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Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases

Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Héctor Spínola-Maroño, Laura G Mendoza-Olivas, Myrna Candelaria
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are among the most common causes of mortality worldwide, preceded only by ischemic heart disease (IHD). Thrombocytopenia was shown to be associated with poor outcomes in IHD and CVD in the general population. This study aimed to assess the relationship of thrombocytopenia with poor outcomes in cancer patients with CVD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on patients with concomitant CVD and cancer who were initially treated at a cancer referral center between January 2010 and December 2017 were included...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Mary Dunbar, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke encompasses a heterogeneous group of focal neurological injuries early in brain development that probably affects more than 5 million people worldwide. Many such injuries are symptomatic in the first days of life, including neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and neonatal haemorrhagic stroke. The remaining focal neurological injuries usually present later in the first year with motor asymmetry, such as arterial presumed perinatal ischaemic stroke, periventricular venous infarction, and presumed perinatal haemorrhagic stroke...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Malvina Hoxha, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas
BACKGROUND: Leukotrienes are important lipid mediators of inflammation arising from arachidonic acid cascade. They are implicated in vascular inflammation and produced in different pathologic conditions as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. Different studies have investigated the role of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) in reducing some cardiovascular events, especially in animals. We conducted a systematic review of both in vivo animal and human studies to determine the potential role of leukotriene receptor antagonist in reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events...
July 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
João Eudes Magalhães, Pedro Augusto Sampaio Rocha-Filho
Migraine and cerebrovascular diseases are disabling disorders, which are possibly closely interrelated. Heterogeneous and scattered evidence in literature remains a challenge. We searched for systematic reviews including diverse cerebrovascular events in migraineurs and reported relevant original studies to update the evidence when necessary. The studies show that migraine is associated with increased risk of transient ischemic attacks, any stroke, and possibly hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, migraine with aura increases the risk of ischemic stroke and white matter abnormalities...
August 17, 2018: Headache
Fanar Mourad, Sharaf-Eldin Shehada, Juri Lubarski, Maria Serrano, Ender Demircioglu, Daniel Wendt, Heinz Jakob, Jaroslav Benedik
OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve construction using pericardial tissue has been known since the late 1960s. The procedure was re-introduced by Ozaki in 2010 and is currently used to treat specific aortic valve diseases. The exact sizing of the neo-cusps and the insertion of the commissures remain the keys to success when performing this procedure. We evaluated our experience using modified custom-made templates. METHODS: In this prospective single-centre study, we evaluated 52 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve construction between September 2015 and March 2017 using either autologous (16 patients, 30...
August 2, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Xiang Li, Zhu-Wei Zhang, Zhong Wang, Jin-Quan Li, Gang Chen
Stroke, also known as "cerebrovascular accident", is an acute cerebrovascular disease that is caused by a sudden rupture of blood vessels in the brain or obstruction of the blood supply by blockage of blood vessels, thus including hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The incidence of ischemic stroke is higher than that of hemorrhagic stroke, and accounts for 80% of the total number of strokes. However, the mortality rate of hemorrhagic stroke is relatively high. Internal carotid artery and vertebral artery occlusion and stenosis can cause ischemic stroke, and especially males over 40 years of age are at a high risk of morbidity...
April 2018: Medical Gas Research
Sajal Jain, Harpal S Buttar, Meena Chintameneni, Ginpreet Kaur
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-induced endothelial abnormalities, dietary habits, and tobacco smoking are considered to be the primary risk factors for causing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prevention of CVDs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents has been a challenging task for decades...
