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Autism and rats

Razieh Hajisoltani, Seyed Asaad Karimi, Mona Rahdar, Shima Davoudi, Mehdi Borjkhani, Narges Hosseinmardi, Gila Behzadi, Mahyar Janahmadi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which is characterized by impairment in social interaction and cognitive behaviors. However, there is not much electrophysiological data available on alterations of neuronal excitability in autism. Here, we assessed the pattern of neuronal excitability and the possible contribution of Ih current to the altered excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of VPA-induced ASD-like behavior. Pregnant Wistar rats received Valproic Acid (VPA, 500mg/kg) at gestational day 12...
December 8, 2018: Brain Research
Ling Li, Min Li, Jianping Lu, Xiaohu Ge, Weiguo Xie, Zichen Wang, Xiaoling Li, Chao Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Yan Han, Yifei Wang, Liyan Zhong, Wei Xiang, Xiaodong Huang, Haijia Chen, Paul Yao
We have previously reported that prenatal progestin exposure induces autism-like behavior in offspring through ERβ (estrogen receptor β) suppression in the brain, indicating that progestin may induce autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we aim to investigate whether prenatal progestin exposure is associated with ASD. A population-based case-control epidemiology study was conducted in Hainan province of China. The ASD children were first screened with the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) questionnaire, and then diagnosed by clinical professionals using the ASD diagnosis criteria found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Elzbieta Zieminska, Beata Toczylowska, Dominik Diamandakis, Wojciech Hilgier, Robert Kuba Filipkowski, Rafal Polowy, Jaroslaw Orzel, Michal Gorka, Jerzy Wieslaw Lazarewicz
The disorders of the glutamatergic neurotransmission have been associated with pathogenesis of autism. In this study we evaluated the impact of the in vivo and ex vivo test methodology on measurements of levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in hippocampus of rats for valproic acid- (VPA) and thalidomide- (THAL) induced models of autism. The main goal was to compare the changes in concentrations of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and GABA between both autistic groups and the control, measured in vivo and ex vivo in homogenates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ruixiang Wang, Kathryn Hausknecht, Roh-Yu Shen, Samir Haj-Dahmane
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communicative impairments and increased repetitive behaviors. These symptoms are often comorbid with increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), an anti-seizure and mood stabilizer medication, is a major environmental risk factor of ASD. Given the important role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in anxiety, we examined the impact of prenatal VPA exposure on the function of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRn) 5-HT neurons. We found that male rats prenatally exposed to VPA exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors revealed by a decreased time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ashley L Schormans, Brian L Allman
The ability to accurately integrate or bind stimuli from more than one sensory modality is highly dependent on the features of the stimuli, such as their intensity and relative timing. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ability to perceptually bind stimuli is impaired in various clinical conditions such as autism, dyslexia, schizophrenia, as well as aging. However, it remains unknown if adult-onset hearing loss, separate from aging, influences audiovisual temporal acuity. In the present study, rats were trained using appetitive operant conditioning to perform an audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task or synchrony judgment (SJ) task in order to investigate the nature and extent that audiovisual temporal acuity is affected by adult-onset hearing loss, with a specific focus on the time-course of perceptual changes following loud noise exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tin-Tin Win-Shwe, Nay Chi Nway, Motoki Imai, Thet-Thet Lwin, Ohn Mar, Hidehiro Watanabe
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social communication and social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. The etiology of autism remains unknown and its molecular basis is not yet well understood. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered 600 mg/kg of valproic acid (VPA) by intraperitoneal injection on day 12.5 of gestation. Both 11- to 13-week-old male and female rat models of VPA-induced autism showed impaired sociability and impaired preference for social novelty as compared to the corresponding control SD rats...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Brittany F Osborne, Alexandra Turano, Jasmine I Caulfield, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Early-life infection has been shown to have profound effects on the brain and behavior across the lifespan, a phenomenon termed "early-life programming". Indeed, many neuropsychiatric disorders begin or have their origins early in life and have been linked to early-life immune activation (e.g. autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia). Furthermore, many of these disorders show a robust sex bias, with males having a higher risk of developing early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders. The concept of early-life programming is now well established, however, it is still unclear how such effects are initiated and then maintained across time to produce such a phenomenon...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Natalia Krisanova, Natalia Pozdnyakova, Artem Pastukhov, Marina Dudarenko, Oksana Maksymchuk, Petro Parkhomets, Roman Sivko, Tatiana Borisova
Recent experimental and epidemiologic investigations have revealed that the central nervous system is a target for vitamin D3 action and also linked vitamin D3 deficiency to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, autism and dementia. Abnormal homeostasis of glutamate and GABA and signaling disbalance are implicated in the pathogenesis of major neurological diseases. Here, key transport characteristics of glutamate and GABA were analysed in presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) isolated from the cortex of vitamin D3 deficient (VDD) rats...
