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Microbiome, crohn

V Svolos, R Hansen, B Nichols, C Quince, U Z Ijaz, R T Papadopoulou, C A Edwards, D Watson, A Alghamdi, A Brejnrod, C Ansalone, H Duncan, L Gervais, R Tayler, J Salmond, D Bolognini, R Klopfleisch, D R Gaya, S Milling, R K Russell, K Gerasimidis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the only established dietary treatment for Crohn's disease (CD), but its acceptability is limited. There is a need for novel dietary treatments for CD. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of an individualized, food-based diet (CD-TREAT), with similar composition to EEN, on the gut microbiome, inflammation and clinical response in a rat model, healthy adults, and children with relapsing CD. Twenty-five healthy adults randomly received EEN or CD-TREAT for 7 days, followed by a 14-day washout period, followed by the alternate diet...
December 11, 2018: Gastroenterology
Jessica D Forbes, Chih-Yu Chen, Natalie C Knox, Ruth-Ann Marrie, Hani El-Gabalawy, Teresa de Kievit, Michelle Alfa, Charles N Bernstein, Gary Van Domselaar
BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) represents a substantial health concern. It is widely recognized that IMID patients are at a higher risk for developing secondary inflammation-related conditions. While an ambiguous etiology is common to all IMIDs, in recent years, considerable knowledge has emerged regarding the plausible role of the gut microbiome in IMIDs. This study used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to compare the gut microbiota of patients with Crohn's disease (CD; N = 20), ulcerative colitis (UC; N = 19), multiple sclerosis (MS; N = 19), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; N = 21) versus healthy controls (HC; N = 23)...
December 13, 2018: Microbiome
Zev H Davidovics, Sonia Michail, Maribeth R Nicholson, Larry K Kociolek, Nikhil Pai, Richard Hansen, Tobias Schwerd, Aldo Maspons, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Nikhil Thapar, Tim de Meij, Alexis Mosca, Yvan Vandenplas, Stacy A Kahn, Richard Kellermayer
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming part of the treatment algorithms against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) both in adult and pediatric gastroenterology practice. With our increasing recognition of the critical role the microbiome plays in human health and disease, FMT is also being considered as a potential therapy for other disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis), graft versus host disease, neuropsychiatric diseases, and metabolic syndrome...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Eric A Franzosa, Alexandra Sirota-Madi, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Nadine Fornelos, Henry J Haiser, Stefan Reinker, Tommi Vatanen, A Brantley Hall, Himel Mallick, Lauren J McIver, Jenny S Sauk, Robin G Wilson, Betsy W Stevens, Justin M Scott, Kerry Pierce, Amy A Deik, Kevin Bullock, Floris Imhann, Jeffrey A Porter, Alexandra Zhernakova, Jingyuan Fu, Rinse K Weersma, Cisca Wijmenga, Clary B Clish, Hera Vlamakis, Curtis Huttenhower, Ramnik J Xavier
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial chronic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. While IBD has been associated with dramatic changes in the gut microbiota, changes in the gut metabolome-the molecular interface between host and microbiota-are less well understood. To address this gap, we performed untargeted metabolomic and shotgun metagenomic profiling of cross-sectional stool samples from discovery (n = 155) and validation (n = 65) cohorts of CD, UC and non-IBD control patients...
December 10, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Hengameh Chloé Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Katleen Vrankx, Jørgen Engberg, Alice Friis-Møller, Jørn Brynskov, Inge Nordgaard-Lassen, Andreas Munk Petersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt
Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally divided into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is a relapsing non-transmural inflammatory disease that is restricted to the colon and is characterized by flare-ups of bloody diarrhea. CD is a chronic, segmental localized granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Ileo-anal pouch is a procedure restoring functionality of the rectum after a colectomy. IBD is a multifactorial disease and flares of IBD are probably triggered by changes in the intestinal microbiota followed by an abnormal immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Lili Yang, Shijie Tang, Susan S Baker, Ingrid Arijs, Wensheng Liu, Razan Alkhouri, Ping Lan, Robert D Baker, Zhipeng Tang, Guang Ji, Paul Rutgeerts, Severine Vermeire, Ruixin Zhu, Lixin Zhu
Background: We aim to identify the differences in colonic mucosal transcriptome between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) for a better understanding of the molecular pathology. Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the colonic mucosa of CD and UC were identified with a global gene expression microarray dataset generated from the colon biopsies of CD and UC patients and normal controls. The DEGs were then processed to identify altered pathways and modularized DEGs and pathways...
