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Hepatitis A vaccine

Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Francesco Passiglia, Francesca Colonese, Stefania Canova, Jessica Menis, Alfredo Addeo, Antonio Russo, Diego Luigi Cortinovis
The identification of reliable predictive biomarkers of efficacy or resistance to immune-oncology (I-O) agents is a major issue for translational research and clinical practice. However, along with PDL1 and molecular features other clinical, radiological and laboratory factors can be considered for the selection of those patients who would not be the best candidate for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs). We examined these factors, emerging from the results of currently available studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aiming to provide a useful and manageable tool which can help Oncologists in their everyday clinical practice...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
María Q Marín, Patricia Pérez, Carmen E Gómez, Carlos Óscar S Sorzano, Mariano Esteban, Juan García-Arriaza
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major global health problem for which a vaccine is not available. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-HCV is a unique HCV vaccine candidate based in the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing the nearly full-length genome of HCV genotype 1a that elicits CD8⁺ T-cell responses in mice. With the aim to improve the immune response of MVA-HCV and because of the importance of interferon (IFN) in HCV infection, we deleted in MVA-HCV the vaccinia virus (VACV) C6L gene, encoding an inhibitor of IFN-β that prevents activation of the interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3 and IRF7)...
August 8, 2018: Viruses
Thomas A Massaquoi, Rachael M Burke, Guang Yang, Suliaman Lakoh, Stephen Sevalie, Bo Li, Hongjun Jia, Lei Huang, Gibrilla F Deen, Fenella Beynon, Foday Sahr
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. Sierra Leone has no national hepatitis B strategy plan or high quality estimates of prevalence. Healthcare workers are perceived as an at-risk group for hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B among healthcare workers at two hospital sites in Freetown, Sierra Leone. METHODS: In October 2017, healthcare workers were offered voluntary testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) using rapid lateral flow assay for all samples, followed by Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay to confirm positive results...
2018: PloS One
Johnathan Kirupakaran, Chelsea Meloche, Mark Upfal
OBJECTIVE: To assess practices and barriers regarding adult immunizations, among occupational and environmental physicians in Michigan. METHODS: A 10-item multiple choice web based questionnaire was designed after reviewing CDC recommendations and the current literature on adult immunization standards. RESULTS: Assessing immunization status is common practice for 62% of respondents. 92% of respondents recommend the annual influenza vaccination, unless contraindicated...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
David J Epstein, Jeffrey Dunn, Stan Deresinski
Multiple sclerosis therapies include interferons, glatiramer, and multiple immunosuppressive drugs. Discerning infectious risks of immunosuppressive drugs requires understanding their mechanisms of action and analyzing interventional studies and postmarketing observational data. Though identical immunosuppressive therapies are sometimes used in non-neurologic conditions, infectious risks may differ in this population. Screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection should be prioritized for patients receiving alemtuzumab; ocrelizumab is likely not associated with an increased risk of TB...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Paul V Beirne, Sarah Hennessy, Sharon L Cadogan, Frances Shiely, Tony Fitzgerald, Fiona MacLeod
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015. The conclusions have not changed.Hypodermic needles of different sizes (gauges and lengths) can be used for vaccination procedures. The gauge (G) refers to the outside diameter of the needle tubing. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter of the needle (e.g. a 23 G needle is 0.6 mm in diameter, whereas a 25 G needle is 0.5 mm in diameter). Many vaccines are recommended for injection into muscle (intramuscularly), although some are delivered subcutaneously (under the skin) and intradermally (into skin)...
August 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
L M Splawn, C A Bailey, J P Medina, J C Cho
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is a worldwide issue that can lead to both acute and chronic complications with increased morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. Current methods of preventing HBV infections primarily include building patient immunity through administration of hepatitis B vaccinations starting at birth. Certain at-risk individuals, including those with occupational exposure to pathogenic bodily fluids, those who are sexually active or intravenous drug users, are recommended to receive some form of hepatitis B vaccination...
