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Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516640/examining-the-ocular-fundus-in-neurology
#1
Stefanie J Rodenbeck, Devin D Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however, this skill requires frequent practice. Nonmydriatic tabletop and portable fundus photography and even smartphone-based photography offer alternative and practical means for approaching examination of the ocular fundus...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516390/multisite-vascular-disease-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-increased-in-hospital-mortality-and-no-improvement-over-time
#2
Marco Roffi, Dragana Radovanovic, Juan F Iglesias, Franz R Eberli, Philip Urban, Giovanni B Pedrazzini, Paul Erne, Hans Rickli
INTRODUCTION: Limited data are available on the impact of multisite artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndromes. In particular, it is unknown whether the outcomes of those high-risk patients have improved over time. Therefore, we addressed the multisite artery disease patient population enrolled in the Swiss nationwide prospective acute coronary syndromes cohort study AMIS Plus over two decades. METHODS: All patients enrolled from January 1999 to October 2016 were stratified according to the presence of isolated coronary artery disease or multisite artery disease, defined as coronary artery disease with known concomitant vascular disease (i...
December 5, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513556/primary-aldosteronism-and-cerebrovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Zheng Wei Chen, Chi Sheng Hung, Vin Cent Wu, Yen Hung Lin
As diagnostic techniques have advanced, primary aldosteronism (PA) has emerged as the most common cause of secondary hypertension. The excess of aldosterone caused by PA resulted in not only cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and heart failure, but also cerebrovascular complications, such as stroke and transient ischemic attack. Moreover, PA is associated more closely with these conditions than is essential hypertension. In this review, we present up-to-date findings on the association between PA and cerebrovascular diseases...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508921/study-on-the-incidence-and-risk-factor-of-silent-cerebrovascular-disease-in-young-adults-with-first-ever-stroke
#4
Huimin Fan, Xuezeng Hao, Shuna Yang, Yue Li, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Junliang Yuan, Wenli Hu
Silent cerebrovascular diseases, including silent brain infarcts (SBI), white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleed, are closely correlated with stroke progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors of SBI and WMH in young patients with first-ever stroke.A total of 400 young patients with first-ever stroke were included in this study and received magnetic resonance imaging test. The distributions of stroke subtypes were analyzed based on patients' age and gender...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506607/ultrasound-assessment-of-carotid-arteries-current-concepts-methodologies-diagnostic-criteria-and-technological-advancements
#5
REVIEW
Christopher S G Murray, Tamanna Nahar, Hayrapet Kalashyan, Harald Becher, Navin C Nanda
Following cardiac disease and cancer, stroke continues to be the third leading cause of death and disability due to chronic disease in the developed world. Appropriate screening tools are integral to early detection and prevention of major cardiovascular events. In a carotid artery, the presence of increased intima-media thickness, plaque, or stenosis is associated with increased risk of a transient ischemic attack or a stroke. Carotid artery ultrasound remains a long-standing and reliable tool in the current armamentarium of diagnostic modalities used to assess vascular morbidity at an early stage...
December 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504677/multiple-combination-of-angelica-gigas-extract-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhances-therapeutic-effect
#6
Ran Kim, Pilseog Kim, Chang Youn Lee, Seokyeon Lee, Hwayoung Yun, Min Young Lee, Jongmin Kim, Kyungmin Baek, Woochul Chang
Alternative medicines attract attention because stroke is rarely expected to make a full recovery with the most advanced medical technology. Angelica gigas (AG) is a well-known herbal medicine as a neuroprotective agent. The present study introduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to identify for the advanced treatment of the cerebrovascular disease. The objective of this research is validation of the enhanced effects of multiple combined treatment of AG extract with MSCs on stroke through angiogenesis. Our results confirmed that AG extract with MSCs improved the neovascularization increasing expression of angiogenesis-regulated molecules...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504516/hybrid-coronary-revascularization-vs-complete-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-for-multivessel-coronary-artery-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Sabrina Nolan, Kristian B Filion, Renee Atallah, Emmanuel Moss, Pauline Reynier, Mark J Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) has emerged as a potential alternative to complete coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, the efficacy and safety of HCR vs CABG remain unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare these interventions. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, and the Web of Science for studies comparing HCR to CABG in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease...
