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Nick Savidov, Tatyana A Gloriozova, Vladimir V Poroikov, Valery M Dembitsky
This mini review is devoted to highly oxygenated isoprenoid lipids (HOIL) that are produced by fungi and fungal endophytes from various ecological niches, both terrestrial and aquatic. Steroids were distributed as from edible cultivated fungi, as well as fungi collected in forests. Fungal endophytes were generally isolated from plants and cultured to obtain sufficient biomass. Marine fungi were obtained from marine brown and red algae and marine invertebrates such as sponges, corals, worms, crustacea or from marine sediments...
October 13, 2018: Steroids
Zhaodi Huang, Jianhua Liu, Zhenyu Xiao, Hui Fu, Weidong Fan, Ben Xu, Bin Dong, Di Liu, Fangna Dai, Daofeng Sun
A coral-like NiSe@NC nanohybrid as an effective electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at all pH values, constructed via the in situ selenation of a Ni-MOFs precursor, is reported. The electrocatalyst shows overpotentials of 123 mV, 250 mV and 300 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M KOH and 1.0 M PBS, respectively, to afford a current density of 10 mA cm-2. Meanwhile, NiSe@NC also exhibits a small Tafel slope and superior long-term stability over a wide pH range. The excellent electrocatalytic performance should be ascribed to the unique coral-like structure with a large BET specific surface area (125...
October 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Eva Turicchia, Marco Abbiati, Michael Sweet, Massimo Ponti
Mediterranean gorgonian forests are species-rich habitats, and like many other marine habitats they are threatened by anthropogenic disturbances and mass mortality events. These mortality events have often been linked to anomalies in the temperature profiles of the Mediterranean region. On 5 September 2017, colonies of the gorgonians Eunicella singularis and Eunicella cavolini exhibited rapid tissue loss, down to a depth of 30 m along the steep cliffs of Montecristo Island, Tuscan Archipelago National Park, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
David R Bryan, Jeremiah Blondeau, Ashley Siana, Jerald S Ault
About nine years ago (circa 2009), Indo-Pacific lionfishes ( Pterois volitans and P. miles ) invaded the south Florida coral reef ecosystem. During the intervening period of time, there has been substantial research on their biology, life history, demography, and habitat preferences; however, little is known concerning their regional population status and trends in the region. Here, we use a large-scale fisheries independent reef fish visual survey to investigate lionfish population status among three south Florida regions: Dry Tortugas, Florida Keys, and southeast Florida...
2018: PeerJ
Enrique J Salgado, Stephanie E Nehasil, Peter J Etnoyer
Deep-sea corals in Southern California are diverse and abundant but subject to multiple stressors, including bottom-contact fisheries using mobile and fixed gear. There is a need for more information on the distribution of these taxa in relation to the distribution of demersal fishing effort, and the distribution of marine protected areas, in order to improve spatial planning. There are many marine managed areas in Southern California, including essential fish habitat (EFH) areas, conservation areas, and a national marine sanctuary, but specific areas of overlap between bottom fishing and benthic epifauna are poorly known...
2018: PeerJ
Nicholas L Ortodossi, Ben L Gilby, Thomas A Schlacher, Rod M Connolly, Nicholas A Yabsley, Christopher J Henderson, Andrew D Olds
The spatial properties of landscapes influence numerous ecological attributes on land and in the sea, including the efficacy of conservation areas. In this context, seascape connectivity (landscape connectivity in the sea) has been shown to modify reserve performance in low-energy marine ecosystems (e.g. coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass), but it is not clear whether similar spatial linkages also shape reserve effectiveness on high-energy, exposed coastlines. We used the surf zones of ocean beaches in eastern Australia as a model system to test how seascape connectivity and reserve attributes combine to shape conservation outcomes...
October 14, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov
Toxicity to algae is important characteristic of substances from ecologic point of view. The CORAL software ( ) gives possibility to build up model of toxicity to algae using data on the molecular architecture and experimental toxicity, without additional data on physicochemical and/or biochemical parameters. Considerable improvement of the model is observed in the case of using the index of ideality of correlation (IIC) in the role of additional criterion of predictive potential...
