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Hepatitis A vaccine

B Liu, Y X Zhang, W H Zhang, Y P Han, J Li
Objective: To analyze the changing trends in etiologies of hospitalized patients with liver disease and provide clinical basis for the formulation of medical policy. Methods: Patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases from 2006 to 2014 were selected as the research subjects. Data of patients with liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed to determine the proportion of main causes of infection, the proportion of different viral infections in viral hepatitis, and the changing trends in proportion of hepatitis B in different age groups...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Edward M Castillo, Theodore C Chan, Vaishal M Tolia, Nicholas A Trumm, Robert A Powell, Jesse J Brennan, Allyson A Kreshak
BACKGROUND: While the overall incidence of hepatitis A has declined markedly since the introduction of a vaccine, sporadic cases and outbreaks of the disease continue to occur. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of an electronic health record (EHR) provider alert as part of an outbreak-control vaccination program implemented in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study assessing the impact of a Best Practice Alert (BPA) built into an EHR to prompt providers when a patient was homeless to consider hepatitis A vaccination in the ED...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Duleepa Jayasundara, Ben B Hui, David G Regan, Anita E Heywood, C Raina MacIntyre, James G Wood
Hepatitis A incidence has declined in most countries through a combination of prevention measures, augmented through the use of a highly effective vaccine. In Australia, the proportion of the population susceptible to hepatitis A infection has declined over time due to high rates of opportunistic vaccination as well as the sustained inflow of seropositive immigrants from high endemicity countries. These factors have contributed to a rapid decline in incidence. An age-structured hepatitis A transmission model incorporating demographic changes was fitted to seroprevalence and disease notification data and used to project incidence trends and transmission potential for hepatitis A in the general population...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Alexander J Stockdale, Collins Mitambo, Dean Everett, Anna Maria Geretti, Melita A Gordon
BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to rising mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and limited implementation of screening and treatment programmes, it has been characterised as a neglected tropical disease. Synthesis of the existing evidence on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi is required to inform policy and identify research gaps. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies reporting the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi from 1990 to 2018...
October 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jinlin Hou, Fuqiang Cui, Yang Ding, Xiaoguang Dou, Zhongping Duan, Guorong Han, Jidong Jia, Qing Mao, Jie Li, Zengde Li, Zhihua Liu, Lai Wei, Qing Xie, Xizhong Yang, Hua Zhang, Hui Zhuang
In areas where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, mother to child transmission (MTCT) is the major route of infection of children. Blocking MTCT of HBV would therefore reduce its prevalence. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control organized a team of specialists in infectious diseases, hepatology, immunology, obstetrics, and public health to develop an algorithm for interrupting MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and latest evidence. This algorithm comprises 10 steps and has been adopted in clinical practice in China...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Biagio Pinchera, Guglielmo Borgia
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the main public health problems across the globe, since almost one third of the world population presents serological markers of contact with the virus. A profound impact on the epidemiology has been exerted by universal vaccination programmes in many countries, nevertheless the infection is still widespread also in its active form. In the areas of high endemicity (prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity > 7%), mother-to-child transmission represents the main modality of infection spread...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Issam I Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Harrys A Torres, Ehab Mouris Ayoub, Liliane Iskander Narouz, Jalen Bartek, Ray Hachem
Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, mostly with genotype 4 that is highly associated with severe fibrosis. As a consequence, hepatocellular carcinoma has become the leading cause of cancer in this country. Mauritania is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV and HCV could both be iatrogenically transmitted through infected blood products, infected needles, and medical equipment improperly sterilized. Adequate and efficient healthcare and public health measures with good surveillance programs, access for screening, prevention strategies, and successful treatment are needed to halt the spread of these diseases...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Yoonjae Kang
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination by age 24 months against 14 potentially serious illnesses (1). CDC used data from the 2017 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage at national, state, territorial, and selected local levels among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained high and stable overall, exceeding 90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine...
October 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Elizabeth N da Silva, Alan Baker, Jalila Alshekaili, Krishna Karpe, Matthew C Cook
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of hepatitis B infection and impaired seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). Studies examining augmented vaccine schedules to enhance seroconversion have so far been inconclusive. Furthermore, the defects responsible for impaired vaccine immunity in CKD have not yet been identified. METHODS: We studied serological and cellular responses to HBV in CKD to identify a defect in vaccine-induced cellular responses that could account for impaired seroconversion in CKD and clarify the effects of an augmented vaccine dose schedule...