December 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503102/implementation-of-the-stroke-code-registry-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-regional-hospital
#8
Helena Estirado-Fugarolas, Maribel Maldonado-Meléndez
Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease caused by a decrease or abrupt obstruction of blood flow to the brain. Nerve cells do not receive oxygen and there is a transient or permanent alteration of the function of a certain region of the brain. It causes high morbidity and mortality resulting in disabilities with a large economic cost to society. The Stroke Code was established at the Mollet Hospital in 2015. A protocol, action guideline and registry were created. The Mollet Hospital does not have a specialist unit so people who suffer thrombolysis and / or who require specific care are transferred to the referral centre...
November 28, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499553/-dynamic-of-cerebrovascular-disorders-in-patients-with-carotid-stenosis
#9
L I Pyshkina, A R Abieva, A N Yasamanova, N A Darvish, P R Kamchatnov, A A Kabanov, A A Tyazhelnikov, E V Silina, S N Shurygin, Z H Osmaeva
AIM: To study the state of cerebral hemodynamics and platelet hemostasis in patients with carotid stenosis (CS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prospective study included 123 patients with atherosclerotic CS. The 1st group included 53 patients (mean age 52±12.5 yrs) who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA); the 2nd group - 70 patients who were treated conservatively (mean age 58.5±15.9 yrs). The state of blood flow through the main arteries of the head (Doppler flowmetry), platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline, the frequency of acute cardiovascular events that occurred during 12 months were evaluated...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488422/omega-6-fats-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Lee Hooper, Lena Al-Khudairy, Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Karen Rees, Julii S Brainard, Tracey J Brown, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alex T O'Brien, Lauren E Winstanley, Daisy H Donaldson, Fujian Song, Katherine Ho Deane
BACKGROUND: Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May 2017 and clinicaltrials...
November 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484282/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Nicole Martin, Charlene Bridges, Julii S Brainard, Xia Wang, Tracey J Brown, Sarah Hanson, Oluseyi F Jimoh, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Katherine Ho Deane, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults...
November 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483211/the-accumulation-of-key-stroke-risk-factors-and-its-association-with-the-characteristics-of-subjects-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#12
Peng Zhang, Hang Jin, Zhen-Ni Guo, Hui-Jie Sun, Fu-Liang Zhang, Xin Sun, Yi Yang
Background: Evidence has shown that the greater the accumulation of risk factors for stroke, the greater the risk of stroke. Early intervention in the accumulation of risk factors for stroke can effectively reduce the incidence of stroke. The study aimed to investigate the distribution of the number of certain risk factors for stroke (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, overweight and obesity, and diabetes) and to explore the cause of the accumulation of certain stroke risk factors. Methods: A total of 4,052 participants aged 40 years or older were selected by the multistage stratified cluster sampling method in Dehui City in Jilin province, China...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478334/corneal-confocal-microscopy-detects-a-reduction-in-corneal-endothelial-cells-and-nerve-fibres-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Adnan Khan, Saadat Kamran, Naveed Akhtar, Georgios Ponirakis, Hamad Al-Muhannadi, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Shumoos Al-Fahdawi, Rami Qahwaji, Faheem Sartaj, Blessy Babu, Muhammad Faisal Wadiwala, Ashfaq Shuaib, Rayaz A Malik
Endothelial dysfunction and damage underlie cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke. We undertook corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify corneal endothelial cell and nerve morphology in 146 patients with an acute ischemic stroke and 18 age-matched healthy control participants. Corneal endothelial cell density was lower (P < 0.001) and endothelial cell area (P < 0.001) and perimeter (P < 0.001) were higher, whilst corneal nerve fibre density (P < 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (P < 0...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478106/protective-effects-of-oral-anticoagulants-on-cerebrovascular-diseases-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-protocol-for-a-multicentre-prospective-observational-longitudinal-cohort-study-strawberry-study
#14
Naoki Saji, Takashi Sakurai, Kengo Ito, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Kazuo Kitagawa, Kaori Miwa, Yuji Tanaka, Koichi Kozaki, Kazuomi Kario, Masato Eto, Keisuke Suzuki, Atsuya Shimizu, Shumpei Niida, Akihiro Hirakawa, Kenji Toba
INTRODUCTION: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is known as a robust risk factor for stroke. Recent reports have suggested a risk of dementia with NVAF, but much remains unknown regarding the relationship between this mechanism and the potential protective effects of novel anticoagulants (direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), or non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study, the strategy to obtain warfarin or DOAC's benefit by evaluating registry, is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study comparing the effects of warfarin therapy and DOACs on cerebrovascular diseases and cognitive impairment over an estimated duration of 36 months...