July 2018: Drugs of Today
Marzieh Basirnejad, Azam Bolhassani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat
Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) is known as a serious blood-borne disease that infects millions of people globally. NS3 is a conserved non-structural sequence of hepatitis C virus which has a major role in activating specific CTL responses. As known, there is no effective vaccine against HCV infection, thus it is required to design a specific regimen of vaccination. Recently, the strong immunological properties of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) led to their use as immunomodulators and an antigen carrier for subunit vaccine candidates...
July 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Seong Jae Yeo, Hyun Seok Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Eun Soo Kim, Seong Woo Jeon, Sung Kook Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Kyung Sik Park, Yun Jin Jung, Eun Young Kim, Chang Heon Yang
Background/Aims: This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers in Korean patients newly diagnosed with, but not yet treated for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: We prospectively enrolled 210 patients newly diagnosed with IBD (109 with ulcerative colitis and 101 with Crohn's disease). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels were measured and compared with those of 1,100 sex- and age-matched controls...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
Yao Hu, Ciyang, Dunzhuyongzong, Awangluosong, Zuoqing Yang, Aqing
Although hepatitis B vaccine (HepB1 ) was first recommended through China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1992, Tibet was able to offer universal HepB1 vaccination starting only in early 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess, 12 years after administration of HepB1 , the seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children in Qamdo, Tibet. Focusing on a population of individuals ≤ 15 years of age living in Tibet, we analyzed serum samples from 261 healthy children for HBV status based on the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Zikang Wu, Hongdan Bao, Jun Yao, Yongdi Chen, Shunshun Lu, Jing Li, Zheng-Gang Jiang, Jing-Jing Ren, Kai-Jin Xu, Bing Ruan, Shi-Gui Yang, Tian-Sheng Xie, Yu Hu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important public health problem in China, and adults need to be vaccinated. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the appropriate immunization of adults in China. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible, and seroprotection was defined as anti-HBs≥ 10 mIU/ml; 18,308 participants in 27 studies were included. Relative risk (RR) and random effects models were used. Twenty micrograms of HBV vaccine resulted in a better response than 10 μg (RR: 1...
August 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ming-Wei Lai, Chao-Wei Hsu, Chih-Lang Lin, Rong-Nan Chien, Wey-Ran Lin, Chi-Sheng Chang, Kung-Hao Liang, Chau-Ting Yeh
BACKGROUND: Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been rarely achieved in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We administered HBsAg-based recombinant vaccine in patients with low HBsAg concentrations. METHODS: Twenty hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients, with HBsAg < 1000 IU/ml, were enrolled. Vaccines were administered every 8 weeks for 48 weeks (seven doses). HBsAg levels and anti-HBs were assayed longitudinally until 48 weeks post-vaccination...
August 7, 2018: Hepatology International
Hannah L Itell, Erin P McGuire, Petronella Muresan, Coleen K Cunningham, Elizabeth J McFarland, William Borkowsky, Sallie R Permar, Genevieve G Fouda
Because vaccine co-administration can affect elicited immune responses, it is important to evaluate new vaccines in the context of pre-existing vaccination schedules. This is particularly necessary for new pediatric vaccines, as the World Health Organization's infant immunization program already schedules several vaccines to be administered during the first months of life. To facilitate the assessment of inter-vaccine interference, we developed a pediatric vaccine multiplex assay (PVMA) to simultaneously measure antibodies against vaccines commonly administered to infants, including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, rubella, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
August 4, 2018: Vaccine
Teresa Kloning, Thomas Nowotny, Martin Alberer, Michael Hoelscher, Axel Hoffmann, Guenter Froeschl
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the morbidity profile and the sociodemographic characteristics of unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) arriving in the region of Bavaria, Germany, between October 2014 and February 2016. METHODS: The retrospective cross sectional study included 154 unaccompanied refugee minors between 10 and 18 years of age. The data was derived from medical data records of their routine first medical examination in two paediatric practices and one collective housing for refugees in the region of Bavaria, Germany...
