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Xin Zhong, Yuting Li, Xingkai Che, Zishan Zhang, Yiman Li, Binbin Liu, Qingming Li, Huiyuan Gao
Oxybenzone (OBZ), an active ingredient in most sunscreens, was recently shown to be toxic to humans, corals and other animals. This study is the first to demonstrate that OBZ can significantly inhibit photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves of a higher plant, cucumber. An OBZ suspension content as low as 0.228 mg/L obviously inhibited the photosynthesis and respiration of cucumber. OBZ instantly inhibits the electron transport of chloroplasts and mitochondria in cucumber leaves. Probit analysis demonstrated that the effective content for 20% inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was 11...
December 3, 2018: Chemosphere
T J Chase, M S Pratchett, G E Frank, M O Hoogenboom
Global environmental change has the potential to disrupt well established species interactions, with impacts on nutrient cycling and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, fish living within the branches of coral colonies can promote coral performance, and it has been hypothesized that the enhanced water flow and nutrients provided by fish to corals could ameliorate coral bleaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of small, aggregating damselfish on the health of their host corals (physiology, recovery, and survival) before, during, and after a thermal-bleaching event...
2018: PloS One
Shannon Gravely, James F Thrasher, K Michael Cummings, Janine Ouimet, Ann McNeill, Gang Meng, Eric N Lindblom, Ruth Loewen, Rich O'Connor, Mary E Thompson, Sara C Hitchman, David Hammond, Bryan W Heckman, Ron Borland, Hua-Hie Yong, Tara Elton-Marshall, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Coral Gartner, Geoffrey T Fong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Debate exists about whether health professionals (HPs) should advise smokers to use nicotine vaping products (NVPs) to quit smoking. The objectives were to examine in four countries: (1) prevalence of HP discussions and recommendation to use an NVP; (2) who initiated NVP discussions; (3) the type of HP advice received about NVPs; and (4) smoker's characteristics related to receiving advice about NVPs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using multivariable logistic regression analyses on weighted data from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (ITC 4CV1)...
December 11, 2018: Addiction
Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Simon E Coppard, Harilaos A Lessios, Derek E G Briggs, Rich Mooi, Greg W Rouse
BACKGROUND: Echinoidea is a clade of marine animals including sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars and sea biscuits. Found in benthic habitats across all latitudes, echinoids are key components of marine communities such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A little over 1000 species inhabit the oceans today, a diversity that traces its roots back at least to the Permian. Although much effort has been devoted to elucidating the echinoid tree of life using a variety of morphological data, molecular attempts have relied on only a handful of genes...
December 13, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Allison Lipitz-Snyderman, Coral L Atoria, Stephen M Schleicher, Peter B Bach, Katherine S Panageas
PURPOSE: A shift in outpatient oncology care from the physician's office to hospital outpatient settings has generated interest in the effect of practice setting on outcomes. Our objective was to examine whether medical oncologists' prescribing of drugs and services for older adult patients with advanced cancer is used more in physicians' offices compared with hospital outpatient departments. METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study. SEER-Medicare data (2004 to 2011) were used to identify Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with advanced breast, colon, esophagus, non-small-cell lung, pancreatic, or stomach cancer...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
E Gibbin, A Gavish, T Krueger, E Kramarsky-Winter, O Shapiro, R Guiet, L Jensen, A Vardi, A Meibom
Under homoeostatic conditions, the relationship between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and Vibrio coralliilyticus is commensal. An increase in temperature, or in the abundance of V. coralliilyticus, can turn this association pathogenic, causing tissue lysis, expulsion of the corals' symbiotic algae (genus Symbiodinium), and eventually coral death. Using a combination of microfluidics, fluorescence microscopy, stable isotopes, electron microscopy and NanoSIMS isotopic imaging, we provide insights into the onset and progression of V...