October 25, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Roohi Mirza, Bhupesh Sharma
AIMS: The present study investigated the neuropharmacological role of PPAR-α modulator, fenofibrate in postnatal-propionic acid induced symptomatology related with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Wistar rats. MAIN METHODS: The propionic acid (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to rats from postnatal 21st day to 23rd day to induce autism-related neurobehavioral and neurobiochemical alterations in rats. Then, rats were treated with fenofibrate (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, orally) from postnatal 24th day till 48th day...
December 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Zhong-Ren Sun, Xiao-Lin Lü, Hong-Na Yin, Ji-Shun Hao, Xiang-Xin Zeng, Zhu-Xin Li
Brain plasticity is referred to the ability of the brain to change in structure and functional activities from microscopic aspects (synapses) in individual neurons to larger-scale aspects such as cortical remapping, neuronal remodeling, etc. in response to injury. Acupuncture has a positive effect in the treatment of cerebral diseases, thus leading to an increasing research on its underlying mechanisms in regulating brain plasticity. The present paper reviewed recent development of studies on acupuncture treatment of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, cerebral ischemia, bone cancer pain, autism, etc...
October 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Yu-Chuan Dai, Hong-Feng Zhang, Michael Schön, Tobias M Böckers, Song-Ping Han, Ji-Sheng Han, Rong Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social communication and repetitive/stereotyped behaviors. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) plays a critical role in regulating social behaviors in the central nervous system, as indicated in both human and animal studies. We hypothesized that central OXT deficit is one of causes of etiology of ASD, which may be responsible for the social impairments. To test our hypothesis, central OXT system was examined in valproic acid (VPA)-induced rat model of autism (VPA rat)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Veronica Cartocci, Claudia Tonini, Tiziana Di Pippo, Florenzia Vuono, Sara Schiavi, Maria Marino, Viviana Trezza, Valentina Pallottini
Here, we investigated the protein network regulating cholesterol metabolism in the liver and brain of adolescent and adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to valproate (VPA), a well validated experimental model of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We were aimed at studying whether prenatal VPA exposure affected the proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner. To this aim the protein network of cholesterol metabolism, in term of synthesis and plasma membrane trafficking, was analyzed by western blot in the liver and different brain areas (amygdala, cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum) of adolescent and adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to VPA...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Serena B Gumusoglu, Hanna E Stevens
Early disruptions to neurodevelopment are highly relevant to understanding both psychiatric risk and underlying pathophysiology that can be targeted by new treatments. Much convergent evidence from the human literature associates inflammation during pregnancy with later neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Preclinical models of prenatal inflammation have been developed to examine the causal maternal physiological and offspring neural mechanisms underlying these findings. Here we review the strengths and limitations of preclinical models used for these purposes and describe selected studies that have shown maternal immune impacts on the brain and behavior of offspring...
