Read by QxMD icon Read

Autism and rats

Adrian A Franke, Xingnan Li, Ariane Menden, Mary R Lee, Jennifer F Lai
Oxytocin (OT) is a neurohormone that has gained interest recently due to its emerging role in cognition and social/emotional behaviors including possibly depression and autism. OT is commonly measured using enzyme- or radio-based immunoassays (RIA, ELISA), which lack specificity or are complicated to perform and involve hazardous radioactive material. We developed a high resolution accurate-mass (HRAM) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) method that separates interferences and selectively and accurately quantitates native OT from human serum, urine, and saliva after solid phase extraction...
August 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Hao Zhou, Weiqing Zhao, Liu Ye, Zhihe Chen, Yuxia Cui
This study aimed to explore the effects of postnatal low-concentration arsenic exposure on learning, social skills and frontal cortex neurogenesis in rats. Water-based arsenic exposure rat models were established on postnatal days 4-10 (P4-P10). The experimental animals were divided into four groups: the control group, a 15 μg/L As2 O3 water group, a 30 μg/L As2 O3 water group, and a 45 μg/L As2 O3 water group. Cognitive function was examined with the Morris water maze, anxiety-like behavior with the open field test and light-dark box test, and social skills with a social interaction test...
July 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jamela Jouda, Markus Wöhr, Adriana Del Rey
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) serve important communicative functions in rodents. Different types of USVs can be triggered in the sender, for example, by maternal separation, social interactions, or exposure to predators, and they evoke affiliative or alarming behaviors in recipients. This review focusses on studies evaluating possible links between immunity and USVs. Most studies have been performed in a murine model of maternal immune activation and subsequent evaluation of effects in the offspring. This model has received large attention in recent years because it mimics behavioral abnormalities observed in certain human neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder...
July 31, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kimbra A Edwards, Amanda M K Madden, Susan L Zup
Perinatal administration of serotonin (5HT) agonist 5-methoxytryptamine (5MT) induces developmental hyperserotonemia (DHS; elevated blood serotonin) and produces behavioral and neurochemical changes in rats relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), such as oxytocin dysregulation. Disruption of the oxytocin system may underlie many of the social deficits present in ASD individuals, thus we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying DHS-induced oxytocin dysregulation. The most parsimonious mechanism of 5HT action would be via alteration of 5HT receptors on oxytocin cells; 5HT is known to influence cell survival as well as influence oxytocin release via 5HT1A and 5HT2A receptors, which co-localize in oxytocin-expressing (OXT+) cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus...
July 21, 2018: Brain Research
A M Muehlmann, S L Wolfman, D P Devine
BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviour is a debilitating characteristic that is commonly expressed in people with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, but the neurobiological basis of this maladaptive behaviour is not understood. Abnormal dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated, especially in relation to basal ganglia and mesocorticolimbic circuits. As neurotensin is an important modulator of dopamine and glutamate in these circuits, we investigated its potential role in vulnerability for self-injury, using the pemoline model in rats...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L-S Ju, J-J Yang, T E Morey, N Gravenstein, C N Seubert, J L Resnick, J-Q Zhang, A E Martynyuk
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies report learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in those exposed to general anaesthesia early in life. Rats, primarily males, exposed to GABAergic anaesthetics as neonates exhibit behavioural abnormalities, exacerbated responses to stress, and reduced expression of hypothalamic K+ -2Cl- Cl- exporter (Kcc2). The latter is implicated in development of psychiatric disorders, including male predominant autism spectrum disorders. We tested whether parental early life exposure to sevoflurane, the most frequently used anaesthetic in paediatrics, affects the next generation of unexposed rats...
August 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Marya S Sabir, Mark R Haussler, Sanchita Mallick, Ichiro Kaneko, Daniel A Lucas, Carol A Haussler, G Kerr Whitfield, Peter W Jurutka
Background: Diminished brain levels of two neurohormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D; active vitamin D metabolite), are proposed to play a role in the atypical social behaviors associated with psychological conditions including autism spectrum disorders and depression. We reported previously that 1,25D induces expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to 5-HT, in cultured rat serotonergic neuronal cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Mohamed A Hamzawy, Yasmin B El-Ghandour, Sekena H Abdel-Aziem, Zoba H Ali
The aspect of treatment of autistic behaviour was investigated using valproic acid rat model of pregnant female rats. Two main groups (10 male rats/group) were treated for 6 days and then divided into six subgroups. The first group of normal rats was divided into three subgroups: (A) - control group, (B) - treated with camel milk (CAM; 2 mL/p.o) and (C) - treated with leptin (1000 µg/kg i.p) twice daily. The second group of autistic rats was randomly distributed into four subgroups as follows: (D) - positive control (autistics rats), (E) - treated with CAM, (F) - treated with a moderate dose of leptin and (G) - treated with a higher dose of leptin...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Marianna K Keaveney, Hua-An Tseng, Tina L Ta, Howard J Gritton, Heng-Ye Man, Xue Han
More specific and broadly applicable viral gene-targeting tools for labeling neuron subtypes are needed to advance neuroscience research, especially in rodent transgenic disease models and genetically intractable species. Here, we develop a viral vector that restricts transgene expression to GABAergic interneurons in the rodent neocortex by exploiting endogenous microRNA regulation. Our interneuron-targeting, microRNA-guided neuron tag, "GABA mAGNET," achieves >95% interneuron selective labeling in the mouse cortex, including in a murine model of autism and also some preferential labeling of interneurons in the rat brain...
