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Colitis, ulcerative

Jun Wang, Ningning Huang, Jia Xiong, Hongkui Wei, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
The intestinal epithelial barrier plays a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. This study aims to explore the potential effects and underlying mechanisms of medium chain fatty acids (caprylic acid and nonanoic acid) on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Using the porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2, a well-established model, challenged with Escherichia coli ATCC 43889 (O157:H7), we found that treatment with caprylic acid (C8) and nonanoic acid (C9) significantly reduced bacterial translocation, enhanced antibacterial activity, and remarkably increased the secretion of porcine β-defensins 1 (pBD-1) and pBD-2...
October 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
O Olén, J Askling, M C Sachs, P Frumento, M Neovius, K E Smedby, A Ekbom, P Malmborg, J F Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be a more severe disease than adult-onset IBD, but there is little information on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with childhood-onset IBD. We performed a population-based cohort study, with 50 years of follow up, to estimate absolute and relative risks for overall and cause-specific mortality in patients with childhood-onset IBD, during childhood and adulthood. METHODS: We identified children with a diagnosis of IBD (less than 18 years old) in the Swedish nationwide health registers (1964-2014; n=9442) and individuals from the general population matched for sex, age, calendar year, and place of residence (reference group; n=93,180)...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Xavier Escoté
In a recent issue of Clinical Science , Prieto-Vicente et al. [ Clin. Sci. (2018) 132 , 985-1001] have smartly demonstrated a potential new use of cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) to treat and palliate an inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis. In that work, authors report that in ulcerative colitic mice, administration of exogenous recombinant CT-1 (rCT-1) promotes lower colon damage and lower disease activity index, reducing systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and also diminishing TNF-α expression in colon together with the reduction in other common inflammation markers...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Maki Jitsumura, Andrew Laurence Cunningham, Matthew David Hitchings, Saiful Islam, Angharad P Davies, Paula E Row, Andrew D Riddell, James Kinross, Tom S Wilkinson, G J Jenkins, John G Williams, Dean Anthony Harris
BACKGROUND: The interaction of the gut microbiota with the human host is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immunological diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a method of restoring gut microbial diversity is of increasing interest as a therapeutic approach in the management of UC. The current literature lacks consensus about the dose of FMT, route of administration and duration of response. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blinded randomised trial will explore the feasibility of FMT in 30 treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed distal UC limited to the recto-sigmoid region (up to 40 cm from the anal verge)...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Yuying Liu, Jane J Alookaran, J Marc Rhoads
Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to impact the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key metabolites produced by these bacteria. At least four metabolic pathways have been implicated in mechanistic studies of probiotics, based on mechanistic studies in animal models. Microbial⁻immune system crosstalk has been linked to: short-chain fatty acid production and signaling, tryptophan metabolism and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors, nucleoside signaling in the gut, and activation of the intestinal histamine-2 receptor...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Alexandra D Frolkis, Isabelle A Vallerand, Abdel-Aziz Shaheen, Mark W Lowerison, Mark G Swain, Cheryl Barnabe, Scott B Patten, Gilaad G Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with IBD, but the effect of antidepressants on IBD has been sparsely studied. We assessed the impact of depression and antidepressant therapies on the development of IBD. DESIGN: The Health Improvement Network (THIN) was used to identify a cohort of patients with new-onset depression from 1986 to 2012. THIN patients who did not meet the defining criteria for depression were part of the referent group. The outcome was incident Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)...
October 18, 2018: Gut
Eileen Crowley, Aleixo Muise
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the 2 most prevailing entities. Very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) children diagnosed with IBD under age 6 years. Although the etiology of IBD is mostly unknown, it involves a complex interaction among host genetics, microbiota, environmental factors, and aberrant immune responses. Advances in the understanding of the genetic contribution, which appears to be much more significant in younger children, gives us a useful insight into the pathogenesis and potential future therapeutic targets in IBD...
December 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Teminioluwa Ajayi, Cynthia L Innes, Sara A Grimm, Prashant Rai, Ryan Finethy, Jörn Coers, Xuting Wang, Douglas A Bell, John A McGrath, Shepherd H Schurman, Michael B Fessler
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder. Genetic association studies have implicated dysregulated autophagy in CD. Among risk loci identified are a promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(rs13361189) and two intragenic SNPs (rs9637876, rs10065172) in immunity-related GTPase family M ( IRGM), a gene that encodes a protein of the autophagy initiation complex. All three SNPs have been proposed to modify IRGM expression, but reports have been divergent and largely derived from cell lines...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Merel E Stellingwerf, Marlou A de Koning, Thomas Pinkney, Willem A Bemelman, Geert R D'Haens, Christianne J Buskens
Background: Appendectomy decreases the risk of developing ulcerative colitis (UC), and is suggested to have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of established UC. However, recent studies showed no significantly decreased colectomy rate, and moreover an apparently increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to investigate the suggested correlation in a meta-analysis, and analyze possible confounding factors. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Alessandro Sartini, Eleonora Scaioli, Elisa Liverani, Matteo Bellanova, Luigi Ricciardiello, Franco Bazzoli, Andrea Belluzzi
BACKGROUND: "Real-life" data of retention rate and persistence of adalimumab in inflammatory bowel disease are still limited. AIMS: To analyze retention rate, persistence, and safety of adalimumab in a 9-year real-life cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective single-center study, all adult patients treated with adalimumab as the first- and second-line biological treatment for steroid-dependent or refractory inflammatory bowel disease between March 2008 and March 2017 were included...