December 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Michelle L Giles, Coral Gartner, Mark A Boyd
The World Health Organization estimates that smoking poses one of the greatest global health risks in the general population. Rates of current smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are 2-3 times that of the general population, which contributes to the higher incidence of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in PLHIV. Given the benefit of smoking cessation, strategies to assist individuals who smoke to quit should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. Tobacco harm reduction focuses on reducing health risk without necessarily requiring abstinence...
December 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Guilherme F Mendes, Daniel R Stuginski, Selene M C Loibel, Karen de Morais-Zani, Marisa Maria T da Rocha, Wilson Fernandes, Sávio S Sant'Anna, Kathleen F Grego
Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America and New Guinea. In 2015 The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% are caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp). Although human envenoming by coral snakes are relatively rare due to their semifossorial habits and non-aggressive behavior, they are always considered severe due to the neurotoxic, myotoxic, hemorrhagic and cardiovascular actions of their venom, which is highly toxic when compared to the venom of other Brazilian venomous snakes as Bothrops sp (pit vipers), Crotalus sp (rattlesnakes) and Lachesis sp (bushmasters)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Luis Enrique Becerra Coral, Lorena Natalia Gomez Ceron, Adriana Isabel Delgado Bravo
Peritonitis is one of the main complications of abdominal emergencies. Laparoscopy serves both for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of the acute abdomen; in expert hands the morbimortality of this method is minimal. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to verify the efficacy of laparoscopy in patients with secondary peritonitis performing a single surgery without the need for reinterventions, ensuring the least damage of the abdominal wall, avoiding laparotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study included patients with final diagnosis of peritonitis and managed with laparoscopic technique, covering a period from May 2011 to July 2016, admitted to Clínica Nuestra Señora de Fátima, Pasto, Colombia...
July 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Miguel Fernández-García, David Rojo, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Antonia García, Coral Barbas
A robust biomarker screening and validation is crucial for overcoming the current limits in the clinical management of infectious diseases. In this chapter, a general workflow for metabolomics is summarized. Subsequently, an overview of the major contributions of this omics science to the field of biomarkers of infectious diseases is discussed. Different approaches using a variety of analytical platforms can be distinguished to unveil the key metabolites for the diagnosis, prognosis, response to treatment and susceptibility for infectious diseases...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Stephen Summers, Marnie L Freckelton, Brian T Nedved, Scott A Rice, Michael G Hadfield
The isolate of Thalassotalea euphylliae H1 was collected from the surface of a Montipora capitata coral. The genome was assembled using long reads from a Nanopore MinION sequencer for scaffolding and complemented with short-read MiSeq sequences. The genome was approximately 4.77 Mb long with 4,020 protein-coding genes, 92 tRNAs, and 22 rRNAs.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Carly D Kenkel, Line K Bay
The coral symbiosis is the linchpin of the reef ecosystem, yet the mechanisms that promote and maintain cooperation between hosts and symbionts have not been fully resolved. We used a phylogenetically controlled design to investigate the role of vertical symbiont transmission, an evolutionary mechanism in which symbionts are inherited directly from parents, predicted to enhance cooperation and holobiont fitness. Six species of coral, three vertical transmitters and their closest horizontally transmitting relatives, which exhibit environmental acquisition of symbionts, were fragmented and subjected to a 2-week thermal stress experiment...
2018: PeerJ
Eric Jordán-Dahlgren, Adán G Jordán-Garza, Rosa E Rodríguez-Martínez
In the last decades diseases have changed coral communities' structure and function in reefs worldwide. Studies conducted to evaluate the effect of diseases on corals frequently use modified adaptations of sampling designs that were developed to study ecological aspects of coral reefs. Here we evaluate how efficient these sampling protocols are by generating virtual data for a coral population parameterized with mean coral density and disease prevalence estimates from the Caribbean scleractinian Orbicella faveolata at the Mexican Caribbean...
