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Neural reflex

Isaac L Kurtzer
Previous studies have demonstrated a progression of function when healthy subjects counter a sudden mechanical load. Short-latency reflexes are linked to local stretch of the particular muscle and its antagonist. Long-latency reflexes integrate stretch information from both local sources and muscles crossing remote joints appropriate for limb's mechanical interactions. Unresolved is how sensory information is processed throughout the corrective response since capabilities at some time can be produced by circuits acting at that delay and at a briefer delays...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Laura Tarnawski, Colin Reardon, April S Caravaca, Mauricio Rosas-Ballina, Michael W Tusche, Anna R Drake, LaQueta K Hudson, William M Hanes, Jian Hua Li, William R Parrish, Kaie Ojamaa, Yousef Al-Abed, Michael Faltys, Valentin A Pavlov, Ulf Andersson, Sangeeta S Chavan, Yaakov A Levine, Tak W Mak, Kevin J Tracey, Peder S Olofsson
Macrophage cytokine production is regulated by neural signals, for example in the inflammatory reflex. Signals in the vagus and splenic nerves are relayed by choline acetyltransferase+ T cells that release acetylcholine, the cognate ligand for alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine subunit-containing receptors (α7nAChR), and suppress TNF release in macrophages. Here, we observed that electrical vagus nerve stimulation with a duration of 0.1-60 s significantly reduced systemic TNF release in experimental endotoxemia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tianwen Huang, Shing-Hong Lin, Nathalie M Malewicz, Yan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Martyn Goulding, Robert H LaMotte, Qiufu Ma
Animals and humans display two types of response to noxious stimuli. The first includes reflexive defensive responses that prevent or limit injury; a well-known example of these responses is the quick withdrawal of one's hand upon touching a hot object. When the first-line response fails to prevent tissue damage (for example, a finger is burnt), the resulting pain invokes a second-line coping response-such as licking the injured area to soothe suffering. However, the underlying neural circuits that drive these two strings of behaviour remain poorly understood...
December 10, 2018: Nature
Jesse Farruggella, Jonathan Acebo, Leah Lloyd, Marcy L Wainwright, Riccardo Mozzachiodi
Although it is well documented that exposure to aversive stimuli induces modulation of neural circuits and subsequent behavioral changes, the means by which an aversive stimulus concomitantly alters behaviors of different natures (e.g., defensive and appetitive) remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by using the learning-induced concurrent modulation of defensive and appetitive behaviors that occurs when the mollusk Aplysia is exposed to aversive stimuli. In Aplysia, aversive stimuli concomitantly enhance withdrawal reflexes (i...
December 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Heekyung Jung, Andrew D Huberman
In this issue of Neuron, Macé et al. (2018) use whole-brain functional ultrasound imaging in mice to unveil the circuits involved reflexive eye movements. They separated the sensory and motor networks and discovered that certain eye movements robustly suppress the amygdala.
December 5, 2018: Neuron
Omar Akhand, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review emerging vision-based assessments in the evaluation of concussion. RECENT FINDINGS: Involvement of the visual pathways is common following concussion, the mildest form of traumatic brain injury. The visual system contains widely distributed networks that are prone to neurophysiologic changes after a concussion, resulting in visual symptoms and ocular motor dysfunction. Vision-based testing is increasingly used to improve detection and assess head injury...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Daniel Tomé
Glutamate (Glu), either as one of the amino acids of protein or in free form, constitutes up to 8-10% of amino acid content in the human diet, with an intake of about 10-20 g/day in adults. In the intestine, postprandial luminal Glu concentrations can be of the order of mM and result in a high intra-mucosal Glu concentration. Glu absorbed from the intestinal lumen is for a large part metabolized by enterocytes in various pathways, including the production of energy to support intestinal motility and functions...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Ikuko Toda
Post-LASIK dry eye is the most common postoperative dry eye after ophthalmic surgeries. The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of the ocular surface, decreased tear breakup time and Schirmer test values, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs usually last for about 1 month after LASIK. A small number of patients continue to experience symptoms more than 1 year postoperatively. It has been suggested that the loss of corneal innervation caused by flap-making is the major cause, affecting the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland reflexes, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matija Milosevic, Yohei Masugi, Hiroki Obata, Atsushi Sasaki, Milos R Popovic, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lower limbs elicits muscle contractions through the activation of efferent fibers and concomitant recruitment of afferent fibers, which can modulate excitability of the central nervous system. However, neural mechanisms of NMES and how unilateral stimulation of the soleus affects spinal reflexes in multiple lower limb muscles bilaterally remains unknown. Twelve able-bodied participants were recruited, and spinal reflex excitability changes were tested after four interventions, each applied for 60 s, on the right plantar flexors: (1) motor-level NMES; (2) sensory-level NMES; (3) voluntary contraction; (4) rest...
