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Arthur Sillah, Nathaniel F Watson, Stephen M Schwartz, David Gozal, Amanda I Phipps
PURPOSE: In vitro and animal models suggest that the physiological effects of sleep apnea could contribute to cancer risk, yet epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. METHODS: We identified a cohort of adults diagnosed with sleep apnea between 2005 and 2014 using regional administrative databases. Linking this cohort to a population-based cancer registry, we identified first incident cancers diagnosed after sleep apnea diagnosis through 2015. We calculated age-sex standardized cancer incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare the observed number of cancers among those with sleep apnea with expected population estimates over a comparable period...
August 17, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Rachel P Ogilvie, Sanjay R Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep-related exposures, such as short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, shift work, and insomnia, with type 2 diabetes risk in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Both poor sleep habits and sleep disorders are highly prevalent among adults with type 2 diabetes. In observational studies, short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, shift work, and insomnia are all associated with higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes and may predict worse outcomes in those with existing diabetes...
August 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Shibo Sun, Huifen Zhai, Mei Zhu, Peili Wen, Xin He, Haoyan Wang
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea, a common disease, is usually complicated by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipokine is considered to play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obstructive sleep apnea. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether secreted frizzled-related protein 5, a new adipokine, is involved in untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients. METHODS: Seventy-six subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and thirty-three control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea were recruited and matched in terms of body mass index and age...
August 4, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Bora İrer, Aylin Çelikhisar, Hakan Çelikhisar, Ozan Bozkurt, Ömer Demir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), nocturia, sexual dysfunction (SD) and the status of quality of life (QOL) in men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, the changes in the presence of these conditions and the improvements of QOL. MATERIEL AND METHODS: In this study, 126 patients with suspicious diagnosis of OSAS were enrolled prospectively. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Male LUTS (ICIQ-MLUTS), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABS-V8), Nocturia Quality of Life (Nqol), voiding diary, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) questionnaire and Short form 36 (SF-36) to assess the presence of SD, LUTS, nocturia and the status of QOL were filled by patients before polysomnography...
August 14, 2018: Urology
Elisabeth Schilbred Eriksen, Shashi Gulati, Ketil Moen, Per Johan Wisth, Sigbjørn Løes
PURPOSE: The study purpose was to assess whether mandibular setback surgery by intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) induces obstructive apnea and hypopnea in healthy Class III patients without a history of respiratory dysfunction. We hypothesized that the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) would not exceed 5 events per hour after surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. The sample was composed of healthy Class III patients without a history of obstructive sleep apnea treated with isolated mandibular setback surgery by the IVRO procedure at a university hospital...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Asghar Tabatabaei Balaei, Kate Sutherland, Peter Cistulli, Philip de Chazal
Collapsibility of the upper airway has a known anatomical basis that is mediated by an interaction of obesity and craniofacial abnormalities. The pattern of these abnormalities, if detected in a subject's facial image, can help predict the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). 
 We utilized facial photographs (front and profile) from 376 patients who had undergone an overnight polysomnogram to identify those with and without OSA. 
 Processing the images had 3 steps: landmark identification, feature generation, and automatic classification...
August 17, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Halil Onder, Onur Ergun, Mehmet Kaygisiz, I Samet Daltaban
The association between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) constitutes an interesting point of discussion regarding clinical approaches as well as the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here, the case of a 42-year-old female with malignant IIH and OSAS is illustrated. Initially, the patient was treated with lumboperitoneal shunt surgery. However, OSAS surgery provided total recovery from the recurrent symptoms developing secondary to lumboperitoneal shunt malfunction...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Hong Shen, Junrong Zhao, Ying Liu, Guangdong Sun
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) accounts for about 90% of all diabetes patients and incurs a heavy global public health burden. Up to 50% of T2D patients will eventually develop neuropathy as T2D progresses. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common diabetic complication and one of the main causes of increased morbidity and mortality of T2D patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects over 15% of the general population and is associated with a higher prevalence of T2D. Growing evidence also indicates that OSA is highly prevalent in T2D patients probably due to diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Gholamreza Bayazian, Shirin Sayyahfar, Mahdi Safdarian, Farbood Kalantari
Aim: To evaluate the association of the presence and extent of adenoid biofilms and the frequency of upper airway infections in children with upper airway obstruction. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 on pediatric patients who were candidates for adenoidectomy due to obstructive sleep apnea. After removal of the adenoid tissue and fixation in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, the samples were sent to the electron microscopy unit...
June 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Ryan C Hofler, Kevin Swong, Brendan Martin, Michael Wemhoff, George Alexander Jones
BACKGROUND: Pseudoarthrosis following spinal fusion is an important cause of pain, neurologic decline, and reoperation. METHODS: The HCUP State Inpatient Databases were queried in New York, California, Florida, and Washington for adult patients who underwent new spinal fusion between 2009 and 2011. In accordance with the HCUP methods series and analysis guidelines, generalized linear mixed effects models were employed to estimate the odds of experiencing post-operative pseudoarthrosis as a function of multivariable patient characteristics, comorbidities, and surgical approach...
