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Christine K Kissel, Dimitra Nikoletou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) on coronary angiography is a common finding in patients with stable angina. Angina in NOCAD patients is thought to be caused by endothelial dysfunction of the epicardial coronary arteries and/or the microvasculature. Treatment is empiric, and 30% of patients remain symptomatic in spite of therapy. It is well known that physical exercise can improve endothelial function. The goal of this review was to assess the current literature on effects of physical exercise in NOCAD patients with angina...
August 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
David D Kim, Alasdair M Barr, Yunsun Chung, Jessica W Y Yuen, Mahyar Etminan, Bruce C Carleton, Randall F White, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
BACKGROUND: Although antipsychotics are used to treat Tourette syndrome, there have been reports of paradoxical induction of tics by first- and second-generation antipsychotics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to better characterize tics as the potential adverse effect of antipsychotics. METHODS: A literature search was performed, with no language restriction, using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases for all publications up to January 2018...
August 18, 2018: CNS Drugs
Michael L Francavilla
Reference managers, also known as citation managers, were designed to create bibliographic citations but have evolved into powerful tools for education. In addition to their core competency of easily managing in-text citations and automatically generating a list of works cited, modern reference managers can help researchers manage increasingly large libraries of portable document format (PDF) files, web pages and other documents. Users can annotate, store, organize, tag and search PDFs. These programs fetch useful associated metadata such as publication information, author lists and article abstracts...
September 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jordan M Prutkin, Mathew G Wilson
Many sporting organisations recommend a pre-participation ECG to screen for disorders which predispose to sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). The ability of the ECG to perform accurately is dependent on the ECG criteria used and the experience of the operator. There have been several ECG criteria over the last decade, though these were recently superseded with the publication of the 'International Consensus Criteria for ECG Interpretation in Athletes'. These criteria use the latest evidence to improve specificity while maintaining sensitivity for ECG-detectable pathologies associated with SCA...
August 18, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Barry D Wright, Cindy Cooper, Alexander J Scott, Lucy Tindall, Shehzad Ali, Penny Bee, Katie Biggs, Trilby Breckman, Thompson E Davis Iii, Lina Gega, Rebecca Julie Hargate, Ellen Lee, Karina Lovell, David Marshall, Dean McMillan, M Dawn Teare, Jonathan Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Specific phobias (intense, enduring fears of an object or situation that lead to avoidance and severe distress) are highly prevalent among children and young people. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a well-established, effective intervention, but it can be time consuming and costly because it is routinely delivered over multiple sessions during several months. Alternative methods of treating severe and debilitating phobias in children are needed, like one-session treatment (OST), to reduce time and cost, and to prevent therapeutic drift and help children recover quickly...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Michelle Helena Van Velthoven, James Smith, Glenn Wells, David Brindley
INTRODUCTION: There is currently a lack of clear and accepted standards for the development (planning, requirement analysis and research, design and application testing) of apps for medical and healthcare use which poses different risks to developers, providers, patients and the public. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the current standards, frameworks, best practices and guidelines for the development of digital health apps. This review is a critical 'stepping stone' for further work on producing appropriate standards that can help mitigate risks (eg, clinical, privacy and economic risks)...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Abdul Salam, Ruth Webster, Anushka Patel, Pavithra Godamunne, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, H Asita de Silva, Anthony Rogers, Stephen Jan, Tracey-Lea Laba
INTRODUCTION: Globally, the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension is high, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. There is a critical need for strategies to improve hypertension control. The early use of a fixed low-dose combination of three antihypertensive drugs (triple pill) has the potential to significantly improve hypertension control. The TRI ple Pill vs. U sual care M anagement for P atients with mild-to- moderate H ypertension (TRIUMPH) randomised controlled trial (RCT) is designed to test the effects of this strategy compared with usual care in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Tou-Yuan Tsai, Shih-Hao Wang, Yi-Kung Lee, Yung-Cheng Su
OBJECTIVE: Trials of ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS) have been published since 1996. Because of their conflicting results, the efficacy of GBE remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether GBE prevents AMS. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar and PubMed databases were searched for articles published up to 20 May 2017. Only randomised controlled trials were included...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Aline Bogossian, Jan Willem Gorter, Eric Racine
INTRODUCTION: As adolescents with neurodisabilities near adulthood, they and their caregivers will face the challenge of transferring from paediatric to adult healthcare systems. Despite the growing number of programmes designed to support healthcare transitions, little is known about practices that result in positive outcomes or how ethical issues are addressed. The objective of this review is to identify and document the ethical principles that may be embedded in the vision of transitional care programmes and to map ethical issues encountered in transitional care as well as the strategies employed to recognise and address these ethical issues...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Franziska Hommes, Simon Drees, Karin Geffert, Peter von Philipsborn, Jan M Stratil
INTRODUCTION: Action on the social determinants of health has been key for improving health and prolonging life in the past, and remains so today. Against this background, WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for increased efforts to create health workforces trained in recognising, understanding and acting on the social determinants of health. However, little is known about the extent to which current medical education systems prepare graduates for this challenge...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
V Dinesh Kumar
I had read the editorial by Bandewar et al on the Medical Council of India's amended requirements for medical teachers with great interest and wish to highlight two issues seldom addressed in Indian academia. It is not uncommon for new faculty showing serious involvement in their teaching and patient-care related commitments to be warned about their "misplaced priorities". In other words, the number of publications listed is becoming the priority at medical job fairs, and young doctors who are interested in genuine teaching or humane clinical practice are being side-lined in the rat race...