August 15, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Mark T Mills, Arif Zafar, Kishor A Choudhari, Austen Smith, Stewart Coley, Stefan Jankowski, Marc Randall, Umang J Patel
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease (MMD), arterial venous malformations (AVMs), and intracranial aneurysms are distinct cerebrovascular disease processes that most commonly occur in isolation. The literature on the treatment algorithm of each individual condition is well established. An association between MMD and intracranial aneurysms is also known; but MMD in association with AVM is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors discuss various dilemmas in the multi-modality management of these conditions when they coexist with an illustrative case of a 46-year-old woman who presented following a stroke, with 1) left-sided MMD, 2) left-sided frontal AVM, and 3) an aneurysm arising from A1 segment of right anterior cerebral artery...
August 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sui Li, Dong Zeng, Jiangjun Peng, Zhaoying Bian, Hao Zhang, Qi Xie, Yongbo Wang, Yuting Liao, Shanli Zhang, Jing Huang, Deyu Meng, Zongben Xu, Jianhua Ma
Cerebrovascular diseases, i.e., acute stroke, are a common cause of serious long-term disability. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography (CPCT) can provide rapid, highresolution, quantitative hemodynamic maps to assess and stratify perfusion in patients with acute stroke symptoms. However, CPCT imaging typically involves a substantial radiation dose due to its repeated scanning protocol. Therefore, in this work, we present a low-dose CPCT image reconstruction method to yield high-quality CPCT images and high-precision hemodynamic maps by utilizing the great similarity information among the repeated scanned CPCT images...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Jason J Sico, Fitsum Baye, Laura J Myers, John Concato, Jared Ferguson, Eric M Cheng, Farid Jadbabaie, Zhangsheng Yu, Gregory Arling, Alan J Zillich, Mathew J Reeves, Linda S Williams, Dawn M Bravata
Background: American Heart Association/American Stroke Association expert consensus guidelines recommend consideration of cardiac stress testing to screen for occult coronary heart disease (CHD) among patients with ischemic stroke/TIA who have a high-risk Framingham Cardiac Risk Score (FCRS). Whether this guideline is being implemented in routine clinical practice, and the association of its implementation with mortality, is less clear. Methods: Study participants were Veterans with stroke/TIA (n = 11,306) during fiscal year 2011 who presented to a VA Emergency Department or who were admitted...
June 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Heba A Ahmed, Tauheed Ishrat, Bindu Pillai, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Mohammed A Sayed, Wael Eldahshan, Jennifer L Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
BACKGROUND: With the aging population, the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease will continue to rise, as well as the number of individuals with vascular cognitive impairment/dementia (VCID). No specific FDA-approved treatments for VCID exist. Although clinical evidence supports that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent cognitive decline in older adults, whether ARBs have a similar effect on VCID after stroke is unknown. Moreover, these agents reduce BP, which is undesirable in the acute stroke period, so we believe that giving C21 in this acute phase or delaying ARB administration would enable us to achieve the neurovascular benefits without the risk of unintended and potentially dangerous, acute BP lowering...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zhonghua Wu, Ao-Fei Liu, Ji Zhou, Yiqun Zhang, Kai Wang, Chen Li, Hancheng Qiu, Wei-Jian Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety of triple antiplatelet therapy (TAT) with cilostazol in patients undergoing stenting for extracranial and/or intracranial artery stenosis. METHODS: A prospectively collected database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent stenting for extracranial and/or intracranial artery stenosis and showed resistance to aspirin and/or clopidogrel as assessed by pre-stenting thromboelastography (TEG) testing. Patients were assigned to a TAT group and a dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) group...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Carmen M Lara-Rojas, Luis M Pérez-Belmonte, María D López-Carmona, Ricardo Guijarro-Merino, María R Bernal-López, Ricardo Gómez-Huelgas
AIMS: To analyze national trends in the rates of hospitalizations (all-cause and by principal discharge diagnosis) in total diabetic population of Spain. METHODS: We carried out a nation-wide population-based study of all diabetic patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2010. All-cause hospitalizations, hospitalizations by principal discharge diagnosis, mean age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, readmission rates and length of hospital stay were examined. Annual rates adjusted for age and sex were analyzed and trends were calculated...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Sehoon Park, Soojin Lee, Min Woo Kang, Kyungdo Han, Yaerim Kim, Jung Nam An, Kwon Wook Joo, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Hai-Won Yoo, Hyeongsu Kim, Dong Ki Kim
OBJECTIVES: Long-term risk of a major adverse cardiovascular events in ICU survivors who underwent acute renal replacement therapy requires further investigation. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study using the claims database of Korea. SETTING: Index admission cases of ICU survivors in government-designated tertiary hospitals PATIENTS: : The study group consisted of ICU survivors who underwent acute renal replacement therapy, and the control group consisted of those without acute renal replacement therapy...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Eugen Trinka, Claudia Cagnetti, Mario Di Napoli, Mauro Silvestrini
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 10 to 30% of all acute cerebrovascular events, and it is the type of stroke associated with the highest rates of mortality and residual disability. The inflammatory response is early triggered by hematoma components and can enhance the damage within the hemorrhagic brain. Assessment of peripheral biomarkers of inflammation could contribute to increase knowledge about some of the mechanisms involved in the ICH-induced injury and yield information on the disease course...
