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Ines Galtier d'Auriac, Robert A Quinn, Heather Maughan, Louis-Felix Nothias, Mark Little, Clifford A Kapono, Ana Cobian, Brandon T Reyes, Kevin Green, Steven D Quistad, Matthieu Leray, Jennifer E Smith, Pieter C Dorrestein, Forest Rohwer, Dimitri D Deheyn, Aaron C Hartmann
Corals and humans represent two extremely disparate metazoan lineages and are therefore useful for comparative evolutionary studies. Two lipid-based molecules that are central to human immunity, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and Lyso-PAF were recently identified in scleractinian corals. To identify processes in corals that involve these molecules, PAF and Lyso-PAF biosynthesis was quantified in conditions known to stimulate PAF production in mammals (tissue growth and exposure to elevated levels of ultraviolet light) and in conditions unique to corals (competing with neighbouring colonies over benthic space)...
August 15, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Coral Gartner, Marilyn Bromberg, Tanya Musgrove, Kathy Luong
Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) that are not approved as therapeutic goods are banned in some countries, including Australia, Singapore, and Thailand. We reviewed two non-profit regulatory options, private clubs and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration Special Access Scheme (SAS) that have been applied to other controlled substances (such as cannabis) as a potential model for regulating VNPs as an alternative to prohibition. The legal status of private cannabis clubs varies between the United States, Canada, Belgium, Spain, and Uruguay...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kinga Adamenko, Joanna Kawa-Rygielska, Alicja Z Kucharska, Narcyz Piórecki
In this study, we investigated the effect of Cornelian cherry cultivars differing in fruit color ("Yantaryi"-yellow fruits, "Koralovyi"-coral fruits, "Podolski"-red fruits) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidative properties, and contents of iridoids and polyphenols in meads with the addition of juices made of their fruits. " Trójniak " type meads (1:2 honey to water volume) were manufactured from multifloral honey, to which Cornelian cherry fruit juice was added before fermentation...
August 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Snigdha Majumder, Rakshit Shah, Jisha Elias, Malini Manoharan, Priyanka Shah, Anjali Kumari, Papia Chakraborty, Vasumathi Kode, Yogesh Mistry, Karunakaran Coral, Bharti Mittal, Sakthivel Murugan Sm, Lakshmi Mahadevan, Ravi Gupta, Amitabha Chaudhuri, Arati Khanna-Gupta
Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer predisposition disorder wherein patients have a 70-80% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancers (CRC). Finding germline mutations in predisposing genes allows for risk assessment of CRC development. Here we report a germline heterozygous frame-shift mutation in the mismatch repair MLH1 gene which was identified in members of two unrelated LS families. Since defects in DNA mismatch repair genes generate frame-shift mutations giving rise to highly immunogenic neoepitopes, we postulated that vaccination with these mutant peptide antigens could offer promising treatment options to LS patients...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Salmon, Christina Coppenrath, Benjamin Higgins
In this study, we compare and contrast armoring strategies during early ontogeny among three related species of marine turtles: the hawksbill, a species that diverged about 29 mya from the loggerhead and Kemp's ridley, which diverged from one another about 16 mya. Our purpose was to determine whether there was a correlation between divergence time and the evolution of unique morphological armoring specializations among these species. To find out, we completed a more detailed analysis of shell morphology for all of the species that revealed the following patterns...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Yuanjia Huang, Jigui Yuan, Yanping Zhang, Hiupai Peng, Li Liu
Optimal temperature and light are both necessary conditions for coral survival. Light enhances calcification, and thermal stress disrupts Ca2+ homeostasis. As calcium is involved in many important metabolic activities, in this study, we cloned the calmodulin-like protein (CaLP) gene of one of the scleractinian corals, Galaxea astreata. We also detected the relative mRNA expression levels of gaCaLP using the calcium channel blocker verapamil and CaCl2 treatment under conditions of light and dark, and compared expression levels under controlled temperature conditions...
June 7, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Sara Anne Ruggiero, Jason Huber, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy Andrew Simpson
During physiological stress (e.g. exercise, hypoxia) blood flow is shunted to specific anatomical regions to protect critical organs, yet, splenic blood flow in these circumstances remains to be investigated. Despite being classically viewed as a non-critical organ, recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests the spleen plays a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. We hypothesized that splenic blood flow is prioritized in the development of heart failure (i.e. chronic state of reduced cardiac output)...