October 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ji-Su Mo, Seol-Hee Han, Ki-Jung Yun, Soo-Cheon Chae
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of human diseases by regulating the expression of target genes in specific cells or tissues. In this study, we analyzed the association between the MIR429 and its target gene, charged multivesicular body protein 5 (CHMP5), in human colon cancer cells and in a DSS-induced colitis mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A luciferase reporter system was used to confirm the effect of MIR429 on CHMP5 expression...
October 17, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Rumiko Tsuboi, Satohiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Miyatani, Hirosato Mashima
An 18-year-old man diagnosed with ileocolonic Crohn's disease with circumferential strictures of the ascending colon started treatment with mesalazine and subsequently underwent right hemicolectomy. After surgery, the patient was started on adalimumab, and the clinical course was favorable. Nine months postoperatively, colonoscopy revealed granular mucosa with circumferential and continuous involvement from the transverse colon down to the rectum, findings which resembled ulcerative colitis. Mesalazine allergy was suspected, and the inflammatory findings resolved after discontinuing mesalazine...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Ryohei Hayashi, Yoshitaka Ueno, Shinji Tanaka, Masaki Wakai, Junko Kumada, Akira Fujita, Motonobu Nomura, Shiro Oka, Masanori Ito, Kazuaki Chayama
Objective Rectal lymphoid follicular aphthous (LFA) lesions are related to ulcerative colitis (UC) and can be initial lesions of UC. We investigated the clinical course and prognosis of rectal LFA lesions. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of the clinical records at a single center. Patients or Materials Thirteen consecutive cases with LFA lesions treated at Hiroshima University Hospital between 1998 and 2015 were evaluated. Another 49 consecutive cases with ulcerative proctitis treated in the same period were enrolled as the control group...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Panpan Ma, Xiaoying Si, Qiubing Chen, Lijun Ma, Meili Hou, Zhigang Xu, Yuejun Kang, Jianglin Wang, Bo Xiao
BACKGROUND: Oral administrations of microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely explored as therapeutic approaches for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, no previous study has comparatively investigated the therapeutic efficacy of MPs and NPs. METHODS: In this study, curcumin (CUR)-loaded MPs (CUR-MPs) and CUR-loaded NPs (CUR-NPs) were fabricated using an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Their therapeutic efficacies against UC were comparatively studied...
October 16, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Lieven Pouillon, Cédric Baumann, Hélène Rousseau, Myriam Choukour, Charlotte Andrianjafy, Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Background: Infliximab and adalimumab are widely used in the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). There are few published data on the treatment persistence of infliximab and adalimumab in patients with UC. Methods: We aimed to compare the treatment persistence rates of infliximab versus adalimumab as first- and second-line tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF), to identify factors potentially associated with persistence, and to evaluate reasons for withdrawal in UC patients...
October 16, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Rajkumar Cheluvappa
The appendix contains copious lymphoid tissue and is constantly exposed to gut flora. Appendicitis followed by appendectomy (AA), when done at a young age, prevents or significantly ameliorates inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in later life. Inflammatory bowel disease comprises Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Our unique murine AA model is the only existing experimental model of AA. Herein, the appendiceal pathology closely resembles the pathological features of human appendicitis. Our AA model protects against experimental colitis in an age-, bacteria- and antigen-dependent manner...
October 16, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Djuna C de Jong, Mark Lo Wenberg, Ioannis Koumoutsos, Shuvra Ray, Joel Mawdsley, Simon Anderson, Jeremy D Sanderson, Krisztina Gecse, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Geert R D'Haens, Peter M Irving, Mark A Samaan
Background: The Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) is a novel instrument to evaluate endoscopic disease activity. It has been demonstrated to outperform the more widely used Mayo endoscopic score (MES) in predicting long-term prognosis, including the need for colectomy. Despite its potential benefits, many clinicians still prefer to use MES because its operating characteristics are better defined and its grades are more readily applicable to clinical decision-making...
October 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Fernando Magro, Cláudia Camila Dias, Francisco Portela, Mário Miranda, Samuel Fernandes, Sonia Bernardo, Paula Ministro, Paula Lago, Isadora Rosa, Inês Pita, Luis Correia, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues
Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease often accompanied by severe and distressing symptoms that, in some patients, might require a surgical intervention (colectomy). This study aimed at determining the risk of experiencing progressive disease or requiring colectomy. Material and Methods: This was a multicenter study: patients' data (n=1481) was retrieved from the Portuguese database of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Bayesian networks and logistic regression were used to build risk matrices concerning the outcomes of interest...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
V Lorén, A Garcia-Jaraquemada, J E Naves, X Carmona, M Mañosa, A M Aransay, J L Lavin, I Sánchez, E Cabré, J Manyé, E Domènech
Background and aims: Steroid-refractoriness is a common and unpredictable phenomenon in ulcerative colitis (UC), but there are no conclusive studies on the molecular functions involved. We aimed to assess in depth the mechanism of action related to steroid failure by integrating transcriptomic data from UC patients, and updated molecular data on UC and glucocorticoids. Methods: miRNA and mRNA expression were evaluated by sequencing and microarrays, respectively, from rectal biopsies of patients with moderately-to-severe active UC, obtained before and on the 3rd day of steroid treatment...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Preeti Shashi, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Megapouch is a rare functional complication of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis characterized by pouch ± small bowel dilatation with no evidence of obstruction on endoscopy and imaging. Little is known about clinical characteristics and outcomes of this entity. METHODS: We included all patients diagnosed with megapouch at our institution, identified from a pouch database. Data on baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes were documented and analyzed from electronic medical records...
October 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
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