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Laura A Agee, Marie-H Monfils
In the social transmission of food preference paradigm, naive observer rats acquire safety information about novel food sources in the environment through social interaction with a demonstrator rat that has recently eaten said food. Research into the behavioural mechanisms governing this form of learning has found that observers show increased reliance on socially acquired information when the state of the environment makes personal examination of their surroundings risky. We aimed to (1) determine whether reliance on social information would decrease if previous reliance on social learning was unsuccessful, and (2) whether reliance on the specific demonstrator that had transmitted poor information would similarly decrease...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Carlos Leonardo Carvalho Pessôa, Maria Julia da Silva Mattos, Artur Renato Moura Alho, Marianna Martini Fischmann, Ana Carolina Castro Côrtes, Flávio de Oliveira Mendes, Bruno Mendes Haerdy, Sandra Mara Silva Brignol
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of asthma implies inhalation of specific drugs to reach high concentrations in the respiratory tree and ensure low drug bioavailability and few adverse effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the inhalation technique among outpatients with asthma. DESIGN AND SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital-based cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We evaluated inhalation practices in a convenience sample...
August 13, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Mònica Castellà-Creus, Pilar DELGado-Hito, Isabel Andrés-Martínez, Maria-Eulàlia Juvé-Udina
AIM: To understand the individualization process of the standardized care plan that nurses design for hospitalized patients. BACKGROUND: To apply the nursing process, it is advisable to use standardized care plans to standardize the diagnosis, planning and assessment stages. However, the fundamental element of this methodology is the individualization of the care plan. DESIGN: A qualitative study, framed within the constructivist paradigm and applying the Grounded Theory method, in accordance with Strauss and Corbin's approach...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Maysaloun Merhi, Afsheen Raza, Varghese Philipose Inchakalody, Abdulqadir Jeprel Japer Nashwan, Niloofar Allahverdi, Roopesh Krishnankutty, Shahab Uddin, Abdul Rehman Zar Gul, Mohammed Ussama Al Homsi, Said Dermime
Targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) pathway has been shown to enhance T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Clinical responses are limited to subgroups of patients. The search for biomarkers of response is a strategy to predict response and outcome of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint intervention. The NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen has been considered as a biomarker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and can induce both specific NY-ESO-1 antibody and T cells responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ines Jedidi, Carlos Soldevilla, Amani Lahouar, Patricia Marín, María Teresa González-Jaén, Salem Said
Wheat, barley and maize are the mainly consumed cereals in Tunisia. This study aimed to determine the mycoflora of these cereals with special focus on the mycotoxigenic Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Freshly harvested samples and other stored samples of each type of cereal (31 and 34 samples, respectively) were collected in Tunisia and cultured for fungal isolation and identification. Identification of fungal genera was based on morphological features. Aspergillus and Fusarium species were identified by species specific PCR assays complemented with DNA sequencing...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
J Slomian, L Vigneron, P Emonts, J Y Reginster, O Bruyère
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with new needs for mothers, especially an eagerness for information. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the website meets the expectations and needs of its future users. DESIGN: After the development of the website, it was submitted to parents and professionals and evaluated by an online survey, which consisted of the third round of an ongoing Delphi survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The panel involved in the survey included parents (both mothers and fathers) and professionals (health professionals and early childhood professionals, orbiting mothers of children aged 0-2 years)...
July 29, 2018: Midwifery
Marja van Dijk, Arie M van Roon, M Yusof Said, Frederike J Bemelman, Jaap J Homan van der Heide, Hans W de Fijter, Aiko P J de Vries, Stephan J L Bakker, Jan Stephan F Sanders
Long-term data on cardiovascular (CV) outcome of renal transplant recipients (RTR) on mTOR-i (mammalian Target Of Rapamycin-inhibitors) are scarce. In a sub-study of the MECANO trial we investigated changes in intima media thickness (IMT), CV risk profile, Major Adverse CV Events (MACE) and survival in RTR on a mTORi versus CNI based regimen. Patients (enrolled 361) were treated with (basiliximab) and triple IS (CsA-Cyclosporine A-(C), MPS(M), prednisolone(P)). At M6 patients were randomized (n=224) to the CsA group (C, P, N=89), MPS group (M, P, N=39) EVL group (Everolimus, P, N=96)...
