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Nina Zech, Milena Seemann, Timo F Seyfried, Max Lange, Juergen Schlaier, Ernil Hansen
BACKGROUND: Sedatives and opioids used during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery interfere with optimal target localization and add to side effects and risks, and thus should be minimized. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively test the actual need for sedatives and opioids when cranial nerve blocks and specific therapeutic communication are applied. METHODS: In a case series, 64 consecutive patients treated with a strong rapport, constant contact, non-verbal communication and hypnotic suggestions, such as dissociation to a "safe place," reframing of disturbing noises and self-confirmation, were compared to 22 preceding patients under standard general anaesthesia or conscious sedation...
December 5, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Alejandro A Rabinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patients who are comatose and reviews the current knowledge on prognosis from various causes of coma. This article also provides an overview of the principles for determination of brain death as well as advice on how to avoid common pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Technologic advances have refined our understanding of the physiology of consciousness and the spectrum of disorders of consciousness; they also promise to improve our prognostic accuracy...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Satoshi Shibuya, Satoshi Unenaka, Yukari Ohki
Bodily self-consciousness consists of agency (i.e., the feeling of controlling one's actions and causing external events) and body ownership (i.e., the feeling that one's body belongs to one's self). If a visual presentation of a virtual (fake) hand matches the active movement of a real hand, both the agency and body ownership of the virtual hand are induced [i.e., the active virtual hand illusion (VHI)]. However, previous active VHI studies have rarely considered the effects of goal-related movement errors (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mohammad Shirdeli, Sahar Zare, Erfan Kharazmi, Rita Rezaee, Mohammad Hadi Maher
Introduction: Outsourcing of health information technology services (OHITS) is an important process for healthcare organizations due to the lack of expert staff to respond rapid advance in IT and the security of patient's information. This study aimed at presenting a model to evaluate factors affecting OHITS. Method: This is a descriptive-analytic study, conducted in 2017. Participants were experts of IT and accounting field. This research was performed in four general steps: identifying the factors affecting OHITS through literature review; determining suitable indicators by Delphi technique; prioritizing the factors using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP), measuring the accuracy of research hypotheses by Partial Least Square (PLS) and calculating the Goodness Of Fit (GOF) criteria for the model...
October 2018: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Brian L Edlow
Consciousness may evade detection by bedside behavioral examination. New research suggests that an electrophysiologic screening tool can identify people with severe brain injuries who are likely to be covertly conscious.
December 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Johann Steiner, Harald Prüss, Stephan Köhler, Thomas Frodl, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite intensive research, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders continue to be theoretical constructs that describe clinical syndromes and no pathophysiologically defined diseases. Moreover, there are no clear biomarkers at hand. Therefore, these diagnoses are still set up based on clinical ICD-10 / DSM-5 criteria and the exclusion of alcohol- / drug-associated, systemic or other brain organic causes. METHODS: Recently, autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as rare, but potentially treatable differential diagnosis...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Wolf E Mehling, Michael Acree, Anita Stewart, Jonathan Silas, Alexander Jones
Interoception, the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, has become major research topic for mental health and in particular for mind-body interventions. Interoceptive awareness here is defined as the conscious level of interoception with its multiple dimensions potentially accessible to self-report. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) is an 8-scale state-trait questionnaire with 32 items to measure multiple dimensions of interoception by self-report and was published in November 2012...
2018: PloS One
Krystal Y T Chng, Melvin J Yap, Winston D Goh
The underlying processes and mechanisms supporting the recognition of visually and auditorily presented words have received considerable attention in the literature. To a lesser extent, the interplay between visual and spoken lexical representations has also been investigated using cross-modal lexical processing paradigms, yielding evidence that auditorily presented words influence visual word recognition, and vice versa. The present study extends this work by examining and comparing the relative sizes of cross-modal repetition (cat-CAT) and semantic (dog-CAT) priming in auditory lexical decision, using heavily masked, briefly presented visual primes and a common set of auditory targets...
December 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Stephan A Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Yunhong Li, Yujing Zhang, Ying Zhang
After ascent to high altitude (≥2500 m), the inability of the human body to adapt to the hypobaric and hypoxia environment can induce tissue hypoxia, then a series of high altitude illnesses including acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) would develop. Symptoms of AMS include headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting; HAPE is characterized by orthopnea, breathlessness at rest, cough, pink frothy sputum, and results in obvious pulmonary edema that poses significant harm to people; HACE is characterized by ataxia and decreased consciousness, leading to coma and brain herniation which would be fatal if not treated promptly...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Cristina Oana Mărginean, Claudiu Mărginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ, Vlăduţ Ştefan Săsăran, Mihai Poruţiu, Cristian Dan Mărginean
RATIONALE: Paraovarian cysts (PCs) are cystic tumors that can be encountered between the ovarian hilum and the ovarian fimbria located within the mesosalpinx and broad ligament, being usually diagnosed within the 3rd and 4th decade of life. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 15-year-old female admitted in our clinic for consciousness loss, who was incidentally diagnosed with a giant pelvic cystic at ultrasound. DIAGNOSES: The magnetic resonance image showed a cystic mass of 170/140/85 mm, suggesting an origin from the left ovary, reaching the subhepatic area...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yi-Hsueh Liu, Wen-Hsien Lee, Chun-Yuan Chu, Ho-Ming Su, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Hsueh-Yei Yen, Wen-Chol Voon, Wen-Ter Lai, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Po-Chao Hsu
RATIONALE: Infective endocarditis (IE) complicated with obstructive ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been reported in the literature and which were mostly related to coronary artery embolism, obstruction, or compression. However, there has been no reported case discussing about IE complicated with nonobstructive STEMI. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we report a 38-year-old female suffering from intermittent fever and was later diagnosed as IE. Initially antibiotic was given and mitral valve surgery was also arranged due to large vegetation with severe mitral regurgitation...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jagoba Zarandona, Itziar Hoyos Cillero, Marta Arrue
BACKGROUND: Considering the prevalence and complexity of a stroke, it is necessary to think about how undergraduate nursing students are developing knowledge for stroke care. AIM: To obtain a vision of nursing students' learning, exploring difficulties concerning understanding stroke care delivery. DESIGN: A phenomenographic research approach. LOCATIONS AND PARTICIPANTS: This research is based on written exam papers (n = 126) from third-year nursing students enrolled in the 2015-16 academic year in two Nursing Schools in Spain...