November 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475173/early-microalbuminuria-as-a-clinical-marker-for-acute-cerebral-small-vessel-infarction
#15
Zhiyong Zhai, Juan Feng
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown the potential interactions between cerebrovascular diseases and microalbuminuria. However, the relationship between urine microalbumin and acute lacunar infarction caused by cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) remains unknown. METHODS: The clinical data of 148 patients with acute lacunar infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between April 2016 and April 2017 were analyzed...
November 26, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473336/associations-between-risk-of-overall-mortality-cause-specific-mortality-and-level-of-inflammatory-factors-with-extremely-low-and-high-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels-among-american-adults
#16
Mohsen Mazidi, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND: The health outcomes associated with extremely low or high plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are not well documented mainly because of the small numbers of participants with such values included in the clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the association between extremely low and high HDL-C with: 1) the risk of overall, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular and cancer mortality, and, 2) their link with inflammatory factors...
November 17, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469326/beneficial-effects-of-resveratrol-administration-focus-on-potential-biochemical-mechanisms-in-cardiovascular-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Michał Wiciński, Maciej Socha, Maciej Walczak, Eryk Wódkiewicz, Bartosz Malinowski, Sebastian Rewerski, Karol Górski, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska
Resveratrol (RV) is a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol and phytoalexin produced by a number of plants such as peanuts, grapes, red wine and berries. Numerous in vitro studies have shown promising results of resveratrol usage as antioxidant, antiplatelet or anti-inflammatory agent. Beneficial effects of resveratrol activity probably result from its ability to purify the body from ROS (reactive oxygen species), inhibition of COX (cyclooxygenase) and activation of many anti-inflammatory pathways. Administration of the polyphenol has a potential to slow down the development of CVD (cardiovascular disease) by influencing on certain risk factors such as development of diabetes or atherosclerosis...
November 21, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468788/tom7-silencing-exacerbates-focal-cerebral-ischemia-injury-in-rat-by-targeting-pink1-beclin1-mediated-autophagy
#18
Jiang Ning, Tan Junyi, Meng Chang, Wang Yueting, Zhang Jingyan, Zhu Jin, Zhao Jing, Zhao Yong
Activated autophagy has been intensively observed in cerebrovascular diseases, including focal cerebral ischemia injury, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. TOM7, which is a component of the protein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex, may modulate assembly of the TOM complex. However, an understanding of how TOM7 affects cerebral ischemia injury is limited. In this study, we demonstrate that the expression of TOM7 is up-regulated after a photothrombotic cerebral ischemic model in rats, peaking at 3 days...
November 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30467085/fetal-stroke-and-cerebrovascular-disease-advances-in-understanding-from-lenticulostriate-and-venous-imaging-alloimmune-thrombocytopaenia-and-monochorionic-twins
#19
REVIEW
Fenella J Kirkham, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, David Howe, Philippa Czarpran, Ashley Harris, Roxanna Gunny, Brigitte Vollmer
Fetal stroke is an important cause of cerebral palsy but is difficult to diagnose unless imaging is undertaken in pregnancies at risk because of known maternal or fetal disorders. Fetal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging may show haemorrhage or ischaemic lesions including multicystic encephalomalacia and focal porencephaly. Serial imaging has shown the development of malformations including schizencephaly and polymicrogyra after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Recognised causes of haemorrhagic fetal stroke include alloimmune and autoimmune thrombocytopaenia, maternal and fetal clotting disorders and trauma but these are relatively rare...
September 11, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458982/influence-of-luminal-stenosis-in-aneurysmal-and-non-aneurysmal-blunt-cerebrovascular-injury
#20
Margaret H Lauerman, Karen Irizarry, Clint Sliker, Brandon R Bruns, Ronald Tesoriero, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
BACKGROUND: Current blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) grading grossly differentiates injury characteristics such as luminal stenosis (LS) and aneurysmal disease. The effect of increasing degree of LS beyond the current BCVI grading scale on stroke formation is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: BCVI over a 3-year period were retrospectively reviewed. To investigate influence of LS beyond the BCVI grading scale within aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal BCVI, grade 2 BCVI were subdivided into BCVI with ≥ 25% and ≤ 50% LS and BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS...
November 3, 2018: Injury
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