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Secondary traumatic stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119759/mental-and-sexual-health-outcomes-following-sexual-assault-in-adolescents-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Sophie Khadr, Venetia Clarke, Kaye Wellings, Laia Villalta, Andrea Goddard, Jan Welch, Susan Bewley, Tami Kramer, Russell Viner
BACKGROUND: Young people are disproportionately affected by sexual assault, yet longitudinal data are sparse. This paper examines the characteristics of adolescents presenting to sexual assault services and mental and sexual health outcomes after an assault. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in adolescents aged 13-17 years attending the Sexual Assault Referral Centres serving Greater London, UK, over 2 years. Baseline interviews (T0) were done less than 6 weeks after an assault to collect data on sociodemographic and assault characteristics and psychological symptoms, with follow-up interviews (T1) at 4-5 months after the assault...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108544/neuroprotective-effect-of-artesunate-in-experimental-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Marika Cordaro, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are an important public health challenge. In addition, subsequent events at TBI can compromise the quality of life of these patients. In fact, TBI is associated with several complications for both long and short term, some evidence shows how TBI is associated with a decline in cognitive functions such as the risk of developing dementia, cerebral atrophy, and Parkinson disease. After the direct damage from TBI, a key role in TBI injury is played by the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, that contributes to tissue damage and to neurodegenerative processes, typical of secondary injury, after TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097136/depressive-symptoms-and-comorbid-problems-in-pregnancy-results-from-a-population-based-study
#3
Despina Pampaka, Stefania I Papatheodorou, Mohammad AlSeaidan, Rihab Al Wotayan, Rosalind J Wright, Julie E Buring, Douglas W Dockery, Costas A Christophi
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms, identify relevant risk factors, and assess comorbid mental health problems, among pregnant women enrolled in a population based study. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data collected from 1916 pregnant women who participated in the TRansgenerational Assessment of Children's Environmental Risk (TRACER) study in Kuwait, and had answered the Baseline Questionnaire and completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS)...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097046/comparison-of-mothers-and-grandmothers-physical-and-mental-health-and-functioning-within-6-months-after-child-nicu-picu-death
#4
JoAnne M Youngblut, Dorothy Brooten
BACKGROUND: Losing a child is devastating for parents and grandparents. Family and friends generally focus on comforting and supporting the bereaved parents, unintentionally ignoring the bereaved grandparents. Grandmothers and grandfathers often struggle with wanting to help their adult children (deceased child's parents) without usurping the parents' responsibilities and decisions regarding the deceased child. Research on mothers' and grandmothers' health at about the same time after the same child's death in the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit is lacking...
August 10, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096331/spontaneous-resurgence-of-conditioned-fear-weeks-after-successful-extinction-in-brain-injured-mice
#5
R Corne, C Leconte, M Ouradou, V Fassina, Y Zhu, E Déou, V Besson, M Plotkine, C Marchand-Leroux, R Mongeau
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and both disorders share common symptoms and neurobiological defects. Relapse after successful treatment, known as long-term fear resurgence, is common in PTSD patients and a major therapeutic hurdle. We induced a mild focal TBI by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in male C57BL/6 J mice and used fear conditioning to assess PTSD-like behaviors and concomitant alterations in the fear circuitry. We found for the first time that mild TBI, and to a lesser extent sham (craniotomy), mice displayed a spontaneous resurgence of conditioned fear when tested for fear extinction memory recall, despite having effectively acquired and extinguished conditioned fear 6 weeks earlier in the same context...
August 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091617/methodological-considerations-for-assessing-trauma-history-via-self-report
#6
Joseph R Bardeen, Natasha Benfer
OBJECTIVE: One must first experience a traumatic event (Criterion A in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ; 5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) to be diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Standard procedures for assessing Criterion A (i.e., the "worst-event" method) may result in misidentification of trauma exposure status. The purpose of this Internet-based study was to obtain an estimate of the percent of an adult sample that is misidentified as non-Criterion A through use of this method...
August 9, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080085/pilot-trial-of-post-admission-cognitive-therapy-inpatient-program-for-suicide-prevention
#7
Jessica M LaCroix, Kanchana U Perera, Laura L Neely, Geoffrey Grammer, Jennifer Weaver, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
Suicide remains a significant public health problem for the United States military. Trauma-related diagnoses such as acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may exacerbate suicide risk, particularly among service members psychiatrically hospitalized following suicide-related events. To date, treatments to address suicide risk and trauma symptomatology among service members within inpatient milieus have been nonexistent. To address this gap, a randomized controlled pilot trial of Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) was conducted to evaluate a targeted cognitive-behavioral program among traumatized military personnel (N = 36) hospitalized following a recent suicide attempt...