August 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jun Liu, Zeng-Yu Zhang, Hong Yu, Ai-Ping Yang, Ping-Fang Hu, Zhuo Liu, Min Wang
Previous studies have revealed that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and microRNA play a crucial role in autism, which is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with complicated genetic origins. Hence, the study concerns whether lncRNA C21orf121/bone morphogenetic proteins 2 (BMP2)/miR-140-5p gene network affects directed differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to neuronal cells in rats with autism. Autism models were successfully established. The neuron cells that differentiated from SHED cell were identified...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Caihong Sun, Mingyang Zou, Ling Li, Dexin Li, Yongjuan Ma, Wei Xia, Lijie Wu, Huan Ren
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders involving structural and functional impairment of the brain. Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels may contribute to the etiology of ASD by altering brain function. This study investigated the associations between genetic variants of KCNJ2 and KCNJ10 genes (encoding Kir2.1 and Kir4.1, respectively) and ASD risk in patients, and Kir channel expression in ASD model rats. This case-control study involved a cohort of 269 Chinese children with ASD and 243 unrelated healthy controls...
October 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Marika Matousova, Radko Soucek, Eva Tloustova, Barbora Slavikova, Hana Chodounska, Helena Mertlikova-Kaiserova, Eva Kudova
Neurosteroids are endogenous steroidal compounds that can modulate neuronal receptors. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated, calcium-permeable ion channels that are of particular interest, as they participate in synaptic transmission and are implicated in various processes, such as learning, memory, or long-term neuronal potentiation. Positive allosteric modulators that increase the activity of NMDARs may provide a therapeutic aid for patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders where NMDAR hypofunction is thought to be involved, such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, or schizophrenia...
October 5, 2018: Steroids
Hanan Alfawaz, Mona Al-Onazi, Sarah I Bukhari, Manal Binobead, Nashwa Othman, Norah Algahtani, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Nadine M S Moubayed, Haya S Alzeer, Afaf El-Ansary
Metabolites of proper fatty acids modulate the inflammatory response and are essential for normal brain development; equally, abnormal fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in the pathology of autism. Currently, dietary supplements are often used to improve the core symptoms of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study analyzed the effects of orally supplemented omega-3 (ω-3) and vitamin B12 on ameliorating oxidative stress and impaired lipid metabolism in a propionic acid (PPA)-induced rodent model of autism, together with their effect on the gut microbial composition, where great fluctuations in the bacterial number and strains were observed; interestingly, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 induced higher growth of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and decreased the survival rates of Clostridia sp...
November 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kelly A Jones, Yue Luo, Lynn Dukes-Rimsky, Deepak P Srivastava, Richa Koul-Tewari, Theron A Russell, Lauren P Shapiro, Anand K Srivastava, Peter Penzes
Dendritic spine morphology and dendritic arborization are key determinants of neuronal connectivity and play critical roles in learning, memory and behavior function. Recently, defects of ZBTB20, a BTB and zinc finger domain containing transcriptional repressor, have been implicated in a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability and autism. Here we show distinct effects of expression of two major isoforms, long and short, of ZBTB20, and its neurodevelopmental disorder-linked variants, on dendritic architecture of cultured rat cortical pyramidal neurons...
2018: PloS One
Corey L Kamen, Danna L Zevy, Jordan M Ward, Indra R Bishnoi, Martin Kavaliers, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by cognitive and sensorimotor deficits, among others. Hypo-sensitivity and hyper-sensitivity to different stimuli within the same sensory modality, a prominent symptom of ASD, can be assessed by acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short-chain fatty acid and a by-product of the human gut microbiome. Rodents treated with PPA has been found to produce ASD-related behavioral abnormalities, gastrointestinal discomfort, and conditioned aversions...
September 27, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Han-Fang Wu, Yi-Ju Chen, Ming-Chia Chu, Ya-Ting Hsu, Ting-Yi Lu, I-Tuan Chen, Po See Chen, Hui-Ching Lin
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known to be a promising treatment for resistant depression, which acts via the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC). Previous study revealed that dysfunction of brain 5-HT homeostasis is related to a valproate (VPA)-induced rat autism spectrum disorder (ASD) model. Whether ILPFC DBS rescues deficits in VPA-induced offspring through the 5-HT system is not known. Using VPA-induced offspring, we therefore explored the effect of DBS in autistic phenotypes and further investigated the underlying mechanism...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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