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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121505/reduced-reciprocal-giving-in-social-anxiety-evidence-from-the-trust-game
#1
Christine Anderl, Regina Steil, Tim Hahn, Patricia Hitzeroth, Andreas Reif, Sabine Windmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety is known to impair interpersonal relationships. These impairments are thought to partly arise from difficulties to engage in affiliative interactions with others, such as sharing favors or reciprocating prosocial acts. Here, we examined whether individuals high compared to low in social anxiety differ in giving towards strangers in an economic game paradigm. METHODS: One hundred and twenty seven non-clinical participants who had been pre-screened to be either particularly high or low in social anxiety played an incentivized Trust Game to assess trustful and reciprocal giving towards strangers in addition to providing information on real life interpersonal functioning (perceived social support and attachment style)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120666/like-grandparents-like-parents-empirical-evidence-and-psychoanalytic-thinking-on-the-transmission-of-parenting-styles
#2
Pietro De Carli, Angela Tagini, Diego Sarracino, Alessandra Santona, Valentina Bonalda, Paola Elena Cesari, Laura Parolin
The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psychoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120367/risk-and-resilience-factors-related-to-parental-bereavement-following-the-death-of-a-child-with-a-life-limiting-condition
#3
REVIEW
Tiina Jaaniste, Sandra Coombs, Theresa J Donnelly, Norm Kelk, Danielle Beston
This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes...
November 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117927/sexual-health-and-the-internet-cross-sectional-study-of-online-preferences-among-adolescents
#4
Antonella Juline von Rosen, Frederik Tilmann von Rosen, Peter Tinnemann, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider
BACKGROUND: The Internet is widely used by adolescents for sexual health information and bears the potential to increase knowledge and positively affect behavior. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess students' preferences when looking for sexual health information online. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among ninth grade students in a convenience sample of 13 secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. During a regular school period, participants were requested to rate the importance they attribute to nine aspects of sexual health websites in a paper-based questionnaire...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102062/do-doctors-attachment-styles-and-emotional-intelligence-influence-patients-emotional-expressions-in-primary-care-consultations-an-exploratory-study-using-multilevel-analysis
#5
M Gemma Cherry, Ian Fletcher, Damon Berridge, Helen O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how doctors' attachment styles and emotional intelligence (EI) might influence patients' emotional expressions in general practice consultations. METHODS: Video recordings of 26 junior doctors consulting with 173 patients were coded using the Verona Coding Definition of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). Doctors' attachment style was scored across two dimensions, avoidance and anxiety, using the Experiences in Close Relationships: Short Form questionnaire...
October 26, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098684/comparative-hindlimb-myology-of-foot-propelled-swimming-birds
#6
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076355/how-coping-styles-cognitive-distortions-and-attachment-predict-problem-gambling-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Filipa Calado, Joana Alexandre, Mark D Griffiths
Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070956/the-role-of-secure-attachment-empathic-self-efficacy-and-stress-perception-in-causal-beliefs-related-to-mental-illness-a-cross-cultural-study-italy-versus-israel
#8
Stefania Mannarini, Alisa Reikher, Sharon Shani, Inbal Shani-Zinovich
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that "mental illness etiological beliefs" and attitudes toward mentally ill people are significantly related; it has also been demonstrated that adult attachment style and empathic self-efficacy affect such attitudes. Moreover, community or regional culture has a significant impact on etiology beliefs and attitudes toward the mentally sick. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out this study in Italy and Israel among psychology students to compare two cultures in regards to causal beliefs of mental disorders and the roles that specific variables, such as secure attachment, empathic self-efficacy, and stress, play in etiological beliefs...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023720/a-field-test-of-the-use-of-pop-off-data-storage-tags-in-freshwater-fishes
#9
G D Raby, T B Johnson, S T Kessel, T J Stewart, A T Fisk
In the present study, pop-off data storage tags (pDST) without any transmitting capabilities were attached to 118 adult salmonids in a 19 000 km(2) freshwater system (Lake Ontario). The 9·3 cm long cylindrical tags were externally attached to fishes using a backpack-style harness, set to record pressure (dBar ≈ depth in m) and temperature every 70 s (and at some key times, every 5 s) and programmed to release from the harness and float to the surface after c. 1 year. Recapture of the bright-orange tags for data retrieval relied on members of the public finding tags on shore, or on anglers capturing fishes with tags attached and using the contact information displayed on each tag to mail tags to the research team in exchange for a monetary reward...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020867/activation-of-the-behavioral-immune-system-putting-the-brakes-on-affiliation
#10
Natsumi Sawada, Emilie Auger, John E Lydon
Evolutionary psychologists propose that humans evolved a first line of defense against pathogens: the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is thought to be functionally flexible such that the likelihood and magnitude of BIS activation depends on the individual's perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD). Because conspecifics are sources of infection, the BIS has implications for affiliation. By priming and measuring chronic levels of PVD, we examined PVD's relation to affiliation in zero-acquaintance situations in the laboratory, online, and during speed-dating events...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968544/interdependence-of-attachment-styles-and-relationship-quality-in-parent-adolescent-dyads
#11
Chong Man Chow, Ellen Hart, Lillian Ellis, Cin Cin Tan
The current study examined how attachment styles of parents and adolescents may jointly influence the quality of their relationship. Parent-adolescent (Ndyads = 77) pairs were recruited from a Midwestern town in the United States. The mean of adolescents' age was 16.25. Both members reported their attachment styles, relationship closeness, and relationship discord. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) showed that both members' attachment avoidance was associated with self-report lower levels of closeness...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959920/similarities-and-differences-regarding-changes-in-attachment-preferences-and-attachment-styles-in-relation-to-romantic-relationship-length-longitudinal-and-concurrent-analyses
#12
Tomotaka Umemura, Lenka Lacinová, Kristína Kotrčová, R Chris Fraley
This study examines whether attachment preferences and attachment styles with different figures (mother, father, romantic partner, and friends) change over the course of a romantic relationship. Study 1 employed a three-wave longitudinal sample of Czech young adults who were currently in a romantic relationship (N = 870; mean age = 21.57; SD = 1.51; 81% females). Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that, as romantic relationships progressed, attachment preferences for romantic partners increased and preferences for friends decreased...