2018: PeerJ
Steven M A C van Heuven, Alice E Webb, Didier M de Bakker, Erik Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, Lennart J de Nooijer
Anthropogenic pressures threaten the health of coral reefs globally. Some of these pressures directly affect coral functioning, while others are indirect, for example by promoting the capacity of bioeroders to dissolve coral aragonite. To assess the coral reef status, it is necessary to validate community-scale measurements of metabolic and geochemical processes in the field, by determining fluxes from enclosed coral reef patches. Here, we investigate diurnal trends of carbonate chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients on a 20 m deep coral reef patch offshore from the island of Saba, Dutch Caribbean by means of tent incubations...
2018: PeerJ
Groves Dixon, Yi Liao, Line K Bay, Mikhail V Matz
Gene body methylation (GBM) has been hypothesized to modulate responses to environmental change, including transgenerational plasticity, but the evidence thus far has been lacking. Here we show that coral fragments reciprocally transplanted between two distant reefs respond predominantly by increase or decrease in genome-wide GBM disparity: The range of methylation levels between lowly and highly methylated genes becomes either wider or narrower. Remarkably, at a broad functional level this simple adjustment correlated very well with gene expression change, reflecting a shifting balance between expressions of environmentally responsive and housekeeping genes...
December 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qihao Wu, Xu-Wen Li, Heng Li, Li-Gong Yao, Wei Tang, Ze-Hong Miao, Hong Wang, Yue-Wei Guo
Different chemotypes of Sinularia flexibilis exist in the Hainan island. Thus, a collection of this soft coral from a location different from the one of our previous study afforded three novel cembranoid esters featuring a n-butyl alcohol moiety, a structural element rare in natural products of both terrestrial and marine origin. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by the comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. In addition, the absolute stereochemistry of the previously reported diepoxycembrene (9) was first time determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis...
December 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M Barbany, M Rossell, A Salvador
A case is presented of corneal toxicity after exposure to palytoxin. A 42 year-old man came with symptoms of pain and blurred vision in his right eye. He reported that a zoanthid coral from a saltwater aquarium had squirted into his eye. Slit-lamp examination showed a prominent central ring infiltrate of 4×6mm without epithelial defect and satellite sub-epithelial micro-infiltrates. After 2 months of topical treatment with steroids, the stromal ring infiltrate was resolved, but a stromal thinning and residual fibrosis remained...
December 5, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Jim N Underwood, Michael J Travers, Michael Snow, Marji Puotinen, Gavin Gouws
Coral reef health and biodiversity is under threat worldwide due to rapid climate change. However, much of the inter- and intra-specific diversity of coral reefs are undescribed even in well studied taxa such as fish. Delimiting previously unrecognised diversity is important for understanding the processes that generate and sustain biodiversity in coral reef ecosystems and informing strategies for their conservation and management. Many taxa that inhabit geographically isolated coral reefs rely on self-recruitment for population persistence, providing the opportunity for the evolution of unique genetic lineages through divergent selection and reproductive isolation...
December 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Guozhi Xiao, Xiaofei Shao, Dapeng Zhu, Biao Yu
Covering: 1989-2017Saponins are characteristic metabolites of starfish and sea cucumbers, and occasionally are also found in sponges, soft coral, and small fish. These steroid or triterpenoid glycosides often show remarkable biological and pharmacological activities, such as antifungal, antifouling, shark repellent, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Over one thousand marine saponins have been characterized; the majority of them can be categorized into three major structural types, i.e., asterosaponins, polyhydroxysteroid glycosides, and holostane glycosides...
December 7, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Rosalind M F Attenborough, David C Hayward, Ursula Wiedemann, Sylvain Forêt, David J Miller, Eldon E Ball
Neuropeptides play critical roles in cnidarian development. However, although they are known to play key roles in settlement and metamorphosis, their temporal and spatial developmental expression has not previously been characterized in any coral. We here describe Acropora millepora LWamide and RFamide and their developmental expression from the time of their first appearance, using in situ hybridization and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry. AmRFamide transcripts first appear in the ectoderm toward the oral end of the planula larva following blastopore closure...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
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