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Bao-Luen Chang, Marco Leite, Albert Snowball, Andreas Lieb, Elodie Chabrol, Matthew C Walker, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stephanie Schorge, Robert C Wykes
Focal neocortical epilepsy is a common form of epilepsy and there is a need to develop animal models that allow the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies to treat this type of epilepsy. Tetanus toxin (TeNT) injection into rat visual cortex induces focal neocortical epilepsy without preceding status epilepticus. The latency to first seizure ranged from 3 to 7 days. Seizure duration was bimodal, with both short (approximately 30s) and long-lasting (>100s) seizures occurring in the same animals. Seizures were accompanied by non-motor features such as behavioural arrest, or motor seizures with or without evolution to generalized tonic-clonic seizures...
November 22, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Arcady A Putilov, Evgeniy G Verevkin
The term "social jet lag" was introduced for defining the conflict between social and biological clocks due to the general practice of shifting weekday risetime on early morning hours. The phase delay of the sleep-wake cycle during adolescence is one of the most remarkable features of the ontogenesis of sleep that is incompatible with early school start times. It was previously proposed that the process of accumulation of sleep pressure during wakefulness is slowing down in post-pubertal teens to allow them to stay awake for a longer period of time thus causing the delay of their bedtime...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Barbara L Parry, Charles J Meliska, Ana M Lopez, Diane L Sorenson, L Fernando Martinez, Henry J Orff, Richard L Hauger, Daniel F Kripke
BACKGROUND: Peripartum major depression (MD) disables mothers and impairs emotional and neurocognitive development of offspring. We tested the hypothesis that critically-timed wake therapy (WT) relieves peripartum MD by altering melatonin and sleep timing, differentially, in antepartum vs. postpartum depressed patients (DP). METHODS: In a university clinical research center, we initially randomized 50 women - 26 antepartum (17 healthy comparison-HC, 9 DP) and 24 postpartum (8 HC, 16 DP) - to a cross-over trial of one night of early-night wake therapy (EWT: sleep 3:00-7:00 am) vs...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
H Craig Heller, Norman F Ruby
The propensity for sleep is timed by the circadian system. Many studies have shown that learning and memory performance is affected by circadian phase. And, of course it is well established that critical processes of memory consolidation occur during and depend on sleep. This chapter presents evidence that sleep and circadian rhythms do not just have separate influences on learning and memory that happen to coincide because of the circadian timing of sleep, but rather sleep and circadian systems have a critical functional interaction in the processes of memory consolidation...
November 16, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Diane Hurd, Mariela Herrera, Jeannine M Brant, Nicholas C Coombs, Eric Arzubi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility and proof of concept of triple chronotherapy (TCT) as a nonpharmacological adjunctive treatment in the acute management of depression in the adolescent population. METHODS: Thirty-one adolescents with nonpsychotic moderate-to-severe depression were included in the study. The 4-day TCT intervention comprised one night of sleep deprivation followed by 3 days of sleep phase advancement and daily bright light therapy...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Thien Nguyen, Olajide Babawale, Tae Kim, Hang Joon Jo, Hanli Liu, Jae Gwan Kim
This study investigates the brain functional connectivity in the rest and sleep states. We collected EEG, EOG, and fNIRS signals simultaneously during rest and sleep phases. The rest phase was defined as a quiet wake-eyes open (w_o) state, while the sleep phase was separated into three states; quiet wake-eyes closed (w_c), non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 1 (N1), and non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2 (N2) using the EEG and EOG signals. The fNIRS signals were used to calculate the cerebral hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin)...
November 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Della Volpe, L Dipietro, G Ricci, V Pastore, M Paccone, C Pirozzi, A Di Stadio
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that tryptophan and vitamin B6 used in conjunction with melatonin induce sleep more effectively than melatonin alone. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of different dosages and timings of administration of a solution containing melatonin, tryptophan, and vitamin B6 for inducing sleep in children undergoing ABR testing. METHODS: 294 children scheduled for Auditory Brain Response (ABR) evaluation were administered a solution containing melatonin, tryptophan, and vitamin B6 to induce sleep before the exam...