December 4, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Matthew T Pereira, Mridu Malik, Jillian A Nostro, Gretchen J Mahler, Laura Palanker Musselman
Increased intestinal barrier permeability has been correlated with aging and disease, including type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of these ailments has risen together with an increase in industrial food processing and food additive consumption. Additives, including sugar, metal oxide nanoparticles, surfactants and sodium chloride, have all been suggested to increase intestinal permeability. We used two complementary model systems to examine the effects of food additives on gut barrier function: a Drosophila in vivo model and an in vitro human cell co-culture model...
November 28, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Aamer Imdad, Maribeth R Nicholson, Emily E Tanner-Smith, Joseph P Zackular, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte, Dawn B Beaulieu, Sari Acra
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is thought to be associated with a complex interplay between microbes and the immune system, leading to an abnormal inflammatory response in genetically susceptible individuals. Dysbiosis, characterized by the alteration of the composition of the resident commensal bacteria in a host compared to healthy individuals, is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), two subtypes of IBD...
November 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Takayuki Imai, Ryo Inoue, Yuki Kawada, Yasuhiro Morita, Osamu Inatomi, Atsushi Nishida, Shigeki Bamba, Masahiro Kawahara, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are no previous reports describing the fecal fungal microbiome of a Japanese population using advanced molecular techniques. In this study, we performed a molecular analysis on the fungal microbial community of a healthy Japanese population and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 18 patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 18), Crohn's disease (CD, n = 20) and healthy volunteers (n = 20)...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Chien-Yu Lin, Kuo-Sen Tseng, Jui-Ming Liu, Heng-Chang Chuang, Chi-Hone Lien, Yi-Chih Chen, Chun-Ying Lai, Cheng-Ping Yu, Ren-Jun Hsu
Both periodontal disease (PD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are important diseases of the alimentary tract. Microbiome and immune-mediated inflammatory processes play important roles in these diseases. An association between PD and IBD may exist. This study investigated the risk of IBD in patients with PD. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 1996 to 2013. A total of 27,041 patients with PD were enrolled as a study group, and 108,149 patients without PD were selected as the control group after matching by gender, age, insured region, urbanization, and income with a 1:4 ratio...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Martha Zakrzewski, Lisa A Simms, Allison Brown, Mark Appleyard, James Irwin, Nicola Waddell, Graham L Radford-Smith
Background and aims: This study aimed to characterise the mucosa-associated microbiota in ileal Crohn's disease (CD) patients and in healthy controls in terms of host genotype and inflammation status. Methods: The mucosa-associated microbiota of intestinal pinch biopsies from 15 ileal CD patients with mild and moderate disease and from 58 healthy controls were analysed by 16S ribosomal sequencing to determine microbial profile differences between (1) IL23R, NOD2 and ATG16L1 genotypes in healthy subjects, (2) ileal CD patients and control subjects, and (3) inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal tissue in CD patients...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Xin Fang, Jonathan M Monk, Sergey Nurk, Margarita Akseshina, Qiyun Zhu, Christopher Gemmell, Connor Gianetto-Hill, Nelly Leung, Richard Szubin, Jon Sanders, Paul L Beck, Weizhong Li, William J Sandborn, Scott D Gray-Owen, Rob Knight, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Bernhard O Palsson, Larry Smarr
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, including elevated abundance of putative leading bacterial triggers such as E. coli in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is of great interest. To date, most E. coli studies in IBD patients are focused on clinical isolates, overlooking their relative abundances and turnover over time. Metagenomics-based studies, on the other hand, are less focused on strain-level investigations. Here, using recently developed bioinformatic tools, we analyzed the abundance and properties of specific E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xuanyi Meng, Garett Dunsmore, Petya Koleva, Yesmine Elloumi, Richard You Wu, Reed Taylor Sutton, Lindsy Ambrosio, Naomi Hotte, Vivian Nguyen, Karen L Madsen, Levinus A Dieleman, Hongbing Chen, Vivian Huang, Shokrollah Elahi
Background and Aims: For women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is not very well known how IBD or IBD treatment impacts their breastmilk components. We aimed to investigate whether breastmilk composition differs in healthy control (HC) versus IBD mothers in terms of antibodies, cytokines and metabolites to identify potential impact of IBD breastmilk on neonatal immune system. Methods: Breastmilk specimens from HC (n=17) and IBD (n=31 for Crohn's disease (CD); n=41 for ulcerative colitis (UC)) were collected at 3 and 6 months post-partum (PP3) and (PP6), respectively...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Roxane Kreuter, Miriam Wankell, Golo Ahlenstiel, Lionel Hebbard
In just over a generation overweight and obesity has become a worldwide health concern. The ramifications for this on future health care costs and longevity are consequent, whilst increased adiposity is a harbinger for diabetes, kidney and bone failure, and cancer. An area of intense interest where the role of adiposity is avidly discussed is in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which presents mainly as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Studies in patients associating IBD with a western diet are divergent...