July 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Zhiguang Liu, Feng Wang, Wentao Li, Lu Yin, Yuebo Wang, Ruohua Yan, Xiang Qian Lao, Haidong Kan, Lap Ah Tse
Long-term exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality but few studies examine the utility of WHO's interim targets (2006) concerning PM control on CVD mortality. This review aimed to synthesize the long-term exposed to ambient PM exposures on overall CVD mortality according to WHO's interim targets; meanwhile, subgroup analysis by ethnicity, smoking status and PM assessment method were also conducted. We systematically searched studies published between January 1974 and Jul 2017 in PubMed and Embase...
July 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alexander T Florence
This account of issues in the field of nanotechnologies for specific drug delivery is concerned mainly with its diverse literature. It is a prelude to proposing guidelines to ensure that papers are written acknowledging first the complexity of the task, and second that as there is no such thing as a generic nanoparticle, nor a typical drug, nor standard targets, generalisations are rarely possible. The objective is to discuss some trends which have led to over-confident extrapolations of experimental work in animals to treatment...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Gad Dotan, Hanya M Qureshi, Dan D Gaton
PURPOSE: To characterize and analyze the profile of United States (US) academic ophthalmology department chairs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Web search of publicly-accessible sources. STUDY POPULATION: 111 US ophthalmology chairs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic and academic data. RESULTS: Of the 111 chairs reviewed, 90% are males. Mean age of chairs is 59 years, and mean age at time of appointment is 47 years...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Matthew Oster, Ami B Bhatt, Elisa Zaragoza-Macias, Nandini Dendukuri, Ariane Marelli
Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common adult congenital heart defect and can present with wide variation in clinical findings. With the intention of preventing morbidity and mortality associated with late presentation of ASD, consensus guidelines have recommended surgical or percutaneous ASD closure in adults with right heart enlargement, with or without symptoms. The aim of the present analysis was to determine if the protective effect of secundum ASD closure in adults could be qualified by pooling data from published studies...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Anne Lejay, Igor Koncar, Holger Diener, Melina Vega de Ceniga, Nabil Chakfé
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to provide recommendations for diagnosis and management in the setting of infection following open or endovascular reconstructions of the supra-aortic trunks. METHODS: A review of the Medline database was performed from 1997 to 2017 by a combined strategy of MeSh terms. RESULTS: The literature search identified 49 publications: 36 studies addressing prosthetic material infections and 13 studies addressing stent infections...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Markus Tilp, Martin Svehlik
Following publication of the original article [1], the author requested for an acknowledgement to retrospectively be added to the 'Acknowledgements' section of the article [1].
August 18, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Hassan Asadi, Ehsan Mostafavi
Background: Scientometrics is a discipline that analyzes scientific publications to explore the structure and growth of science. In this work, the quantitative evaluation of the productivity of the Iranian Biomedical Journal (IBJ) is reviewed. Methods: The analysis was done based on a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical scientometric study. Data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Scimago Databases (2000-2017). Scopus and Scimago were used for data search and feature analysis...
August 19, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Leizhen Duan, Zonggui Xue, Huanwen Ji, Dongdong Zhang, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CYP2R1 is a key gene in the vitamin D metabolic pathway. It has been suggested that CYP2R1 gene variants in European populations are associated with concentrations of 25(OH)D, a biomarker of vitamin D levels and status in peripheral blood. However, a comprehensive meta-analysis of this effect including different ethnicities has never been conducted. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between CYP2R1 gene variants and 25(OH)D levels and vitamin D status...
August 15, 2018: Gene
Nicola Wannicke, Claudia Frey, Cliff S Law, Maren Voss
Ocean acidification, arising from the influx of anthropogenically generated carbon, poses a massive threat to the ocean ecosystems. Our knowledge of the effects of elevated anthropogenic CO2 in marine waters and its effect on the performance of single species, trophic interactions and ecosystems is increasing rapidly. However, our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients such as nitrogen is less advanced and lacks a comprehensive overview of how these processes may change under OA conditions...
August 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
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