December 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Maciej Śmietanowski, Jarosław Wysocki, Jarosław Balcerzak, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Maryla Śmietanowska, Kazimierz Niemczyk
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a form of sleep disordered breathing. The key phenomena are multiple repetitive pauses or restriction of airflow in the airway, defined as apnea and hypopnea. This study was based on a retrospective analysis of the results of polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of 230 adult patients (62 women and 168 men), being evaluated for OSA. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and pulse oximetry (SO2 nadir) of all patients were 50.4 ± 12.7 years, 30...
October 25, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
A V Rosinskaya, E E Vasenina, T N Khaybullin, O S Levin
AIM: To optimize therapy with levodopa preparations in relation to the rate of disease progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were studied. Rate of progression was assessed by time of developing the 3rd stage of the disease. Patient state was assessed using MDS-UPDRS, MMSE, verbal activity test, clock drawing test, Beck depression scale, apathy scale and scale of autonomic disorders. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In 37 patients, early prescription of levodopa preparations (on average 1,7 years after disease onset) facilitates a decrease in the rate of progression assessed by time of developing the 3rd stage of the disease (7,3±4,4 vs 5,8±2,8 years)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
T E Bjorness, V Booth, G R Poe
The theta rhythm during waking has been associated with voluntary motor activity and learning processes involving the hippocampus. Theta also occurs continuously during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where it likely serves memory consolidation. Theta amplitude builds across wakefulness and is the best indicator of the homeostatic need for non-REM (NREM) sleep. Although REM sleep is homeostatically regulated independently of NREM sleep, the drivers of REM sleep regulation are under debate. The dynamics of theta within REM sleep bouts have not been thoroughly explored...
September 1, 2018: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Vanessa K Thoma, Yoanna Schulz-Zhecheva, Christoph Oser, Christian Fleischhaker, Monica Biscaldi, Christoph Klein
OBJECTIVE: Relationships between sleep, screen-based media, and ADHD symptomatology were investigated using a case- and community-based approach. METHOD: N = 357 healthy and N = 61 children with ADHD (12.72 ± 2.83 years) completed a sleep and media questionnaire. To measure ADHD symptomatology, parents filled out the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale. Two samples were formed: a matched ( N = 61 patients and N = 61 controls) and a community sample ( N = 357 healthy participants and N = 20 patients)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Liane Sousa Teixeira, Carlos Augusto Costa Oliveira, Ronaldo Campos Granjeiro, Carine Petry, Adra Brasil Leitão Travaglia, Fayez Bahmad
OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus is an auditory sensation in the absence of any external stimulus. It has a negative impact on quality of life and interferes with concentration, sleep, social activities, and even emotional stability. The aim of this study was to compare sleep architecture in patients with and without chronic subjective tinnitus. METHODS: This was an observational, noninterventional, and prospective study. The sample consisted of 50 individuals of both sexes aged 20 to 60 years...
December 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Motohiko Suzuki, Meiho Nakayama, Kayoko Bhardwaj Ando, Sachie Arima, Yoshihisa Nakamura, Makoto Yokota, Shingo Murakami
Actigraphy is an easy and noninvasive method used to monitor human ultradian cycles. However, to our knowledge, it has been not applied to experiments with rodents. Therefore, using actigraphy, we assessed the ultradian cycles and behavior of rats. Rats with or without allergic rhinitis wore an actigraphy device, and triaxial acceleration was recorded. The counts that represent physical activity were lower from 8:00 to 20:00 than those from 20:00 to 8:00 in control rats, suggesting that their sleep phase was from 8:00 to 20:00 and their awake phase from 20:00 to 8:00...