August 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
John P Rippe, Justin H Baumann, Daphne N De Leener, Hannah E Aichelman, Eric B Friedlander, Sarah W Davies, Karl D Castillo
Through the continuous growth of their carbonate skeletons, corals record information about past environmental conditions and their effect on colony fitness. Here, we characterize century-scale growth records of inner and outer reef corals across ~200 km of the Florida Keys Reef Tract (FKRT) using skeletal cores extracted from two ubiquitous reef-building species, Siderastrea siderea and Pseudodiploria strigosa. We find that corals across the FKRT have sustained extension and calcification rates over the past century but have experienced a long-term reduction in skeletal density, regardless of reef zone...
August 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Valeriya Komyakova, Geoffrey P Jones, Philip L Munday
While there is increasing evidence for habitat specialization in coral reef fishes, the extent to which different corals support different fish communities is not well understood. Here we quantitatively assess the relative importance of different coral species in structuring fish communities and evaluate whether sampling scale and coral colony size affect the perceived strength of fish-habitat relationships. Fish communities present on colonies of eight coral species (Porites cylindrica, Echinopora horrida, Hydnophora rigida, Stylophora pistillata, Seriatopora hystrix, Acropora formosa, A...
2018: PloS One
Todd C LaJeunesse, John Everett Parkinson, Paul W Gabrielson, Hae Jin Jeong, James Davis Reimer, Christian R Voolstra, Scott R Santos
The advent of molecular data has transformed the science of organizing and studying life on Earth. Genetics-based evidence provides fundamental insights into the diversity, ecology, and origins of many biological systems, including the mutualisms between metazoan hosts and their micro-algal partners. A well-known example is the dinoflagellate endosymbionts ("zooxanthellae") that power the growth of stony corals and coral reef ecosystems. Once assumed to encompass a single panmictic species, genetic evidence has revealed a divergent and rich diversity within the zooxanthella genus Symbiodinium...
August 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Chia-Hua Wu, Chih-Hua Chao, Tzu-Zin Huang, Chiung-Yao Huang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Chang-Feng Dai, Jyh-Horng Sheu
Five new cembranoid-related diterpenoids, namely, flexibilisins D and E ( 1 and 2 ), secoflexibilisolides A and B ( 3 and 4 ), and flexibilisolide H ( 5 ), along with nine known compounds ( 6 ⁻ 14 ), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. Their structures were established by extensive spectral analysis. Compound 3 possesses an unusual skeleton that could be biogenetically derived from cembranoids. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were investigated, and the results showed that dehydrosinulariolide ( 7 ) and 11- epi -sinulariolide acetate ( 8 ) exhibited cytotoxicity toward a limited panel of cancer cell lines and 14-deoxycrassin ( 9 ) displayed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release in N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLF/CB)-induced human neutrophils...
August 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Megan J Huggett, Amy Apprill
Coral-associated microorganisms are thought to play a fundamental role in the health and ecology of corals, but understandings of specific coral-microbial interactions are lacking. In order to create a framework to examine coral-microbial specificity, we integrated and phylogenetically compared 21,100 SSU rRNA gene Sanger-produced sequences from bacteria and archaea associated with corals from previous studies, and accompanying host, location and publication metadata, to produce the Coral Microbiome Database...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Caitlin R Fong, Kendall S Chancellor, Julianna J Renzi, De'Marcus R Robinson, Paul H Barber, Sennai Y Habtes, Peggy Fong
Worldwide, many coral reef ecosystems have shifted from coral to algal dominance, yet the ecological function of these emergent communities remains relatively unknown. Turbinaria ornata, a macroalga with a rapidly expanding range in the South Pacific, forms dense stands on hard substrate, likely providing ecological services unique from corals. While generally unpalatable, T. ornata can function as a secondary foundation species and hosts an epibiont community that may provide overlooked trophic resources in phase shifted reef ecosystems...