October 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Viviana Peña, Line Le Gall, Anja Rösler, Claude E Payri, Juan Carlos Braga
Adeylithon gen. nov. with one species, A. bosencei sp. nov., belonging to the subfamily Hydrolithoideae is described from Pacific coral reefs based on psbA sequences and morpho-anatomy. In contrast with Hydrolithon, A. bosencei showed layers of large polygonal "cells", which resulted from extensive lateral fusions of perithallial cells, interspersed among layers of vegetative cells. This anatomical feature is shared with the fossil Aethesolithon, but lacking DNA sequences from the fossils and the fragmentary nature of Aethesolithon type material, we cannot ascertain if Adeylithon and Aethesolithon are congeneric...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Zhi Zhou, Zhaoqiu Liu, Lingui Wang, Jian Luo, Hailang Li
Giant clams are one of the most important animals in coral reef ecosystem, and its growth and reproduction are being threatened by acute heat stress due to global warming. In the present study, the symbiont density, the crucial enzymes to physiological activities and the transcriptome were investigated in the outer mantle of giant clam Tridacna crocea after the acute exposure of high temperature. The density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly during 12-24 h, with the minimum level (7.75 × 105  cell cm-2 , p < 0...
October 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Raveendhiran Ravinesh, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar, Alan J Kohn
Lakshadweep, the northernmost region of the Chagos-Maldives-Lakshadweep group of islands located southwest of the Malabar coast of India in the Arabian Sea, is the only chain of coral atolls in India. This paper documents the diversity of the molluscan family Conidae from the seas around all ten inhabited islands of Lakshadweep. Of the 78 species of cone snails now reported from Lakshadweep, 49 were recorded in this study. Three of these had not previously been reported from India, and four are newly reported from Lakshadweep...
June 28, 2018: Zootaxa
LaÍs V Ramalho, Paul D Taylor, Fernando Coreixas Moraes, Rodrigo Moura, Gilberto M Amado-Filho, Alex C Bastos
Bryozoans are a key group of sessile invertebrates in some reef frameworks but are typically neglected in environmental monitoring programs. Abrolhos Bank (Brazil) is the largest reef complex in the South Atlantic Ocean, encompassing several reef landscapes over an area of 46,000 km2. A transition takes place across the shelf from mangroves to soft sediments, coastal shallow reefs to a volcanic archipelago - surrounded by fringing reefs - and unique mushroom-shaped biogenic structures, with mesophotic pinnacle reefs, rhodolith beds, sink-holes and shelf break deep environments...
September 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Shane T Ahyong, Caroline A Farrelly
Deep water ethusid crabs, genus Ethusina, are confirmed for the first time from Australia, with additional distribution records from New Zealand waters. Prior to the present study, Ethusina was reported from Australia on the basis of a single unidentified species from southwestern Australia. Four species are reported herein: Ethusina castro Ahyong, 2008, E. ciliacirrata Castro, 2005, E. robusta (Miers, 1886), and E. rowdeni Ahyong, 2008. Ethusina castro, previously known only from the female holotype from northern New Zealand is reported for the first time from eastern Australia, the Lord Howe Rise and Monowai Caldera, including the first known males...
September 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Michael L Zettler, AndrÉ Freiwald, JosÉ M Guerra-garcÍa
A new species of caprellid amphipod, Aeginella corallina sp. nov., is described from cold-water corals off Angola. This is the first observation of this genus in the South-Atlantic. The taxon is fully described and figured and is compared with the only known species of the genus, A. spinosa, occurring in deep waters of the northern hemisphere. Both species can be clearly differentiated on the basis of the following characters: (1) pereonite 1 is provided with a large dorsal acute projection in A. spinosa, while this projection is lacking in A...
