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Hepatitis A vaccine

S Mertoglu, S Sahin, O F Beser, A Adrovic, K Barut, P Yuksel, S Sazak, B S Kocazeybek, O Kasapcopur
OBJECTIVES: Vaccination of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with non-live vaccines may decrease vaccine-preventable infections and mortalities. In the present study, we aimed to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated hepatitis A vaccination in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 30 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and 39 healthy participants who were seronegative for hepatitis A received two doses of the hepatitis A vaccine in a 0- and 6-month schedule...
December 14, 2018: Lupus
Jennifer C C deBruyn, Ing Shian Soon, Kevin Fonseca, Sharon Feng, Melanie Purtzki, Caitlin Goedhart, Susan Kuhn, Otto G Vanderkooi, Iwona Wrobel
Background: Data on the serologic status of childhood vaccines, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are limited in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we evaluated vaccine coverage and seroprotection, along with CMV and EBV seropositivity, in pediatric IBD. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, demographic data, IBD history, vaccine records, and serum for antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), CMV, and EBV were collected from children with IBD...
December 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Manuela Tamburro, Vincenza Anzelmo, Paolo Bianco, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Giancarlo Ripabelli
OBJECTIVES: Despite the potential presence in many workplaces, biological risk is little known and largely underestimated, except in healthcare environments. Objectives: To evaluate perception, knowledge and behaviors adopted for protection and prevention of biological risk, related also to the occupational activity, among construction and agricultural workers. METHODS: Workers were recruited at farms and construction companies of Molise Region, Central Italy, which were visited within the surveillance activities planned by local institutions...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Margot Fodor, Florian Primavesi, Dagmar Morell-Hofert, Matthias Haselbacher, Eva Braunwarth, Benno Cardini, Eva Gassner, Dietmar Öfner, Stefan Stättner
Background: Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic and splenic injuries has become popular in haemodynamically stable adult patients, despite uncertainty about efficacy, patient selection, and details of management. Up-to-date strategies and practical recommendations are presented. Methods: A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (1989-2016). Results: No randomized clinical trial was found. Non-randomized controlled trials and large retrospective and prospective series dominate...
2018: European Surgery: ACA: Acta Chirurgica Austriaca
Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Jean De Dieu Harelimana, Osee Rurambya Sebatunzi, Aschariya Chinma Atmaprakash, Eric Seruyange, Florence Masaisa, Olivier Manzi, Martin Nyundo, Théobald Hategekimana
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated post-vaccination immunity status and describe potential risk factors associated with the lack of response among healthcare workers (HCWs) at a tertiary care hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. RESULTS: Of 373 HCWs, 291 (78.2%) were female and 81 (21.8%) were male. The mean age of the study participants was 40.2 years (standard deviation [SD], 7.7 years), within a range of 24-41 years. Participants' mean BMI was 25.4 ± 6.6 kg/m2 , with more than half of patients (60...
December 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Lizhou Zhang, Wei Ji, Shuang Lyu, Luhua Qiao, Guangxiang Luo
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged as an important human viral pathogen, causing congenital malformation including microcephaly among infants born to mothers infected with the virus during pregnancy. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZIKV can be classified into African and Asian lineages. In this study, we have developed a stable plasmid-based reverse genetic system for robust production of both ZIKV prototype African-lineage MR766 and clinical Asian-lineage FSS13025 strains using a tetracycline (Tet)-controlled gene expression vector...
December 9, 2018: Viruses
Safiehkhatoon Moshkani, Carolina Chiale, Sabine M Lang, John K Rose, Michael D Robek
Therapeutic vaccines may be an important component of a treatment regimen for curing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We previously demonstrated that recombinant wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the HBV middle surface glycoprotein (MHBs) elicits functional immune responses in mouse models of HBV replication. However, VSV has some undesirable pathogenic properties, and the use of this platform in humans requires further viral attenuation. We therefore generated a highly attenuated VSV that expresses MHBs and contains two attenuating mutations...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Eugene M Tan, Jasmine R Marcelin, Abinash Virk
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised travelers (ICTs) are medically complex and challenging for travel medicine providers. Our study hypothesizes that ICTs have high-risk travel itineraries and do not have adequate immunity against vaccine-preventable infections. METHODS: This retrospective review of 321 ICTs from 2004 to 2015 included patients with solid organ transplant (SOT, n = 134), connective tissue disease (CTD, n = 121), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, n = 46), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, n = 20)...
October 26, 2018: Infection, disease & health
Monica Maia de Oliveira Barros, Karla Regina Oliveira de Moura Ronchini, Rosa Leonôra Salerno Soares
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are diseases with high morbimortality and constitute a global public health problem. In Brazil, the prevalence is not homogeneous, oscillating among different regions, but it is estimated that currently about 1% of the population present chronic disease related to the B virus and that there are 1.5 million infected with the C virus. Despite the development of hepatitis B vaccine, improvement in diagnostic methods and therapeutic advances in the field of viral hepatitis, there is still a large number of people who continues to be infected by these viruses, especially in populations at risk and also due to several factors, including vaccination and migration policies...