August 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Philippe Lachapelle, Juan Cascon, Sushmita Pamidi, R John Kimoff
PURPOSE: Type 3 home study (HS) monitors do not detect cortical arousal-related hypopneas and may therefore underestimate the polysomnography (PSG)-based apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Our aim was to test the hypothesis that scoring hypopneas using heart rate accelerations as a surrogate marker for cortical arousal (autonomic hypopnea; AnH) improves the accuracy of HS for OSA diagnosis, using PSG AHI as the diagnostic gold standard. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients referred for OSA who underwent complete PSG following an initial inconclusive HS...
August 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Eric S Kerns, Esther D Kim, Lucy A Meoni, Stephen M Sozio, Bernard G Jaar, Michelle M Estrella, Rulan S Parekh, Ghada Bourjeily
BACKGROUND: Mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurs predominantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by periodic airflow limitation associated with sleep arousal and oxygen desaturation and is prevalent in patients with ESRD. Whether OSA increases the risk for SCD, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among hemodialysis patients remains unknown. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 558 incident hemodialysis patients, we examined the association of OSA with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and SCD using Cox proportional hazards models controlling for traditional CVD risk factors...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Alicia Carissimi, Denis Martinez, Lenise J Kim, Cintia Z Fiori, Luciana R Vieira, Darlan P Rosa, Gabriel N Pires
OBJECTIVE: Sleep apnea has been associated with anxiety, but the mechanisms of the sleep apnea-anxiety relationship are unresolved. Sleep apnea causes oxidative stress, which might enhance anxiety-like behavior in rodents. To clarify the apnea-anxiety connection, we tested the effect of intermittent hypoxia, a model of sleep apnea, on the anxiety behavior of mice. METHODS: The rodents were exposed daily to 480 one-minute cycles of intermittent hypoxia to a nadir of 7±1% inspiratory oxygen fraction or to a sham procedure with room air...
August 9, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Vitish Singla, Tharun Gattu, Sandeep Aggarwal, Amit Bhambri, Samagra Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) is not a good tool to predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, data regarding the accuracy of ESS in the prediction of OSA among morbidly obese patients are scarce. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective review of the charts of the consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All the patients underwent polysomnography (PSG) and undertook the ESS questionnaire...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Yaron Haviv, Lilach Kamer, Roee Sheinfeld, Galit Almoznino, Gideon Bachar
BACKGROUND: A dental appliance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recommended for patients who cannot adjust to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. OBJECTIVES: To describe patients with extremely severe OSA who were successfully treated with a dental appliance and to compare their characteristics with the relevant literature to identify clinical features associated with a good outcome. METHODS: The clinical, management, and outcome data of three patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 80 who showed clinical improvement following treatment with a dental appliance were collected retrospectively from sleep laboratory reports in Israel over a period of 3 years...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Emanuela di Palmo, Marcella Gallucci, Elena Tronconi, Rosalba Bergamaschi, Salvatore Cazzato, Claudio La Scola, Giampaolo Ricci, Andrea Pession
The term osteopetrosis describes a group of rare hereditary diseases of the skeleton, characterized by an increase in bone density, caused by a defect in the development or function of osteoclasts. It comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions ranging from infantile onset life-threatening forms to mildest adult onset forms. "Malignant" osteopetrosis is characterized by bone fragility, short stature, compressive neuropathies, hypocalcaemia, pancytopaenia. The deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II causes a moderate form, presenting classically as a triad of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Victor B Fenik
The sleep-related depression of excitability of upper airway motoneurons is a major neurological cause of obstructive sleep apnea whereas a disruption in the inhibition of spinal motoneurons during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep causes the REM sleep behavioral disorder. The large amount of experimental data has been obtained that deal with neurochemical mechanisms that are responsible for sleep-related depression of various motoneuron groups. However, there is a disagreement regarding the outcome of these studies primarily due to the use of different animal models and approaches, as well as due to differences in quantification and interpretation of obtained results...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Bettina S Fehr, William F Katz, Erin A Van Enkevort, Imran S Khawaja
Objective: To examine the correlations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or bipolar disorder (BD) and whether comorbid psychiatric diagnosis increases the risk of OSA. Methods: This retrospective chart review study included all patients (N = 413) seen within a randomly selected 4-month period (August 2014 to November 2014) in a Veterans Administration outpatient psychiatry clinic...
August 9, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Sigal Kaplan, Earl L Goehring, Sigal Melamed-Gal, Bao-Anh Nguyen-Khoa, Helena Knebel, Judith K Jones
PURPOSE: This study examined the potential risk of cardiovascular (CV) events associated with modafinil and the consistency of the risk estimates across databases. METHODS: A retrospective, inception cohort design of patients who initiated treatment with modafinil between 2006 and 2008 was used in three US health care claims databases. Modafinil users were matched with nonusers. Patients were further divided into two cohorts of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-OSA (NOSA) cohorts...
August 14, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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