August 8, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Michelle M O'Shaughnessy, Sai Liu, Maria E Montez-Rath, Richard A Lafayette, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
Aims: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor. We aimed to determine the extent to which cause of kidney disease independently contributes to this risk. Methods and results: Using a national US ESRD registry, we selected patients with eight different causes of ESRD who initiated dialysis 1997-2014. We used proportional sub-distribution hazard models, with non-cardiovascular death or kidney transplantation as competing risks, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for a first composite cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular or cerebrovascular death), by cause of ESRD...
August 2, 2018: European Heart Journal
E O Vershinina, A N Repin
OBJECTIVE: to analyze long-term outcomes and to develop a model for determining the risk of long-term adverse сardiovascular events after elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included in this study 148 patients, sent from 2009 to 2011 for routine endovascular intervention for chronic ischemic heart disease on the background of stenotic coronary artery atherosclerosis. Outcomes of interventions were assessed over 6 years after the index PCI by analyzing medical records and telephone interviews...
July 2018: Kardiologiia
L M Tibekina, D O Boricheva, A A Nikolaeva
Current research aimed to reveal clinical and neurological features of ischaemic stroke (IS) in patients suffering from cerebral venous insufficiency (CVI) combined with arterial hypertension (AH) and to identify its risk factors. Examination data of 112 patients with IS (aged 60-93 years old; mean age 72,1±2,6 years old, males - 39 (34,8%), females - 73 (65,2%), admitted at regional vascular center of St. Elizabeth City Hospital in Saint Petersburg, highlighted that cephalgic syndrome and vestibulocerebellar dysfunction occurred more frequently in stroke patients with CVI...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
C E Neville, S Montgomery, G Silvestri, A McGowan, E Moore, V Silvestri, C Cardwell, C T McEvoy, A P Maxwell, J V Woodside, G J McKay
BACKGROUND: Retinal vessel abnormalities are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Widening of retinal venules is associated with increased risk of stroke while narrowing of retinal arterioles independently predicts incident hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes. Dietary factors are known to play an important role in cardiovascular health. However, few studies have examined the association between dietary patterns (DPs) and retinal microvascular health. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between 'a posteriori'-derived DPs and retinal vascular caliber (RVC) in older women with a restricted lifestyle...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Sanjeeb Sapkota, Rosemarie Kobau, Daniel M Pastula, Matthew M Zack
Epilepsy is common in older adults because known risk factors-such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, cerebrovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and neoplasms-increase with age. This study uses the most recent data from the 2010, 2013, and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to provide updated national estimates of epilepsy prevalence among US adults aged 55 years or older to help guide public health action. We used the following validated surveillance case definition for active epilepsy: adults with self-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy or seizure disorder who reported either currently taking medications to treat their epilepsy or seizure disorder or at least one seizure during the past 12 months...
August 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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