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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786862/experimental-fluence-modulated-proton-computed-tomography-by-pencil-beam-scanning
#1
George Dedes, Robert P Johnson, Mark Pankuch, Nick Detrich, Willemijn M A Pols, Simon Rit, Reinhard W Schulte, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry
PURPOSE: This experimental study is aimed at demonstrating, using a simple cylindrical water phantom, the feasibility of fluence modulated proton computed tomography (FMpCT) by pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton computed tomography (pCT). METHODS: The phase II pCT prototype of the Loma Linda U. and U. C. Santa Cruz was operated using the PBS beam line of the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center. A 20x10 grid of 1.37 cm full width half maximum pencil beams (PB) equally spaced by 1 cm was used to acquire 45 projections in step and shoot mode...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786682/-the-implementation-of-the-method-of-enhanced-external-counter-pulsation-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
V A Badtieva, D N Voroshilova
The cardiovascular diseases occupy a leading place in the structure of overall morbidity affecting the population not only of Russia but also of the majority of the developed countries throughout the world; they thus impose the heavy social and economic burden on both the public healthcare services and the modern society in general. At the same time, systemic atherosclerosis is considered to be one of the most common, severe, and life-threatening condition. Despite the presence of a large number of pharmaceutical and surgical methods for the treatment of this pathology, they are not infrequently lacking the desired effectiveness...
May 21, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786652/consumer-perception-of-the-quality-of-lamb-and-lamb-confit
#3
Guillermo Ripoll, Margalida Joy, Begoña Panea
The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit...
May 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786525/on-farm-mortality-and-related-risk-factors-in-estonian-dairy-cows
#4
Kaari Reimus, Toomas Orro, Ulf Emanuelson, Arvo Viltrop, Kerli Mõtus
Mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) reflects the health and welfare state of the cows and is associated with undesirable financial consequences for the farmer. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to identify risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in dairy cows. Data for a study period between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board and Estonian Livestock Performance Recording, Ltd. Cows from milk-recording herds with ≥20 cow-years were included...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786458/how-to-specify-a-reference-point-in-hypervolume-calculation-for-fair-performance-comparison
#5
Hisao Ishibuchi, Ryo Imada, Yu Setoguchi, Yusuke Nojima
The hypervolume indicator has frequently been used for comparing evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) algorithms. A reference point is needed for hypervolume calculation. However, its specification has not been discussed in detail from a viewpoint of fair performance comparison. A slightly worse point than the nadir point is usually used for hypervolume calculation in the EMO community. In this paper, we propose a reference point specification method for fair performance comparison of EMO algorithms...
May 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786117/the-relevance-of-the-hippocratic-oath-to-the-ethical-and-moral-values-of-contemporary-medicine-part-ii-interpretation-of-the-hippocratic-oath-today-s-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Antonis N Vgontzas
This is the second part of a paper on the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to modern medical ethical and moral values with the aim at answering questions on controversial issues related to the Oath. Part I argued that the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath are relevant to the modern world. Part II attempts to elucidate the interpretation of the specific injunctions of the Oath from today's perspective in relation to ethical values concerning the duties of physicians to patients and society...