August 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076980/inflammation-negatively-correlates-with-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-functional-connectivity-in-association-with-anxiety-in-patients-with-depression-preliminary-results
#8
Neeti D Mehta, Ebrahim Haroon, Xiaodan Xu, Bobbi J Woolwine, Zhihao Li, Jennifer C Felger
Biomarkers of inflammation, including inflammatory cytokines and the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP), are reliably increased in a subset of patients with depression, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Administration of innate immune stimuli to laboratory subjects and the associated release of inflammatory cytokines has been shown to affect brain regions involved in fear, anxiety and emotional processing such as the amygdala. However, the role of inflammation in altered circuitry involving amygdala and other brain regions and its subsequent contribution to symptom severity in depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD is only beginning to be explored...
August 1, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075806/testing-the-effectiveness-and-implementation-of-a-brief-version-of-the-common-elements-treatment-approach-ceta-in-ukraine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Laura K Murray, Emily E Haroz, S Benjamin Doty, Namrita S Singh, Sergey Bogdanov, Judith Bass, Shannon Dorsey, Paul Bolton
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is a major public health concern. Despite progress understanding which treatments work, a significant treatment gap remains. An ongoing concern is treatment length. Modular, flexible, transdiagnostic approaches have been offered as one solution to scalability challenges. The Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) is one such approach and offers the ability to treat a wide range of common mental health problems. CETA is supported by two randomized trials from low- and middle-income countries showing strong effectiveness and implementation outcomes...
August 3, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047748/appraisals-of-disability-primary-and-secondary-scale-short-form-adapss-sf-psychometrics-and-association-with-mental-health-among-u-s-military-veterans-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Scott D McDonald, Lisa D Goldberg-Looney, Melody N Mickens, Michael S Ellwood, Brian J Mutchler, Paul B Perrin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive appraisals, that is, interpretations of what is observed and the personal relevance attributed to those observations, affect one's behavior and well-being. Despite the centrality of appraisals in the transactional model of stress and coping, the application of spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific appraisals to adjustment is a recent development. This study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of SCI-specific appraisals, the Appraisals of DisAbility Primary and Secondary Scale-Short Form (ADAPSS-sf)...
July 26, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044490/individual-and-organizational-factors-associated-with-professional-quality-of-life-in-florida-fire-personnel
#11
Anastasia Miller, Lynn Unruh, Tracy Wharton, Xinliang Liu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine a baseline level of compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in firefighters, as well as to examine how these constructs related to perceived organizational support, perceived coworker support, psychological resilience, and debriefing in the fire personnel. DESIGN: This was done through a voluntary nonrandom, cross-sectional administration of surveys. SETTING: The study was carried out in the state of Florida...
May 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036310/an-examination-of-the-moderating-effect-of-proactive-coping-in-nicu-nurses
#12
Britan M Moore, Kriston Schellinger
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses experience increased risk for depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. This study examined whether the use of problem-solving or support-seeking strategies moderated the relationship between secondary traumatic stress levels, depressive symptomology, and burnout in NICU nurses. Multiple linear regression and a hierarchical stepwise technique were used to conduct moderation analyses. Results indicated that support-seeking coping skills significantly moderated the relationship between secondary traumatic stress symptoms and burnout symptoms...
July 2018: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034640/defining-the-index-trauma-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients-with-multiple-trauma-exposure-impact-on-severity-scores-and-treatment-effects-of-using-worst-single-incident-versus-multiple-traumatic-events
#13
Kathlen Priebe, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Andrea Schropp, Anne Dyer, Antje Krüger-Gottschalk, Christian Schmahl, Regina Steil, Martin Bohus
Background: A diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires the identification of one or more traumatic events, designated the index trauma, which serves as the basis for assessment of severity of PTSD. In patients who have experienced more than one traumatic event, severity may depend on the exact definition of the index trauma. Defining the index trauma as the worst single incident may result in PTSD severity scores that differ from what would be seen if the index trauma included multiple events...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016796/the-clinical-efficacy-of-mindfulness-based-treatments-for-alcohol-and-drugs-use-disorders-a-meta-analytic-review-of-randomized-and-nonrandomized-controlled-trials
#14
REVIEW
Marco Cavicchioli, Mariagrazia Movalli, Cesare Maffei
INTRODUCTION: The current study aims to evaluate if and to what extent mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could promote an incremental effectiveness compared to interventions usually provided in clinical practice to treat Alcohol and Drugs Use Disorders. In line with this aim, we accomplished a meta-analytic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, considering primary and secondary outcomes that comprehensively operationalize treatment efficacy. METHODS: We conducted the online research up to August 31st 2017...