October 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Vaclav Kremen, Benjamin Henry Brinkmann, Jamie J Van Gompel, Squire Matt M Stead, Erik K St Louis, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Automated behavioral state classification in intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings may be beneficial for iEEG interpretation and quantifying sleep patterns to enable behavioral state dependent neuromodulation therapy in next generation implantable brain stimulation devices. Here, we introduce a fully automated unsupervised framework to differentiate between awake (AW), sleep (N2), and slow wave sleep (N3) using intracranial EEG (iEEG) only and validated with expert scored polysomnography...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Nicola Beindorff, Annika Bartelheimer, Kai Huang, Mathias Lukas, Catharina Lange, Eleonore L Huang, Jörg R Aschenbach, Janet F Eary, Ingo G Steffen, Winfried Brenner
AIM: The aim of this study was to establish normal values for thyroid uptake of 99mtechnetium pertechnetate (99m TcO4 ) as a function of age, sex and circadian rhythm in mice. METHODS: In 12 female (F) and 12 male (M) C57BL/6N mice, nine consecutive SPECT images of 10 min duration each were acquired as dynamic acquisitions beginning 5 min after intravenous injection of 80 MBq 99m TcO4 . Each mouse was imaged in follow-up studies up to 24 months (A: 1 month; B: 3 months; C: 6 months; D: 12 months; E: 24 months)...
September 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Elise M McGlashan, Angus C Burns, Jade M Murray, Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Sean W Cain
This study investigated the utility of the pupillary light reflex as a method of differentiating DSPD patients with delayed melatonin timing relative to desired/required sleep time (circadian type) and those with non-delayed melatonin timing (non-circadian type). All participants were young adults, with a total of 14 circadian DSPD patients (M = 28.14, SD = 5.26), 12 non-circadian DSPD patients (M = 29.42, SD = 11.51) and 51 healthy controls (M = 21.47 SD = 3.16) completing the protocol. All participants were free of central nervous system acting medications and abstained from caffeine and alcohol on the day of the assessment...
2018: PloS One
AboTaleb Saremi, Mohammad-Ali Shafiee, Mahdi Montazeri, Negin Rashidi, Mohammad Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a global burden with 10 million incidence annually and 210 daily deaths worldwide. Diagnosis is mainly based on the features following full presentation. OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether early pregnancy circadian changes of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) could predict preeclampsia and hypertension. METHODS: In a prospective study, 294 pregnant women who were referred to Sarem Women's Hospital, Iran were recruited...
September 24, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Hiroki Okauchi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Reiko Nakao, Katsutaka Oishi
Inappropriate eating habits such as skipping breakfast and eating late at night are associated with risk for abnormal weight-gain and adiposity. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the daytime (inactive phase) induces obesity and metabolic disorders accompanied by physical inactivity in mice. The present study compares metabolic changes induced in mice by time-imposed feeding under voluntary wheel-running (RW) and sedentary (SED) conditions to determine the effects of voluntary wheel-running activity on obesity induced in mice by feeding at inappropriate times...
September 13, 2018: Chronobiology International
Ewa Kurczewska, Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Anna Jasińska-Mikołajczyk, Maria Chłopocka-Woźniak, J K Rybakowski
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess the efficacy of total sleep deprivation (TSD) with sleep phase advance (SPA) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and associated biochemical factors. METHODS: We studied nine males and 12 females, aged 49±14 years, with treatment-resistant unipolar or bipolar depression, receiving antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs. The four-day schedule included single TSD and three consecutive nights with SPA. Biochemical markers were measured on the day before and on 1st, 7th and 14th day after the TSD...
September 10, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Kamila Weissová, Jitka Škrabalová, Kateřina Skálová, Kateřina Červená, Zdeňka Bendová, Eva Miletínová, Jana Kopřivová, Karel Šonka, Daniela Dudysová, Aleš Bartoš, Jitka Bušková
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in the expression of clock genes and melatonin levels in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as a potential early stage of synucleinopathies. METHODS: We assessed the rhythmicity of circadian clock genes using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 24-h blood melatonin profiles using radio-immunoassay in 10 RBD patients and nine age-matched controls. RESULTS: The RBD patients did not show circadian rhythmicity for clock genes Per2, Bmal1, and Nr1d1 but the rhythmicity of Per 1 remained, and the amplitude of Per3 was diminished...
August 9, 2018: Sleep Medicine
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