August 3, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Hiroyoshi Takamura, Takahiro Kikuchi, Kohei Iwamoto, Eiji Nakao, Naoki Harada, Taichi Otsu, Noriyuki Endo, Yuji Fukuda, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, Yue-Wei Guo, Isao Kadota
Sarcophytonolides are cembranolide diterpenes isolated from the soft corals of genus Sarcophyton. Unified total synthesis of sarcophytonolides C, E, F, G, H, and J and isosarcophytonolide D was achieved. The synthetic routes feature NaHMDS- or SmI2-mediated fragment coupling, alkoxycarbonylallylation, macrolactonization, and transannular ring-closing metathesis. These total syntheses led to the absolute configurational confirmation of sarcophytonolide H, elucidation of sarcophytonolides C, E, F, and G, and revision of sarcophytonolide J and isosarcophytonolide D...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Irene Moreno-Torres, Coral González-García, Marco Marconi, Aranzazu García-Grande, Luis Rodríguez-Esparragoza, Víctor Elvira, Elvira Ramil, Lucía Campos-Ruíz, Ruth García-Hernández, Fátima Al-Shahrour, Coral Fustero-Torre, Alicia Sánchez-Sanz, Antonio García-Merino, Antonio José Sánchez López
Background: Fingolimod is a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod affects lymphocyte subpopulations and regulates gene expression in the lymphocyte transcriptome. Translational studies are necessary to identify cellular and molecular biomarkers that might be used to predict the clinical response to the drug. In MS patients, we aimed to clarify the differential effects of fingolimod on T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell subsets and to identify differentially expressed genes in responders and non-responders (NRs) to treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gergely Torda, Katie Sambrook, Peter Cross, Yui Sato, David G Bourne, Vimoksalehi Lukoschek, Tessa Hill, Georgina Torras Jorda, Aurelie Moya, Bette L Willis
Increases in the frequency of perturbations that drive coral community structure, such as severe thermal anomalies and high intensity storms, highlight the need to understand how coral communities recover following multiple disturbances. We describe the dynamics of cover and assemblage composition of corals on exposed inshore reefs in the Palm Islands, central Great Barrier Reef, over 19 years encapsulating major disturbance events such as the severe bleaching event in 1998 and Cyclone Yasi in 2011, along with other minor storm and heat stress events...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
C E Cornwall, S Comeau, T M DeCarlo, B Moore, Q D'Alexis, M T McCulloch
Ocean acidification is a threat to the continued accretion of coral reefs, though some undergo daily fluctuations in pH exceeding declines predicted by 2100. We test whether exposure to greater pH variability enhances resistance to ocean acidification for the coral Goniopora sp. and coralline alga Hydrolithon reinboldii from two sites: one with low pH variability (less than 0.15 units daily; Shell Island) and a site with high pH variability (up to 1.4 pH units daily; Tallon Island). We grew populations of both species for more than 100 days under a combination of differing pH variability (high/low) and means (ambient pH 8...
August 8, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kenneth W Baughman
Acanthaster planci, commonly known as the "crown-of-thorns starfish" (COTS) are famous for decimating coral reefs, yet the unique features of the COTS genome make the starfish a useful system for genomic and evolutionary developmental research. The COTS genome assembly is an order of magnitude more highly contiguous than other recently sequenced echinoderm genome assemblies. The high resolution of the COTS assembly is likely related to low heterozygosity resulting from historical population dynamics and possibly a recent population expansion...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Carlos Toledo-Hernandez
Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biodiverse habitats in the marine realm. They not only contribute with a plethora of ecosystem services, but they also are beneficial to humankind via nurturing marine fisheries and sustaining recreational activities. We will discuss the biology of coral reefs and their ecophysiology including the complex bacterial microbiota associated with them.
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Walter M Goldberg
Tropical scleractinian corals are dependent to varying degrees on their photosymbiotic partners. Under normal levels of temperature and irradiance, they can provide most, but not all, of the host's nutritional requirements. Heterotrophy is required to adequately supply critical nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Scleractinian corals are known as mesozooplankton predators, and most employ tentacle capture. The ability to trap nano- and picoplankton has been demonstrated by several coral species and appears to fulfill a substantial proportion of their daily metabolic requirements...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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