure by using optimal CT protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 114 consecutive patients with a traumatic abdominal injury and an abdominal hematoma on CT were enrolled at a single tertiary regional trauma center between January 2016 and March 2017...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jason Hinton, Alberto Cerra-Franco, Kevin Shiue, Lindsey Shea, Vasantha Aaron, Geoffrey Billows, Ahmad Al-Hader, Tim Lautenschlaeger
BACKGROUND: The incidence of superior vena cava syndrome within the United States is roughly 15,000 cases per year. Superior vena cava syndrome is a potentially life-threatening medical condition; however, superior vena cava syndrome is not fatal in the majority of cases. Superior vena cava syndrome encompasses a collection of signs and symptoms resulting from obstruction of the superior vena cava, including swelling of the upper body of the head, neck, arms, and/or breast. It is also associated with cyanosis, plethora, and distended subcutaneous vessels...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Kelsi Perttula, Courtney Schiffman, William M B Edmands, Lauren Petrick, Hasmik Grigoryan, Xiaoming Cai, Marc J Gunter, Alessio Naccarati, Silvia Polidoro, Sandrine Dudoit, Paolo Vineis, Stephen M Rappaport
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologists are beginning to employ metabolomics and lipidomics with archived blood from incident cases and controls to discover causes of cancer. Although several such studies have focused on colorectal cancer (CRC), they all followed targeted or semi-targeted designs that limited their ability to find discriminating molecules and pathways related to the causes of CRC. METHODS: Using an untargeted design, we measured lipophilic metabolites in prediagnostic serum from 66 CRC patients and 66 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Turin, Italy)...
October 19, 2018: BMC Cancer
Jingheng Ning, Long Liu, Xin Luo, Min Wang, Donglin Liu, Rong Hou, Donger Chen, Jianhui Wang
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a key tumor marker for several common and deadly cancers. It is of great importance to develop efficient detection methods for its over-expression. In this work, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method adjustable by anionic porphyrin for HER2 gene detection has been proposed, based on the impedance difference between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and DNA. The interesting finding herein is that with the addition of anionic porphyrin, i...
October 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aris Giannos, Sofoklis Stavrou, Athanasios Douskos, Peter Drakakis, Dimitrios Loutradis
INTRODUCTION: BRCA1 inherited mutation carriers face a lifetime risk of 72% to develop breast cancer and a percentage of 44% risk for ovarian cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of a 35-year old Caucasian woman who, after the excision of a possible malignant finding on the right breast, was diagnosed with ductal breast carcinoma. The patient treatment included first chemotherapy and radiotherapy and then prophylactic bilateral mastectomy with plastic reconstructive surgery...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Guy Nir, Soheil Hor, Davood Karimi, Ladan Fazli, Brian F Skinnider, Peyman Tavassoli, Dmitry Turbin, Carlos F Villamil, Gang Wang, R Storey Wilson, Kenneth A Iczkowski, M Scott Lucia, Peter C Black, Purang Abolmaesumi, S Larry Goldenberg, Septimiu E Salcudean
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogeneous disease that is manifested in a diverse range of histologic patterns and its grading is therefore associated with an inter-observer variability among pathologists, which may lead to an under- or over-treatment of patients. In this work, we develop a computer aided diagnosis system for automatic grading of PCa in digitized histopathology images using supervised learning methods. Our pipeline comprises extraction of multi-scale features that include glandular, cellular, and image-based features...
September 24, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Tomohiro Makino, Shintaro Sengoku, Shuichi Ishida, Kota Kodama
Personalized medicine is an innovative concept that allows patients with a validated companion diagnosis (CoDx) to receive treatment using the most suitable drug. Currently, a major movement in the pharmaceutical industry involves the integrated use of multiple resources from external sources. To ascertain preferable interorganizational collaborations and their suitable exits, we compared the related transactions in personalized and nonpersonalized cancer drugs. We found that there were significantly more of some alliance deals in personalized medicine, and that market licenses, one of the exits, were well correlated with other alliances only in personalized medicine...
October 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Craig White, Milton C Weinstein, Abbey L Fingeret, Gregory W Randolph, Akira Miyauchi, Yasuhiro Ito, Tiannan Zhan, Ayman Ali, G Scott Gazelle, Carrie C Lubitz
OBJECTIVE: To assess relative clinical and economic performance of the revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) thyroid cancer guidelines compared to current standard of care. BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in the United States has tripled whereas mortality has only marginally increased. Most patients present with small papillary carcinomas and have historically received at least a total thyroidectomy as a treatment. In 2015, the ATA released the revised guidelines recommending an option for active surveillance (AS) of small papillary thyroid carcinoma and thyroid lobectomy for larger unifocal tumors...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Chih-Hsing Hung, Yi-Ching Lin, Yu-Han Chang, Yu-Chih Lin, Hsin-Yi Huang, Wei-Ju Yeh, Ting-Yi Wu, Ming-Feng Hou
Both breast cancer and autoimmune diseases (ADs) are predominant in women. NSAIDs are common medications for AD. Evidence on the association between NSAIDs use and breast cancer risk is controversial. We investigated the association between NSAIDs exposure and breast cancer risk in female patients with AD. AD patients older than 18 years of age were enrolled from Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The NSAID users were defined as AD patients who had ever taken NSAIDs for at least 3 months between 2000 and 2009...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Mark A Guinter, Marjorie L McCullough, Susan M Gapstur, Peter T Campbell
PURPOSE: Dietary patterns, indicators of overall diet quality, are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but less consistently with mortality among CRC survivors. We prospectively evaluated associations of diet quality pre- and postdiagnosis with risk of mortality among men and women with CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, 2,801 participants were cancer free at baseline in 1992/1993 and subsequently diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic CRC during follow-up through June 2013...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Sanaz Javadi, Christine O Menias, Niloofar Karbasian, Akram Shaaban, Komal Shah, Adam Osman, Corey T Jensen, Meghan G Lubner, Ayman H Gaballah, Khaled M Elsayes
The risk of developing malignancy is higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than in non-HIV-infected patients. Several factors including immunosuppression, viral coinfection, and high-risk lifestyle choices lead to higher rates of cancer in the HIV-infected population. A subset of HIV-related malignancies are considered to be acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies, as their presence confirms the diagnosis of AIDS in an HIV-infected patient. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant drop in the rate of AIDS-defining malignancies, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and invasive cervical carcinoma...
October 19, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Alfred H Böcking, David Friedrich, Dietrich Meyer-Ebrecht, Chenyan Zhu, Anna Feider, Stefan Biesterfeld
BACKGROUND: The average sensitivity of conventional cytology for the identification of cancer cells in effusion specimens is only approximately 58%. DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM), which exploits the DNA content of morphologically suspicious nuclei measured on digital images, has a sensitivity of up to 91% for the detection of cancer cells. However, when performed manually, to our knowledge to date, an expert needs approximately 60 minutes for the analysis of a single slide. METHODS: In the current study, the authors present a novel method of supervised machine learning for the automated identification of morphologically suspicious mesothelial and epithelial nuclei in Feulgen-stained effusion specimens...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
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