November 24, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Colin S Flowers, Mary A Peterson
Previous research demonstrated that familiar objects that are suggested, but not consciously perceived, on the groundside of the contours of a figure activate their semantic category during perceptual organization, at least when the figure appears at fixation at an expected time. Here, we investigate whether evidence for such semantic activation extends to stimuli presented at unpredictable times in peripheral locations. Participants categorized words shown centrally as denoting natural or artificial objects (Experiments 1 and 2a) or positive or negative concepts (Experiment 2b)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Vision
Kylie Radford, Louise M Lavrencic, Kim Delbaere, Brian Draper, Robert Cumming, Gail Daylight, Holly A Mack, Simon Chalkley, Hayley Bennett, Gail Garvey, Thi Yen Hill, Danielle Lasschuit, Gerald A Broe
Dementia prevalence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is three to five times higher than the general Australian population. A better understanding of the underlying biomedical and social risk factors is needed to guide dementia prevention in Aboriginal Australians. The current study is the first to examine potential risk factors for dementia in the majority urban and regional population, with a representative sample of 336 Aboriginal Australians aged 60 years and older. Participants included 45 people with a dementia diagnosis (n = 27 probable/possible Alzheimer's disease); and 286 people without dementia...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Matthew J Davidson, David Alais, Jeroen Ja van Boxtel, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
The attentional sampling hypothesis suggests that attention rhythmically enhances sensory processing when attending to a single (~8 Hz), or multiple (~4 Hz) objects. Here we investigated whether attention samples sensory representations that are not part of the conscious percept during binocular rivalry. When crossmodally cued toward a conscious image, subsequent changes in consciousness occurred at ~8 Hz, consistent with rates of undivided attentional sampling. However, when attention was cued toward the suppressed image, changes in consciousness slowed to ~3...
December 3, 2018: ELife
Tess Fitzpatrick, Sophia Gocan, Chu Q Wang, Candyce Hamel, Aline Bourgoin, Dar Dowlatshahi, Grant Stotts, Michel Shamy
BACKGROUND: Identifying and treating patients with transient ischemic attack is an effective means of preventing stroke. However, making this diagnosis can be challenging, and over a third of patients referred to stroke prevention clinic are ultimately found to have alternate diagnoses. AIMS: We performed a systematic review to determine how neurologists diagnose transient ischemic attack. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: A systematic literature search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Soma Sengupta, Paramita Paul, Biswajit Mukherjee, Raghuvir H Gaonkar, Mita Chatterjee Debnath, Rhitabrita Chakraborty, Nobila Khatun, Somdatta Roy
AIM: Procaine that is able to reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) was conjugated as a ligand with lipid nanovesicle and loaded with ribavirin (a broad spectrum antiviral drug incapable of entering the PNS on its own) to target the PNS with a dual-drug effect. MATERIALS & METHODS: Different physicochemical characterizations, γ-scintigraphy and electromyography of the developed nanovesicle were conducted. RESULTS: Marked capability of the optimized radiolabeled formulation to target PNS was observed in rats...
December 3, 2018: Nanomedicine
Alan J McCubbin, Gregory R Cox, Ricardo J S Costa
There is little information describing how endurance athletes perceive sodium intake in relation to training and competition. Using an online questionnaire, this study assessed the beliefs, information sources and intended practices regarding sodium ingestion for training and competition. Endurance athletes (n= 344) from six English-speaking countries completed the questionnaire and were included for analysis. The most cited information sources were social supports (63%), self-experimentation (56%) and media (48%)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ellen Hawley McWhirter, Douglas Gomez, Ellen D Rau
OBJECTIVE: Latina/o adolescents have been described as less likely to participate in volunteer and civic activities relative to other youth. The present study elicited Latina/o youths' own views of how they can make a difference in their communities. METHOD: Latina/o high school students (N = 686; one third males; Mage = 16.3, SD = 1.2) responded in writing to the open-ended question, "How do you think that Latina and Latino young people can make a difference in our communities?" Data were analyzed using thematic analysis...
December 3, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
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