September 29, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956392/-application-of-bacterial-tracking-techniques-in-biofilms
#13
Wenchao Zhang, Jingchao Zhang, Kun Zhao
Biofilms are surface-attached complex aggregates consisting of bacteria cells and extracellular polymeric substances. Cells in biofilms show strong resistance to antibiotics and immune-escape capabilities. Their motility and metabolic activities are quite different from those when they are in planktonic style. In recent years, applications of new image-capturing techniques together with new image-processing methods, have greatly advanced the development of bacterial studies. This review focuses on bacterial tracking techniques...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949306/adult-attachment-style-and-suicidality
#14
Mario Miniati, Antonio Callari, Stefano Pini
BACKGROUND: There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936817/-assessment-of-adolescent-attachment-styles-via-narrative-responses-to-the-thematic-stimulus
#15
Zeynep Tüzün, Gonca Soygüt
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to develop a new protocol with a projective test and qualitative assessment approach for investigating mental representations effective for the formation of attachment styles and to examine its psychometric properties. METHOD: Thirty-three adolescents who admitted to the Division of Adolescent Medicine of Hacettepe University participated to the study. The Adolescent Attachment Protocol (AAP) and Relationship Styles Questionnaire (RSQ) were used...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936132/architectural-style-and-green-spaces-predict-older-adults-evaluations-of-residential-facilities
#16
Veronica Cerina, Ferdinando Fornara, Sara Manca
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of residential facilities' design features on older adults' psychosocial responses. Participants (N = 192) were over 65-year-old residents who were randomly exposed to different experimental scenarios concerning a hypothetical residential facility for older adults, using a 3 × 2 between-subjects design (i.e. home-like vs. hotel-like vs. usual-standard architectural style; presence vs. absence of green spaces). After the experimental session, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire that measured their attitudes towards short- and long-term relocation, anticipated residential satisfaction with the facility, and feelings of broken home attachment...
September 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922395/an-analysis-of-equine-round-pen-training-videos-posted-online-differences-between-amateur-and-professional-trainers
#17
Erin Kydd, Barbara Padalino, Cathrynne Henshall, Paul McGreevy
Natural Horsemanship is popular among many amateur and professional trainers and as such, has been the subject of recent scientific enquiry. One method commonly adopted by Natural Horsemanship (NH) trainers is that of round pen training (RPT). RPT sessions are usually split into a series of bouts; each including two phases: chasing/flight and chasing offset/flight offset. However, NH training styles are heterogeneous. This study investigated online videos of RPT to explore the characteristics of RPT sessions and test for differences in techniques and outcomes between amateurs and professionals (the latter being defined as those with accompanying online materials that promote clinics, merchandise or a service to the public)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914161/a-net-of-friends-investigating-friendship-by-integrating-attachment-theory-and-social-network-analysis
#18
Omri Gillath, Gery C Karantzas, Emre Selcuk
The current article focuses on attachment style-an individual difference widely studied in the field of close relationships-and its application to the study of social networks. Specifically, we investigated whether attachment style predicts perception and management of social networks. In Study 1, we examined the associations of attachment style with perceptions of network tie strength and multiplexity. In Studies 2a and 2b, we investigated the association between attachment style and network management skills (initiating, maintaining, and dissolving ties) and whether network management skills mediated the associations of attachment style with network tie strength and multiplexity...
July 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903694/attachment-and-self-regulation
#19
Edward Orehek, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Ellen Quick, G Casey Weaverling
Close relationships and self-regulation are inextricably intertwined, yet many of the details regarding how interpersonal processes influence self-regulation are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of this link, we investigated the association between attachment styles and self-regulatory mode orientations. According to regulatory mode theory, locomotors are concerned with initiating goal-directed movement, whereas assessors are concerned with appraising potential means and goals. We predicted that the presence of an attachment figure with whom one has an anxious attachment would be associated with higher assessment tendencies...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903645/self-expression-on-social-media-do-tweets-present-accurate-and-positive-portraits-of-impulsivity-self-esteem-and-attachment-style
#20
Edward Orehek, Lauren J Human
Self-expression values are at an all-time high, and people are increasingly relying upon social media platforms to express themselves positively and accurately. We examined whether self-expression on the social media platform Twitter elicits positive and accurate social perceptions. Eleven perceivers rated 128 individuals (targets; total dyadic impressions = 1,408) on their impulsivity, self-esteem, and attachment style, based solely on the information provided in targets' 10 most recent tweets. Targets were on average perceived normatively and with distinctive self-other agreement, indicating both positive and accurate social perceptions...
January 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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