May 21, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786019/measuring-situation-awareness-in-medical-education-objective-structured-clinical-examination-guides
#7
Margaret Frere, John Tepper, Markus Fischer, Kieran Kennedy, Thomas Kropmans
Background: Medical errors are among the most prevalent and serious adverse events in health care. Lack of situation awareness (SA) is an important factor leading to such errors. SA can be understood using Endsley's three-tier model: level 1 is perception, level 2 is comprehension, and level 3 is projection. While there is extensive literature on the theory of SA, it is difficult to measure and quantify. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure, identify, and characterize SA in some medical objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) guides, including a 1st year National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG) OSCE...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785936/an-objective-parameter-to-classify-voice-signals-based-on-variation-in-energy-distribution
#8
Boquan Liu, Evan Polce, Jack Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to introduce an iterative nonlinear weighted method based on the variation in spectral energy distribution present in a voice signal to differentiate between four voice types: type 1 voice signals are nearly periodic, type 2 voice signals have strong modulations and subharmonics, type 3 signals are chaotic, and type 4 signals are dominated by stochastic noise. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 135 voice signal samples of the sustained vowel /a/ were obtained from the Disordered Voice Database and then individually categorized into the appropriate voice types based on the classification system described in Sprecher et al (2010)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785919/genomic-selection-in-dairy-cattle-simulated-populations
#9
Leonardo de Oliveira Seno, Diego Gomes Freire Guidolin, Rusbel Raul Aspilcueta-Borquis, Guilherme Batista do Nascimento, Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Danísio Prado Munari
Genomic selection is arguably the most promising tool for improving genetic gain in domestic animals to emerge in the last few decades, but is an expensive process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact related to the implementation of genomic selection in a simulated dairy cattle population. The software QMSim was used to simulate genomic and phenotypic data. The simulated genome contained 30 chromosomes with 100 cm each, 1666 SNPs markers equally spread and 266 QTLs randomly designated for each chromosome...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785893/evaluating-vaccination-strategies-to-control-foot-and-mouth-disease-a-country-comparison-study
#10
T G Rawdon, M G Garner, R L Sanson, M A Stevenson, C Cook, C Birch, S E Roche, K A Patyk, K N Forde-Folle, C Dubé, T Smylie, Z D Yu
Vaccination is increasingly being recognised as a potential tool to supplement 'stamping out' for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in non-endemic countries. Infectious disease simulation models provide the opportunity to determine how vaccination might be used in the face of an FMD outbreak. Previously, consistent relative benefits of specific vaccination strategies across different FMD simulation modelling platforms have been demonstrated, using a UK FMD outbreak scenario. We extended this work to assess the relative effectiveness of selected vaccination strategies in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK and Canada...
May 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785890/family-networks-and-healthy-behaviour-evidence-from-nepal
#11
Jolene Skordis, Noemi Pace, Marcos Vera-Hernandez, Imran Rasul, Emla Fitzsimons, David Osrin, Dharma Manandhar, Anthony Costello
Models of household decision-making commonly focus on nuclear family members as primary decision-makers. If extended families shape the objectives and constraints of households, then neglecting the role of this network may lead to an incomplete understanding of health-seeking behaviour. Understanding the decision-making processes behind care-seeking may improve behaviour change interventions, better intervention targeting and support health-related development goals. This paper uses data from a cluster randomised trial of a participatory learning and action cycle (PLA) through women's groups, to assess the role of extended family networks as a determinant of gains in health knowledge and health practice...
May 22, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785839/optimization-of-a-secondary-voi-protocol-for-lung-imaging-in-a-clinical-ct-scanner
#12
Thomas C Larsen, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Jianhua Yao, Catherine P Nguyen, Marcus Y Chen, Joel Moss, Han Wen
We present a solution to meet an unmet clinical need of an in-situ "close look" at a pulmonary nodule or at the margins of a pulmonary cyst revealed by a primary (screening) chest CT while the patient is still in the scanner. We first evaluated options available on current whole-body CT scanners for high resolution screening scans, including ROI reconstruction of the primary scan data and HRCT, but found them to have insufficient SNR in lung tissue or discontinuous slice coverage. Within the capabilities of current clinical CT systems, we opted for the solution of a secondary, volume-of-interest (VOI) protocol where the radiation dose is focused into a short-beam axial scan at the z position of interest, combined with a small-FOV reconstruction at the xy position of interest...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785800/organizational-models-for-health-actions-in-the-field-of-blood-and-blood-products-in-brazilian-and-spanish-regional-contexts
#13
M K Bomfim de Souza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This article aims to characterize some elements that define the organizational models of healthcare actions in the field of blood and blood products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This exploratory and qualitative study was carried out based on a documentary survey complemented by interviews with key informants of hemotherapy services from three regional territories in Spain and Brazil. RESULTS: It was evidenced demographic, territorial and organizational characteristics, as well as on instruments, resources and individuals involved in the planning, organization and implementation of services and actions in the area...