October 22, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Nikolas Dovrolis, Ioannis Drygiannakis, Eirini Filidou, Leonidas Kandilogiannakis, Konstantinos Arvanitidis, Ioannis Tentes, George Kolios, Vassilis Valatas
Microflora dysbiosis is implicated in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease. This work analyzes differences in microbial communities and relevant metabolic pathways among the nonstricturing nonpenetrating (B1), stricturing (B2), and penetrating (B3) subphenotypes of Crohn's disease vs healthy controls. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis using the QIIME pipeline and the Calypso, linear discriminant analysis effect size, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and STAMP tools on publicly available 16S bacterial rRNA sequencing data from terminal ileum mucosal biopsies of healthy controls and the 3 subphenotypes of Crohn's disease...
October 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Claire L O'Brien, Christopher J Kiely, Paul Pavli
Background: Reduced intestinal microbial diversity and bacterial imbalance (dysbiosis) are seen in studies of Crohn's disease. As it is difficult to obtain biopsy samples before disease presentation, the earliest mucosal lesions in Crohn's disease, aphthous ulcers, present the best chance at assessing microbial communities at the onset of disease or a new flare. The aim of our study was to compare the microbial communities of aphthous ulcers and adjacent normal mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease with normal mucosa from controls...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Livia Lindoso, Kajari Mondal, Suresh Venkateswaran, Hari K Somineni, Cortney Ballengee, Thomas D Walters, Anne Griffiths, Joshua D Noe, Wallace Crandall, Scott Snapper, Shervin Rabizadeh, Joel R Rosh, Neal LeLeiko, Stephen Guthery, David Mack, Richard Kellermayer, Ajay S Gulati, Marian D Pfefferkorn, Dedrick E Moulton, David Keljo, Stanley Cohen, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Melvin B Heyman, Anthony Otley, Susan S Baker, Jonathan S Evans, Barbara S Kirschner, Ashish S Patel, David Ziring, Michael C Stephens, Robert Baldassano, Marla C Dubinsky, James Markowitz, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
OBJECTIVES: Environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's Disease (CD). In particular, by virtue of the instability of the microbiome and development of immunologic tolerance, early life factors may exert the strongest influence on disease risk and phenotype. METHODS: We used data from 1119 CD subjects recruited from RISK inception cohort to examine the impact of early life environment on disease progression. Our primary exposures of interest were breastfeeding in infancy and exposure to maternal, active, or passive smoke...
October 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Miranda G Kiernan, J Calvin Coffey, Kieran McDermott, Paul D Cotter, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, Patrick A Kiely, Colum P Dunne
Background and Aims: Mesenteric lymph nodes are sites in which translocated bacteria incite and progress immunological responses. For this reason, understanding the microbiome of mesenteric lymph nodes in inflammatory bowel disease is important. The bacterial profile of Crohn's disease mesenteric lymph nodes has been analysed using culture-independent methods in only one previous study. This study aimed to investigate the mesenteric lymph node microbiota from both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Bjoern Titz, Raffaella M Gadaleta, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Ashraf Elamin, Kim Ekroos, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of progressive disorders characterized by recurrent chronic inflammation of the gut. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the major manifestations of IBD. While our understanding of IBD has progressed in recent years, its etiology is far from being fully understood, resulting in suboptimal treatment options. Complementing other biological endpoints, bioanalytical "omics" methods that quantify many biomolecules simultaneously have great potential in the dissection of the complex pathogenesis of IBD...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seyed-Amir Tabatabaeizadeh, Niayesh Tafazoli, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Vitamin D has an important role in bone metabolism but recently has been recognized as an immunoregulator, and this has led to investigations on the effect of Vitamin D supplementation in various autoimmune diseases and its anti-inflammatory effects. There is some evidence that Vitamin D can regulate gastrointestinal inflammation. In addition, previous studies have shown that Vitamin D can affect the gut microbiome. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin D on inflammatory processes, especially its relation to the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gut microbiome...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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