August 14, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Khadija Murtaza Bhimji, Helga Naburi, Said Aboud, Karim Manji
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is emerging as a serious public health problem globally; however due to lack of resources, vitamin D levels are not routinely measured among neonates. The study was conducted to determine vitamin D levels in neonates and factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at neonatal ward of a tertiary care hospital. Means and proportions were calculated from summarized data in frequency tables. Chi square test was used to determine association between vitamin D and various associated factors such as sex, infant birth weight, gestation age, parity of the mother, maternal age, and HIV status of the mother...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Musa AlHarbi, Nahla Ali Mobark, Latifa AlMubarak, Rasha Aljelaify, Mariam AlSaeed, Amal Almutairi, Fatmah Alqubaishi, M Emarat Hussain, Ali Abdullah O Balbaid, Amal Said Marie, Lamia AlSubaie, Saeed AlShieban, Nada alTassan, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Malak Abedalthagafi
Primary brain tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade astrocytoma that occurs in both children and adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite extensive study in recent years, the clinical management of these tumors has remained largely unchanged, consisting of surgical resection, conventional chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although the etiology and genomic drivers in GBM are diverse, constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disease with a predisposition to gliomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Oncologist
Jinlin Song, Elyse Swallow, Qayyim Said, Miranda Peeples, Mark Meiselbach, James Signorovitch, Michael Kohrman, Bruce Korf, Darcy Krueger, Michael Wong, Steven Sparagana
INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare congenital disorder often associated with epilepsy. However, real-world treatment patterns for epilepsy in patients with TSC are not yet well categorized. METHODS: This study included patients with TSC and epilepsy from fifteen clinics in the United States and one in Belgium who were enrolled in the TSC Natural History Database (2006-2014). Patient demographics and epilepsy treatment patterns, including the use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), epilepsy surgeries, and dietary therapies were assessed...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Aicha Hennia, Maria Graça Miguel, Said Nemmiche
Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) and Myrtus nivellei Batt. & Trab. (Saharan myrtle) have been used in folk medicine for alleviating some ailments. M. communis is largely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, whereas M. nivellei is confined in specific zones of the central Saharan mountains. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry and leaf extracts isolated from myrtle are deeply documented, whereas those isolated from Saharan myrtle extracts are less studied. In both species, the major groups of constituents include gallic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavonol derivatives, and hydroxybenzoic acids...
August 11, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Ingeborg Frostad Liaset, Lisbeth Kvam
BACKGROUND: Work participation has a profound influence on the individual's overall health and well-being. Cancer survivors are at risk of unemployment, and the people with the highest risk are diagnosed with cancer in the central nervous system. Many diagnosed with this cancer survive and try to return to a normal life including work participation. Experiences related to returning to work after brain tumor treatment seem to be an unexplored phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: The current study focuses on the gap in the scientific literature concerning the individual experience after undergoing treatment for brain cancer and the return to work (RTW) process...