2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008959/therapists-experiences-in-their-work-with-sex-offenders-and-people-with-pedophilia-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Maria Hardeberg Bach, Carolin Demuth
This article presents a review of the literature that pertains to the experiences of therapists who work directly with child sex offenders and/or people with pedophilia. We draw together results from studies that attempted to identify how therapists experience such work and how they were personally impacted by it. Usually, such studies are embedded within one of the following theoretical frameworks: Secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization and burnout. Most literature on the topic has therefore sought to determine to what extent and why, work-related stress responses may occur among these therapists...
June 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966645/social-competence-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-of-interactive-group-treatment-versus-non-interactive-treatment
#16
Cynthia Harrison-Felix, Jody K Newman, Lenore Hawley, Clare Morey, Jessica M Ketchum, William C Walker, Kathleen R Bell, Scott R Millis, Cynthia Braden, James Malec, Flora M Hammond, C B Eagye, Laura Howe
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a replicable group treatment program for improving social competence after traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing two methods of conducting a social competency skills program, an interactive group format versus a classroom lecture. SETTING: Community and Veteran rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: 179 civilian, military, and veteran adults with TBI and social competence difficulties, at least 6 months post-injury...
June 29, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29964171/oxidized-phospholipid-signaling-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Elizabeth M Kenny, Andrew M Lamade, Valerian E Kagan, Hülya Bayır
Oxidative stress is a major contributor to secondary injury signaling cascades following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The role of lipid peroxidation in the pathophysiology of a traumatic insult to neural tissue is increasingly recognized. As the methods to quantify lipid peroxidation have gradually improved, so has the understanding of mechanistic details of lipid peroxidation and related signaling events in the injury pathogenesis. While free-radical mediated, non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation has long been studied, recent advances in redox lipidomics have demonstrated the significant contribution of enzymatic lipid peroxidation to TBI pathogenesis...
August 20, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962010/compassion-fatigue-in-nursing-a-concept-analysis
#18
Emily Peters
AIM: The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of compassion fatigue to develop methods for prevention and mitigation of compassion fatigue in the nursing profession. BACKGROUND: Compassion fatigue occurs when nurses develop declining empathetic ability from repeated exposure to others' suffering. Conceptual clarity is vital to curtail compassion fatigue via preventative and restorative measures at the individual and organizational level. DESIGN: Concept analysis...
July 2, 2018: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961004/augmenting-inpatient-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-with-a-computerised-cognitive-bias-modification-procedure-targeting-appraisals-cbm-app-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Marcella L Woud, Simon E Blackwell, Jan C Cwik, Jürgen Margraf, Emily A Holmes, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Stephan Herpertz, Henrik Kessler
INTRODUCTION: Influential theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that dysfunctional appraisals of trauma play a key role in the maintenance of symptoms, and this suggestion is increasingly supported by research. Experimental studies have indicated that a simple computerised cognitive training procedure, here termed cognitive bias modification-appraisals (CBM-App), can modify trauma-relevant appraisals and reduce analogue trauma symptoms among healthy volunteers. This suggests the possibility that CBM-App could improve outcomes in PTSD via targeting the key process of dysfunctional appraisals, for example, if applied as an adjunct to treatment...
June 30, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952272/oxidative-stress-major-threat-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Nidhi Khatri, Manisha Thankur, Vikas Pareek, Sandeep Kumar, Sunil Sharma, Ashok Kumar Datusalia
Traumatic Brain Injury, representing mild, moderate and severe effects of physical impact on the brain is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Traumatic injury causes sequential, primary and secondary injuries of brain where primary injury is due to the first physical impact, the blow or jolt to the brain compartment. Secondary injury follows primary injury temporally, involving the biochemical, cellular, and physiological responses like blood brain barrier disruption, inflammation, excitotoxicity, necrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress...
June 27, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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