May 21, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785700/the-association-between-circulating-irisin-levels-and-different-phenotypes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#14
L Zhang, X Fang, L Li, R Liu, C Zhang, H Liu, M Tan, G Yang
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is based on a combination of various clinical phenotypes in each patient. However, insulin resistance (IR) and dysmetabolism are not included in the diagnostic criteria of PCOS. Therefore, the definition of PCOS is controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate whether some PCOS phenotypes can be predicted by a circulating biomarker related to IR and metabolic dysfunction in PCOS women. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen women with PCOS and 95 healthy women were recruited for this study...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785681/diabetes-symptoms-predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-type-1-or-type-2-diabetes
#15
James W Varni, Alan M Delamater, Korey K Hood, Jennifer K Raymond, Kimberly A Driscoll, Jenise C Wong, Saleh Adi, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Ellen K Grishman, Melissa A Faith, Sarah D Corathers, Jessica C Kichler, Jennifer L Miller, Elena M Doskey, Vincent P Aguirre, Robert W Heffer, Don P Wilson
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the patient-reported diabetes symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The 15-item PedsQL™ 3.2 Diabetes Module Diabetes Symptoms Summary Score and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 10-site national field test study by 513 AYA ages 13-25 years with type 1 (n = 424) or type 2 (n = 89) diabetes...
May 21, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785621/comparison-of-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-second-line-combination-chemotherapy-regimens-in-patients-with-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma
#16
Yuji Takeyama, Minoru Kato, Chikako Nishihara, Takeshi Yamasaki, Taro Iguchi, Satoshi Tamada, Katsuyuki Kuratsukuri, Tatsuya Nakatani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of second-line chemotherapy regimens with docetaxel and gemcitabine (GD), or paclitaxel and gemcitabine (GP) for advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) that did not respond to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. METHODS: From 2002 to 2017, 78 patients with metastatic UCs that progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with either GD (n = 41) or GP (n = 37)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785595/a-preliminary-investigation-on-water-quality-of-coalbed-natural-gas-produced-water-for-beneficial-uses-a-case-study-in-the-southern-qinshui-basin-north-china
#17
Zheng Zhang, Yong Qin
Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) is an important unconventional natural gas resource with large reserves in China and receives much attention these years. The CBNG production is accomplished by extracting large volumes of produced water from the aquifer. The CBNG-produced water is commonly managed by discharging into nearby disposal ponds in the Southern Qinshui Basin (SQB), which provides an opportunity for water source for nearby irrigation, livestock, wildlife, and human drinking water. However, utilization of this nontraditional water source in the SQB is hindered by limited knowledge of water quality, practically oxidation/reduction potential (OPR), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ration (SAR), and trace element chemistry data...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785577/atezolizumab-a-review-in-previously-treated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Hannah A Blair
Atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ™), an immune checkpoint inhibitor, is an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds to programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and blocks its interactions with programmed death 1 and B7.1 receptors. Atezolizumab is approved as monotherapy in several countries worldwide for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have previously received chemotherapy. Approval was based on its clinical benefit in this setting in the phase II POPLAR and phase III OAK trials...
May 21, 2018: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785256/job-titles-classified-into-socioeconomic-and-occupational-groups-identify-subjects-with-increased-risk-for-respiratory-symptoms-independent-of-occupational-exposure-to-vapour-gas-dust-or-fumes
#19
Christian Schyllert, Martin Andersson, Linnea Hedman, Magnus Ekström, Helena Backman, Anne Lindberg, Eva Rönmark
Objectives : To evaluate the ability of three different job title classification systems to identify subjects at risk for respiratory symptoms and asthma by also taking the effect of exposure to vapours, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) into account. Background : Respiratory symptoms and asthma may be caused by occupational factors. There are different ways to classify occupational exposure. In this study, self-reported occupational exposure to vapours, gas, dust and fumes was used as well as job titles classifed into occupational and socioeconomic Groups according to three different systems...
2018: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785254/low-rates-of-patient-reported-outcome-claims-for-orphan-drugs-approved-by-the-us-food-and-drug-administration
#20
Szymon Jarosławski, Pascal Auquier, Borislav Borissov, Claude Dussart, Mondher Toumi
Background : Claims included in package inserts (PIs) for medicinal products approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) constitute the regulatory definition of drugs' benefits and risks. Objective : We sought to assess the usage of patient-reported outcome (PRO) claims in a comprehensive set of US FDA orphan drug approvals dated between 1/1/2012 and 31/12/2016, and characterize them. Study design : Orphan drug approval documentation was obtained from the US FDA website. Drug Package Inserts (PI) were analyzed to extract information on PRO-related language...
2018: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
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