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Early neglect and later trauma

Beth S Brodsky
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Sebastian Wolff, Julia Holl, Malte Stopsack, Elisabeth A Arens, Anja Höcker, Katharina A Staben, Philipp Hiller, Michael Klein, Ingo Schäfer, Sven Barnow
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Maltreatment in childhood and adolescence is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood. This association has rarely been investigated in the light of emotion dysregulation. To fill this gap, this study examines emotion dysregulation and SUDs among adults with a history of early maltreatment. METHODS: Comparison of emotion dysregulation in adults with a history of early abuse and neglect who developed either an SUD (n = 105) or no mental disorder (n = 54)...
2016: European Addiction Research
Darcey H Merritt, Sacha Klein
Young children under 6 years old are over-represented in the U.S. child welfare system (CWS). Due to their exposure to early deprivation and trauma, they are also highly vulnerable to developmental problems, including language delays. High quality early care and education (ECE) programs (e.g. preschool, Head Start) can improve children's development and so policymakers have begun calling for increased enrollment of CWS-supervised children in these programs. However, it is not a given that ECE will benefit all children who experience maltreatment...
January 2015: Child Abuse & Neglect
Stefan Kempke, Patrick Luyten, Sarah De Coninck, Boudewijn Van Houdenhove, Linda C Mayes, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of studies that have investigated the assumption that early childhood trauma is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The current study is the first to simultaneously investigate relationships among early childhood trauma, cortisol activity, and cortisol stress reactivity to psychosocial stress in a sample of well-screened CFS patients. We also examined whether self-critical perfectionism (SCP) plays a mediating role in the potential relationship between early trauma and neurobiological stress responses...
February 2015: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jerrold S Meyer, Amanda F Hamel
Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system...
2014: ILAR Journal
Andrea Schulz, Mathias Becker, Sandra Van der Auwera, Sven Barnow, Katja Appel, Jessie Mahler, Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Ulrich John, Harald J Freyberger, Hans J Grabe
OBJECTIVE: Data suggests that traumatic experiences at early age contribute to the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study aims at investigating the influence of dispositional resilience on this relationship. METHODS: Two thousand and forty-six subjects aged 29-89 (SD=13.9) from a community based sample who were free of MDD during the last 12 months prior to data collection were diagnosed for Lifetime diagnosis of MDD by the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) according to DSM-IV criteria...
August 2014: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Kathryn L Humphreys, Charles H Zeanah
Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood...
January 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Peter A Bos, Estrella R Montoya, David Terburg, Jack van Honk
Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol...
October 2014: Human Brain Mapping
Karen A Matthews, Yue-Fang Chang, Rebecca C Thurston, Joyce T Bromberger
OBJECTIVE: Elevated inflammation biomarkers are associated with incident cardiovascular disease. Several studies suggest that childhood abuse may be associated with inflammation later in life. This study examined whether childhood abuse predicted elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether the association was due to body size. METHODS: Participants were 326 (104 Black, 222 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)...
February 2014: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Regina M Sullivan
Decades of research have shown that childhood experiences interact with our genetics to change the structure and function of the brain. Within the range of normal experiences, this system enables the brain to be modified during development to adapt to various environments and cultures. Experiences with and attachment to the caregiver appear particularly important, and recent research suggests this may be due, in part, to the attachment circuitry within the brain. Children have brain circuitry to ensure attachment to their caregivers...
August 2012: Hastings Law Journal
Charlotte Jaite, Ernst Pfeiffer, Ulrike Lehmkuhl, Harriet Salbach-Andrae
OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that both early sexual and early physical abuse are non-specific risk factors for the later development of eating disorders (EDs). However, only little is known about the role of emotional abuse in EDs. METHODS: The sample included 77 inpatients with Anorexia nervosa (AN-R: n = 50; AN-BP: n = 27), 26 psychiatric control participants and 44 healthy control participants, all of whom were females. The diagnosis of AN and the diagnosis of psychiatric control participants were confirmed by structured interviews (SIAB-EX, Fichter & Quadflieg, 1999; CIDI-DIA-X,Wittchen & Pfister, 1997)...