August 29, 2018: Zootaxa
M Cristina DÍaz, Shirley A Pomponi
Pulley Ridge, a limestone ridge that extends nearly 300 km along the southwestern Florida shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, supports a mesophotic coral ecosystem (59 to 94 m deep), surrounded by deeper waters. An ongoing evaluation of Porifera biodiversity observed and collected during expeditions by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (2003-2015) have shown the existence of approximately 102 sponge species, with at least 20 species new to science. The present paper describes two novel Poecilosclerida from mesophotic reefs and deep escarpments in the Pulley Ridge Region, Eastern Gulf of Mexico, namely Discorhabdella ruetzleri n...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Linnet Busutil, MarÍa R GarcÍa-hernÁndez, M Cristina DÍaz, Shirley A Pomponi
This study presents the description of two Callyspongia species new to science, and the distribution of all Callyspongia species recorded during the first joint Cuba-U.S. expedition to characterize Cuban mesophotic coral ecosystems (May-June 2017). Additionally, we propose a key to identify thin branching species of the genus in the Greater Caribbean. The observations here presented are the result of underwater explorations with the Mohawk Remotely Operated Vehicle dives at 35 sites around the island, at depths of 25-188 m, recording images and videos, and collecting specimens...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Francesca Benzoni, Roberto Arrigoni, Michael L Berumen, Marco Taviani, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro R Frade
The colonial stony coral genus Madracis is cosmopolitan, lives in shallow and deep water habitats, and includes zooxanthellate, azooxanthellate and facultative symbiotic species. One of its species, Madracis pharensis, has been recorded from the Mediterranean and East Atlantic, where it forms small knobby and facultative zooxanthellate colonies (also named M. pharensis f. pharensis), and from the tropical Caribbean, where it also occurs in a massive and zooxanthellate form (named M. pharensis f. luciphila by some)...
September 6, 2018: Zootaxa
Le Doan Dung, Akira Tsukagoshi
The present study reports three new species of Ostracoda, Loxoconcha damensis sp. nov., Xestoleberis vietnamensis sp. nov. and X. munensis sp. nov., from Phu Quoc Island, southwest Vietnam and Nha Trang Bay, central Vietnam. These species inhabit the coral reefs around isolated islands and can be easily distinguished from other known species based on their morphological differences, mainly in the male copulatory organ. Loxoconcha damensis sp. nov. belongs to Loxoconcha Group A, based on the distributional pattern of their pore system below the eye tubercle...
September 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Jeremy Horowitz, Dennis M Opresko, Tom C L Bridge
Black corals (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) occur in all the world's oceans in a wide range of habitats from shallow-water coral reefs to the deep-sea. However, the taxonomy of black corals is poorly known compared to many other anthozoan groups. This knowledge gap is particularly acute for the deep-sea, where collecting specimens is logistically difficult and costly. Here, we identify 21 black coral specimens collected from the western Coral Sea adjacent to north-east Australia. The specimens represent five nominal species from five genera and two families...
September 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Tomoki Inaba, Hiroyuki Motomura
The stinger genus Inimicus Jordan Starks, 1904 (family Synanceiidae), distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, is characterized by having two free pectoral-fin rays. Examination of the original descriptions and 420 specimens, including all available type specimens, of the genus resulted in the recognition of nine valid species: Inimicus brachyrhynchus (Bleeker, 1874) (recorded from Hong Kong and Singapore), I. caledonicus (Sauvage, 1878) (distributed in Andaman Sea and western Pacific Ocean), I. cuvieri (Gray, 1835) (Andaman Sea and western Pacific Ocean), I...
September 17, 2018: Zootaxa
C S Serejo, S G L Siqueira
This catalog documents 303 species within 142 genera and 56 families distributed in the suborders Amphilochidea, Senticaudata and order Ingolfiellida that have been described or reported for the Brazilian coast and continent. Data for these species such as type material, type locality, geographic and bathymetric distribution, ecological notes and remarks, when pertinent, was given. From these, 268 species (~ 90%) are benthonic, marine and/or estuarine occurring from a diverse type of substrates as sediment, algae, sponges, cnidarians, ascideans, mangrove roots, fouling habitats, coral rubble, rodolith banks, etc...
June 8, 2018: Zootaxa
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