July 10, 2018: Cell Reports
Vienna K Behnke, Morgan E Stevenson, Rodney A Swain
Research has implicated the deep cerebellar nuclei in autism. This study questioned whether fastigial nuclei abnormalities account for some of the irregular social behaviors seen in autism. Bilateral cannulation surgery was performed on 13 rats. An ABABAB reversal design was implemented. All animals received a microinfusion of saline during the baseline (A) phases. The experimental animal was placed in an open field with an unfamiliar confederate animal, and social interactions between the two animals were measured for 10 min...
July 9, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Meera E Modi, Julie M Brooks, Edward R Guilmette, Mercedes Beyna, Radka Graf, Dominik Reim, Michael J Schmeisser, Tobias M Boeckers, Patricio O'Donnell, Derek L Buhl
Mutations in the SHANK family of genes have been consistently identified in genetic and genomic screens of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The functional overlap of SHANK with several other ASD-associated genes suggests synaptic dysfunction as a convergent mechanism of pathophysiology in ASD. Although many ASD-related mutations result in alterations to synaptic function, the nature of those dysfunctions and the consequential behavioral manifestations are highly variable when expressed in genetic mouse models...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Francesca Melancia, Sara Schiavi, Michela Servadio, Veronica Cartocci, Patrizia Campolongo, Maura Palmery, Valentina Pallottini, Viviana Trezza
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more commonly diagnosed in males than in females. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is an environmental risk factor of ASD. Male rats prenatally exposed to VPA show socio-emotional autistic-like dysfunctions that have been related with changes in the activity of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Our aim was to investigate whether prenatal VPA induces sex specific autistic endophenotypes involving anandamide signaling...
July 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Rashin Khalaj, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Zare
Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) induces behavioral disorders and enhancement of oxido-inflammatory stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of hesperetin (Hst) and nano-hesperetin on social behavior deficits and oxido-inflammatory indexes in prenatally valproic acid-exposed rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats on embryonic day 0 (E0) were segregated into six groups; Group-1 served as vehicle, received distillated water orally (PO) from E1 until the end of lactation and saline intraperitoneally (i...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Iohanna Deckmann, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Walquiria Nunes, Bruna Rabelo, Rudimar Riesgo, Rogerio Margis, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
This article contains data of Social Transmission of Food Preference in an animal model of autism and the evaluation of a set of microRNA analyzed in autistic patients and animal model of autism. The analyses of the absolute consumption of two flavored food by male rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) and treated with resveratrol (RSV), showed that VPA animals show a trend to eat less of the flavored food presented by a demonstrator rat. We also identified 13 microRNA with similar levels among rodents' experimental groups, as well as 11 microRNA with no alterations between autistic and control subjects...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Zhaoqiang Qian, Ruoxin Zhang, Jinlong Zhou, Siqi Sun, Yuanyuan Di, Wei Ren, Yingfang Tian
The transcriptome sequencing data of valproic acid (VPA) model of autism and control rats are presented. VPA model of autism was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproic acid to female rats at day 12.5 post-conception, and the control rats were injected with saline. Male offspring of VPA- or saline-injected dams from different litters were sacrificed on PND 35 ( n = three rats/three litters/group). Prefrontal cortex was dissected from both hemispheres, and RNA was isolated...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Júlio Santos-Terra, Iohanna Deckmann, Gustavo Brum Schwingel, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Rudimar S Riesgo, Victorio Bambini-Júnior, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in both social communication and interaction and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Although its etiology remains unknown, genetic and environmental risk factors have been associated with this disorder, including the exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy. Resveratrol (RSV) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant molecule known to prevent social impairments in the VPA animal model of autism. This study aimed to analyze the effects of prenatal exposure to VPA, as well as possible preventive effects of RSV, on sensory behavior, the localization of GABAergic parvalbumin (PV+ ) neurons in sensory brain regions and the expression of proteins of excitatory and inhibitory synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Nermin Eissa, Mohammed Al-Houqani, Adel Sadeq, Shreesh K Ojha, Astrid Sasse, Bassem Sadek
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental brain disorder characterized by two core behavioral symptoms, namely impairments in social communication and restricted/repetitive behavior. The molecular mechanisms underlying ASD are not well understood. Recent genetic as well as non-genetic animal models contributed significantly in understanding the pathophysiology of ASD, as they establish autism-like behavior in mice and rats. Among the genetic causes, several chromosomal mutations including duplications or deletions could be possible causative factors of ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren, Joseph Yanai
We discuss the possibilities to prevent the post-exposure teratogenic effects of several teratogens: valproic acid (VPA), diabetes and alcohol. Co-administration of folic acid with VPA reduced the rate of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) and other anomalies in rodents, but apparently not in pregnant women. Antioxidants or the methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine prevented Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) like behavior in mice and rats. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that antioxidants, arachidonic acid, myoinositol and nutritional agents may prevent diabetes-embryopathy...
May 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Dirleise Colle, Marcelo Farina, Sandra Ceccatelli, Marilena Raciti
Pesticide exposure has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Developmental exposure to pesticides, even at low concentrations not harmful for the adult brain, can lead to neuronal loss and functional deficits. It has been shown that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) and the fungicide maneb (MB), alone or in combination, causes permanent toxicity in the nigrostriatal dopamine system, supporting the idea that early exposure to these pesticides may contribute to the pathophysiology of PD...
June 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Soha A Elmorsy, Ghada F Soliman, Laila A Rashed, Hamed Elgendy
Background: Autism is a challenging neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous clinical observations suggest altered sedation requirements for autistic children. Our study aimed to test this observation experimentally with an animal model and, to explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Eight adult pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly selected into two groups. Four were injected with intraperitoneal sodium valproate on the gestational day 12 and four were injected with normal saline...
May 30, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"