August 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
Loghman Salimzadeh, Nina Le Bert, Charles-A Dutertre, Upkar S Gill, Evan W Newell, Christian Frey, Magdeleine Hung, Nikolai Novikov, Simon Fletcher, Patrick Tf Kennedy, Antonio Bertoletti
Chronic HBV (CHB) infection suppresses virus-specific T cells, but its impact on humoral immunity has been poorly analyzed. Here, we developed a dual staining method, which utilizes HBsAg labelled with fluorochromes as "baits", for specific ex vivo detection of HBsAg-specific B cells and analysis of their quantity, function and phenotype. We studied healthy vaccinated subjects (n=18) and patients with resolved (n=21), acute (n=11) or chronic (n=96) HBV infection and observed that frequencies of circulating HBsAg-specific B cells are independent of the HBV infection status...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
A Orsi, C Azzari, E Bozzola, G Chiamenti, G Chirico, S Esposito, F Francia, P Lopalco, R Prato, R Russo, A Villani, E Franco
Combination vaccines represent a valuable technological innovation in the field of infectious disease prevention and public health, because of their great health and economic value from the individual, societal, and healthcare system perspectives. In order to increase parents' and healthcare professionals' confidence in the vaccination programs and maintain their benefits to society, more information about the benefits of innovative vaccination tools such as combination vaccines is needed. Purpose of this work is an examination of available hexavalent vaccines, that protect against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b infections...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Catalin Lazar, Lisa Paruch, André van Eerde, Jihong Liu Clarke, Catalin Tucureanu, Iuliana Caras, Sonya Ciulean, Adrian Onu, Vlad Tofan, Alexandru Branzan, Stephan Urban, Crina Stavaru, Norica Branza-Nichita
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection can be prevented by vaccination. Vaccines containing the small (S) envelope protein are currently used in universal vaccination programs and achieve protective immune response in more than 90% of recipients. However, new vaccination strategies are necessary for successful immunization of the remaining non- or low-responders. We have previously characterized a novel HBV chimeric antigen, which combines neutralization epitopes of the S and the preS1 domain of the large (L) envelope protein (genotype D)...
August 3, 2018: Vaccine
Qi Su, Yang Li, Yawen Zhang, Zhihui Zhang, Fanfeng Meng, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-attenuated vaccine has been widely used since the 1950s and made great progress in preventing and controlling Newcastle disease. However, many reports mention exogenous virus contamination in attenuated vaccines, while co-contamination with fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in the NDV-attenuated vaccine also emerged in China recently, which proved to be an important reason for the outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in some flocks...
August 6, 2018: Veterinary Research
Birama Diarra, Albert Theophane Yonli, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Theodora Mahoukèdè Zohoncon, Lassina Traore, Christelle Nadembega, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Justine Yara, Virginio Pietra, Paul Ouedraogo, Alain Bougouma, Rokia Sanogo, Jacques Simpore
BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso is a high endemicity country for HBV infection. However, there are few data on vaccine coverage against HBV. The aim of this study was to contribute to the improvement of HBV vaccine coverage in Ouagadougou through HBV screening. METHODS: Awareness campaigns and voluntary hepatitis B screening were organized in the twelve districts of Ouagadougou by the "SOS Hepatitis Burkina" association. A rapid HBsAg detection test (Abon Biopharma Guangzhou, Co...
August 6, 2018: Virology Journal
Jolynne Mokaya, Anna L McNaughton, Martin J Hadley, Apostolos Beloukas, Anna-Maria Geretti, Dominique Goedhals, Philippa C Matthews
International sustainable development goals for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health problem by 2030 highlight the pressing need to optimize strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Selected or transmitted resistance associated mutations (RAMs) and vaccine escape mutations (VEMs) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) may reduce the success of existing treatment and prevention strategies. These issues are particularly pertinent for many settings in Africa where there is high HBV prevalence and co-endemic HIV infection, but lack of robust epidemiological data and limited education, diagnostics and clinical care...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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