July 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Modhusudon Shaha, Sourav Chakraborty, Md Saddam Hossain, Abu Hashem, Md Salimullah
Evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a mystery and caused mainly by genomic mutations as well as recombination. Viral evolution may be responsible for increasing disease severity and render resistance to the existing treatment processes. HBV/C2 strain is associated with chronicity, which may progress to the liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, HBV/C2 strain is highly prevalent in the chronic hepatitis B patients in Bangladesh. Hence, the molecular evolution of that strain and its disease pattern need to be uncovered...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Joel O Wertheim, Alexandra M Oster, Ben Murrell, Neeraja Saduvala, Walid Heneine, William M Switzer, Jeffrey A Johnson
Understanding genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is clinically and immunologically important for patient treatment and vaccine development. We investigated the longitudinal intra-host genetic variation of HIV in over 3,000 individuals in the US National HIV Surveillance System with at least four reported HIV-1 polymerase ( pol ) sequences. In this population, we identified 149 putative instances of superinfection (i.e. an individual sequentially infected with genetically divergent, polyphyletic viruses)...
July 2018: Virus Evolution
Melvin Berger
Immune-deficient patients depend on the antibodies in pooled human immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations to remain free from serious infections. The potency of IgG preparations is therefore an ongoing concern. The use of pooled IgG to prevent infection is based on the concept that healthy adults have recovered from infections earlier in life and maintain relatively high antibody titers. In general, vaccine-induced immunity is less robust or long-lasting than immunity after natural infection, and many infectious diseases which were formerly widely prevalent have become much less common due to improved hygiene and vaccines...
December 2018: Transfusion
Kornelia Karwowska, Joanna Wernik, Abdulhakeem Abdulgater
The patient was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B at 19 years old. Biochemical, serological and histopathological diagnostic processes were followed by pegylated interferon treatment. After 24 weeks of therapy treatment was discontinued due to pathological thyroid hormones values. The patient was diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and levothyroxine therapy initiated. Over the following two years, the patient was not under hepatology specialist care. She was admitted to the Clinic due to a high aminotransferase level and concomitant pruritus in the 32nd week of her first pregnancy...
November 28, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Waleed Mahallawi
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 300 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among the effective approaches to fight HBV infection is immunization. In 1989, an obligatory hepatitis B vaccine program was launched in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: Assess hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels among the medical students before and after receiving booster doses of HBV vaccine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Taibah University...
November 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
G Gault, A Fischer, E Nicand, F Burelle, A Burbaud, J L Koeck
OBJECTIVES: To measure vaccine coverage among adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region using the free electronic immunization record. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We considered adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region from April to October 2013. All participants received a letter explaining how to create an electronic immunization record...
December 4, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Andrew J Leidner, Neil Murthy, Harrell W Chesson, Matthew Biggerstaff, Charles Stoecker, Aaron M Harris, Anna Acosta, Kathleen Dooling, Carolyn B Bridges
BACKGROUND: Coverage levels for many recommended adult vaccinations are low. The cost-effectiveness research literature on adult vaccinations has not been synthesized in recent years, which may contribute to low awareness of the value of adult vaccinations and to their under-utilization. We assessed research literature since 1980 to summarize economic evidence for adult vaccinations included on the adult immunization schedule. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, EconLit, and Cochrane Library from 1980 to 2016 and identified economic evaluation or cost-effectiveness analysis for vaccinations targeting persons aged ≥18 years in the U...
December 4, 2018: Vaccine
Yu-Ting Yang, Ai-Long Huang, Yao Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: After nearly 30 years of immunization, there is little known about the prevalence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in Chinese children. The clinical significance of anti-HBc would be more and more important. In this study, we had tried to analyse the prevalence of anti-HBc in vaccinated Chinese children, exploring the post-immunization status based on a large sample sized investigation. METHODS: Proportions of anti-HBc were analysed among 215,627 hospitalized Chinese children immunized with HBV vaccination in this study...
December 4, 2018: Vaccine
Rauf O Yusuf, Henry O Sawyerr, Adedotun T Adeolu, Lateefat M Habeeb, Tawakalitu T Abolayo
Background: Scavengers, due to the nature of their work, are at risk of various occupational hazards while sorting for materials for recycling and sale. They are exposed to blood borne infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from injuries from sharps and contact with discarded materials due to non-compliance with standard precautions. Objective: The present study assessed the prevalence of HBV and compliance with safety precautions among scavengers in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria...
September 2018: Journal of health & pollution
Guzman Sanchez-Schmitz, Chad R Stevens, Ian A Bettencourt, Peter J Flynn, Klaus Schmitz-Abe, Gil Metser, David Hamm, Kristoffer J Jensen, Christine Benn, Ofer Levy
Current vaccine development disregards human immune ontogeny, relying on animal models to select vaccine candidates targeting human infants, who are at greatest risk of infection worldwide, and receive the largest number of vaccines. To help accelerate and de-risk development of early-life effective immunization, we engineered a human age-specific microphysiologic vascular-interstitial interphase, suitable for pre-clinical modeling of distinct age-targeted immunity in vitro . Our Tissue Constructs (TCs) enable autonomous extravasation of monocytes that undergo rapid self-directed differentiation into migratory Dendritic Cells (DCs) in response to adjuvants and licensed vaccines such as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or Hepatitis B virus Vaccine (HBV)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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