2018: PloS One
Kavita Singh, Paushali Mukherjee, Ahmad Rushdi Shakri, Ankita Singh, Gaurav Pandey, Meenakshi Bakshi, Geetanjali Uppal, Rajender Jena, Ankita Rawat, Purnima Kumar, Rukmini Bhardwaj, Syed Shams Yazdani, Dhiraj Hans, Shantanu Mehta, Ajay Srinivasan, K Anil, R L Madhusudhan, Jaya Patel, Amit Singh, Rajeshwar Rao, Santosh Gangireddy, Rudrappa Patil, Swarnendu Kaviraj, Sanjay Singh, Darrick Carter, Steve Reed, David C Kaslow, Ashley Birkett, Virander S Chauhan, Chetan E Chitnis
Reticulocyte invasion by Plasmodium vivax requires interaction of the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) with host Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARCs). The binding domain of PvDBP maps to a cysteine-rich region referred to as region II (PvDBPII). Blocking this interaction offers a potential path to prevent P. vivax blood-stage growth and P. vivax malaria. This forms the rationale for development of a vaccine based on PvDBPII. Here we report results of a Phase I randomized trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant PvDBPII formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE)...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Ji Young Chang, Sung-Ae Jung, Chang Mo Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Hye-Kyung Jung, Ki-Nam Shim
Background/Aims: Testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers and appropriate vaccination are required in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We evaluated immunogenicity for HBV in IBD patients and the response to the HBV vaccination. Methods: From May 2014 to August 2016, patients diagnosed with IBD were prospectively included and evaluated for anti-HBs antibody, anti-HBc antibody, and HBs antigen. Among the 73 patients who were confirmed with nonimmunity to HBV, 44 patients who had completed the 3-dose HBV vaccination series received a single booster vaccination, while 29 patients who had not completed the vaccinations series or were unsure of receiving the vaccination received a full vaccination series...
October 10, 2018: Intestinal Research
Hennadii Mokhort, Alina Kovalchuk, Olga Sokolovska, Stephen Higgs
Our work presents an epidemiological analysis of the dynamics and structure of the annual indicators such as Cumulative Incidence, Mortality Rate (MR), and Case Fatality Rate for infections preventable by vaccines (vaccine-preventable infections-VPIs) in Ukraine between 1944 and 2015 compared to the same indicators for infections not preventable by vaccines (nonvaccine-preventable infections-non-VPIs). In 1965, the proportion of all infectious diseases in the context of mortality (7.47%), and especially of VPI (3...
October 9, 2018: Viral Immunology
Charles Ampong Adjei, Fidelis Atibila, Felix Apiribu, Frederick Ahordzor, Priscilla Adumoah Attafuah, Michael Ansah-Nyarko, Richard Asamoah, William Menkah
Global evidence suggests that hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is endemic in Africa and perinatal transmission remains one of the most important modes of HBV transmission in this area. This cross-sectional survey examined the seroprevalence and knowledge of hepatitis B among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in a mission hospital in Ghana. Systematic sampling technique was used to recruit 196 pregnant women. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05 alpha level. The hepatitis B prevalence estimate (hepatitis B surface antigen) was 10...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
M de Laroche, G Pelissier, S Noël, E Rouveix
The transmission of an infectious disease can occur through exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids, particularly in the event of skin-puncture injuries for healthcare workers, and during sexual intercourse. These situations are known as accidental blood exposures and sexual exposures respectively. Combined actions carried out have allowed to significantly reduce risks, either to healthcare professionals (by standard precautions, provision of safety devices, Hepatitis B vaccination made compulsory in the 1990s, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis that should be initiated as soon as possible after exposure), or to people engaging in unprotected sex (by prevention messages, condom promotion, and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis)...
October 5, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Thalia Ash, Lester Mascarenhas, John Furler, Meredith Temple-Smith
In 2012, over 239000 people were living in Australia with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Australia's Second National Hepatitis B Strategy (2014) recommends testing contacts to increase identification of people with CHB, but it is generally poorly performed. CHB prevalence in Australia is increasing and contact tracing (CT) remains an untapped strategy for identifying infected individuals. A systematic CT system has been established in a government-funded primary health centre in Melbourne, which services 2000 refugees...
October 9, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Sema Mandal
In May 2016, the World Health Assembly ratified the first ever Global Health Sector Strategy (GHSS) on Viral Hepatitis to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. In pursuit of this elimination goal and recognising that hepatitis control through immunisation is an essential foundation of a hepatitis B prevention programme, the World Health Organization set out vaccine coverage targets for both universal and selective childhood immunisation programmes, focusing on preventing mother to child transmission...
October 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Raúl Emilio Real Delor, Gustavo Villar,, Julia Rigel Espínola
Introduction: health personnel are a risk group for acquiring hepatitis B. The vaccine against it is effective but requires evaluation of the immune response with the dosage of anti-HBs. Objective: Objectives: to determine the immunological response to the vaccine against hepatitis B in physicians, nurses and medical students of the National Hospital, Paraguay. Methods: an observational, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 120 health workers during 2017...
September 17, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Peyton Wilson, Genevieve Taylor, Jamie Knowles, Elizabeth Blyth, Jeff Laux, Jacob Lohr, Ravi Jhaveri
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether missing the HepB birth dose vaccine is a risk factor for incomplete vaccination later in childhood. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants born over one year at an academic medical center. The "not vaccinated at birth" group consisted of all infants who did not receive the HepB birth dose vaccine by seven days of life, while the "vaccinated at birth" group included infants who did receive the birth dose...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Infection
Anja Rosdahl, Christian Herzog, Gert Frösner, Torbjörn Norén, Lars Rombo, Helena H Askling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Tibor Bakacs, Rifaat Safadi, Imre Kovesdi
Background: Viral hepatitis deaths from acute infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer have risen from the tenth to the seventh leading cause of death worldwide between 1990 and 2013. Even in the oral direct acting antiviral (DAA) agent era there are still large numbers of patients with unmet needs. Medications approved for treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection do not eradicate HBV often requiring treatment for life associated with risks of adverse reactions, drug resistance, nonadherence, and increased cost...
2018: Hepatology, Medicine and Policy
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