August 9, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Eugenio Zapata-Aldana, David Dongkyung Kim, Salma Remtulla, Chitra Prasad, Cam-Tu Nguyen, Craig Campbell
Deleterious homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the TBCK (TBC1-domain-containing kinase) gene (implicated in the MTOR pathway) produce profound hypotonia, global developmental delay, facial dysmorphic features, and brain abnormalities. The disorder has been named "infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies-3" (IHPRF3). Here we present two sisters with a novel mutation in TBCK (NM_001163435.2: c.753dup; p.(Lys252*)) who have this ultrarare disorder. We have reviewed the literature on the 33 previously reported cases to provide a characterization of this emerging phenotype...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Marwa Khammassi, Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Mohamed Said, Moncef Feki, Yosra Khammassi, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, Anissa Bouassida
Khammassi, M, Ouerghi, N, Said, M, Feki, M, Khammassi, Y, Pereira, B, Thivel, D, and Bouassida, A. Continuous moderate-intensity but not high-intensity interval training improves immune function biomarkers in healthy young men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Effects of endurance running methods on hematological profile are still poorly known. This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 training regimes; high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) performed at the same external load on hematological biomarkers in active young men...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nayreen Daruwalla, Tanvi Mishra, Neeta Karandikar, Shanti Pantvaidya, David Osrin
Around 20% of India's population are adolescents aged 10-19 years. Our objective was to strengthen program interventions on gender equity, health, and participation by gauging adolescents' levels of understanding and opinions. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 2005 adolescents on their opinions on rights, friendship and sex, sexual refusal and coercion, and communication with family, using a two-stage probability proportional to size sample. Opinions on gender allocations were generally equitable, although females supported clothing proscriptions...
2018: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
Lisa-Marie Emerson, Connor Heapy, Gemma Garcia-Soriano
Obsessive intrusive thoughts (OITs) are experienced by the majority of the general population, and in their more extreme forms are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These cognitions are said to exist on a continuum that includes differences in their frequency and associated distress. The key factors that contribute to an increased frequency and distress are how the individual appraises and responds to the OIT. Facets of mindfulness, such as nonjudgment and nonreactivity, offer an alternative approach to OITs than the negative appraisals and commonly utilised control strategies that often contribute to distress...
2018: Mindfulness
Magdalena Paczkowska, Mikołaj Mizera, Kornelia Lewandowska, Maciej Kozak, Andrzej Miklaszewski, Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Following the preparation of inclusion complex of cetirizine (CTZ) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), the compound was investigated to assess the possibility of modifying the physicochemical properties (solubility, release, stability, permeability) of CTZ after complexation that are vital for subsequent formulation studies involving the said complex. Changes in FT-IR/Raman spectra, DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms confirmed the formation of a CTZ-β-CD system. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with a DAD detector was employed to determine alterations of the CTZ concentration during studies following complexation...
2018: Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry
Simon Read, Heather Waterman, James E Morgan, Robert A Harper, Anne Fiona Spencer, Penelope Stanford
Purpose: "She wouldn't remember. Even when I go through, and she's decided to go to bed, I'll say I'll come and do her drops. If I didn't say that, they wouldn't be done." Dementia is widely considered as a key factor in whether patients take their medication as prescribed. However, few studies have examined the effect of dementia on medication management strategies for glaucoma including how patient and carer needs impact adherence and long-term prognosis. We report findings from a qualitative grounded theory study incorporating the views of patients, carers, and healthcare professionals...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
May Ahmed Khairy, Walaa Alsharany Abuelhamd, Ismail Mohamed Elhawary, Ahmed Said Mahmoud Nabayel
BACKGROUND: Reliable predictive markers enabling physicians to identify which newborns will develop significant hyperbilirubinemia have become mandatory for prevention of severe hyperbilirunemia. We aimed at determining the critical cord serum bilirubin and albumin levels and bilirubin/albumin ratio early as reliable markers. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study included 175 full-term neonates. Measurement of cord bilirubin, albumin and bilirubin/albumin ratio was done to predict significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term newborns based on serum bilirubin measurements made within 5 days of life...
July 26, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Jason Rodriquez, Kathrin Boerner
Hospice has grown considerably but the likelihood that someone gets hospice depends on social and organizational practices. This article shows how staff beliefs and work routines influenced hospice utilization in two nursing homes. In one, 76% of residents died on hospice and in the other 24% did. Staff identified barriers to hospice including families who saw hospice as giving up and gaps in the reimbursement system. At the high-hospice nursing home, staff said hospice care extended beyond what they provided on their own...
September 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
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