March 2013: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
M D Bartholomeusz, R Callister, D M Hodgson
There is considerable evidence that early life stress (ELS) can have a lasting impact upon adult physiology. Various childhood (and even prenatal) stressors such as parental separation, neglect, and trauma, can leave an enduring impact upon immune, autonomic and endocrine systems. These changes are increasingly understood to represent vulnerabilities to developing later life medical (and psychological) morbidity. In this article it is hypothesized that these enduring physiological changes may also serve as markers to detect the presence of ELS or rather it's impact upon the individual...
February 2013: Medical Hypotheses
Christine Friestad, Rustad Åse-Bente, Ellen Kjelsberg
BACKGROUND: Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. METHODS: A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction...
February 2014: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Byron Egeland, Emily A Blood, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. METHODS: Children (N=206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months...
November 2012: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Marco Bacciagaluppi
This article starts from the DSM definition of psychic trauma. A central source in this field is the 1992 book by Judith Herman. One line of investigation is the sexual abuse of women and children. In an early phase, both Janet and Freud described dissociation as a reaction to trauma. In 1897, Freud disputed the reality of sexual trauma, a position countered later by Ferenczi. In a later phase, this subject was investigated by the American feminist movement. Studies of physical abuse are then described, followed by mental abuse and neglect...
2011: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry
Joanna L Workman, Laura K Fonken, James Gusfa, Kathleen M Kassouf, Randy J Nelson
Challenging early life events can dramatically affect mental health and wellbeing. Childhood trauma and neglect can increase the risk for developing depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Early maternal separation in rodents has been extensively studied and induces long-lasting alterations in affective and stress responses. However, other developmental periods (e.g., the pubertal period) comprise a critical window whereby social and environmental complexity can exert lasting changes on the brain and behavior...
November 2011: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ingo Schäfer, Lisa Teske, Juliane Schulze-Thüsing, Katrin Homann, Jens Reimer, Christian Haasen, Johanna Hissbach, Klaus Wiedemann
AIMS: Studies in animals and humans suggest that early life stress alters hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The same alterations are related to the symptoms and course of alcohol dependence. This study examined relationships between childhood trauma and HPA axis activity in alcohol-dependent patients controlling for psychopathology and characteristics of dependence. METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive patients (42% female) were examined at admission to detoxification (t1) and 14 days later (t2)...
2010: European Addiction Research
Jacqueline Faure, Dan J Stein, William Daniels
The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is an animal model that has been successfully used to study the long term effects of child abuse and neglect. Experiments showed that animals subjected to trauma and stress early in life display behavioural, endocrinological and growth factor abnormalities at a later stage in life, results that mirrored clinical conditions. It is apparent that adverse events early in life may affect the development and maturation of the brain negatively. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the abnormal brain development occurring in separated animals would also enhance the development of a preference for psychostimulant drug usage...
December 2009: Metabolic Brain Disease
Clifford C Michaels, Stephen G Holtzman
Clinical literature has established a link between early childhood incidents of neglect and trauma and adult problems with substance abuse. In rats, such early life stress has been modeled using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm in which rat pups were removed from their mothers for a few hours daily during the first two postnatal weeks. In this study, we used the MS model to investigate the effects of early postnatal stress on place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists in male and female Long-Evans rats...
April 2008: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Megan R Gunnar, Karina M Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with functional abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Emerging evidence suggests that failures in social regulation of the HPA axis in young children manifested as neglectful or abusive care may play a role in shaping cortico-limbic circuits involved in processing experiences threatening experiences encountered later in life. Low cortisol levels, particularly near the peak of the diurnal rhythm, have been reported in abused, neglected and deprived children...
2008: Progress in Brain Research
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