November 20, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Christopher M Frost, Daniel C Ursu, Shane M Flattery, Andrej Nedic, Cheryl A Hassett, Jana D Moon, Patrick J Buchanan, R Brent Gillespie, Theodore A Kung, Stephen W P Kemp, Paul S Cederna, Melanie G Urbanchek
INTRODUCTION: Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNIs) are biological constructs which amplify neural signals and have shown long-term stability in rat models. Real-time control of a neuroprosthesis in rat models has not yet been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to: a) design and validate a system for translating electromyography (EMG) signals from an RPNI in a rat model into real-time control of a neuroprosthetic hand, and; b) use the system to demonstrate RPNI proportional neuroprosthesis control...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Shaun F Morrison
The fundamental central neural circuits for thermoregulation orchestrate behavioral and autonomic repertoires that maintain body core temperature during thermal challenges that arise from either the ambient or the internal environment. This review summarizes our understanding of the neural pathways within the fundamental thermoregulatory reflex circuitry that comprise the efferent (i.e., beyond thermosensory) control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and shivering thermogenesis: the motor neuron systems consisting of the BAT sympathetic preganglionic neurons and BAT sympathetic ganglion cells, and the alpha- and gamma-motoneurons; the premotor neurons in the region of the rostral raphe pallidus, and the thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Gareth Leng, John A Russell
In the rat supraoptic nucleus, every oxytocin cell projects to the posterior pituitary, and is involved in both reflex milk ejection during lactation, and in regulating uterine contractions during parturition. All are also osmosensitive, regulating natriuresis. All are also regulated by signals that control appetite, including neural and hormonal signals that arise from the gut after food intake and from the sites of energy storage. All are also involved in sexual behaviour, anxiety-related behaviours, and social behaviours...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Qizong Yang, Igor Antonov, David Castillejos, Anagha Nagaraj, Caleb Bostwick, Andrea Kohn, Leonid Moroz, Robert D Hawkins
Long-term but not short-term memory and synaptic plasticity in many brain areas require neurotrophin signaling, transcription, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. However, it has been difficult to relate these cellular mechanisms directly to behavior because of the immense complexity of the mammalian brain. To address that problem, we and others have examined numerically simpler systems such as the hermaphroditic marine mollusk Aplysia californica. As a further simplification, we have used a semi-intact preparation of the Aplysia siphon withdrawal reflex in which it is possible to relate cellular plasticity directly to behavioral learning...
December 2018: Learning & Memory
Zhanhong Zhou, Xiaolong Zhai, Chung Tin
Cerebellum possesses very rich motor control and learning capability which is critical for animals. In this study, we proposed a spiking neural network model of cerebellum for gain and phase adaptation in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). VOR is a critical adaptive reflexive eye movement for maintaining a stable visual field. In this model (with neuron number at the order of 104), synaptic plasticity at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses was considered. In particular, we have shown that the inhibitory inputs from molecular layer interneurons on Purkinje cells play a critical role in phase adaptation of VOR...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jingzhi An, Francisco J Flores, Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Isabella Dalla Betta, Ksenia Nikolaeva, Edward S Boyden, Craig R Forest, Emery N Brown
The precise identification of loss of consciousness (LOC) is key to studying the effects of anesthetic drugs in neural systems. The standard behavioral assay for identifying LOC in rodents is the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR), assessed by placing the animal in the supine position every minute until it fails to right itself. However, this assay cannot be used when the rodents are head-fixed, which limits the use of powerful techniques such as multi-electrode recordings, in vivo patch clamp, and neuronal imaging...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Gabriela Dieckmann, Felipe Fregni, Pedram Hamrah
Neuromodulation is a novel approach that utilizes electrical signals, pharmaceutical agents, or other forms of energy to modulate abnormal neural function through neurostimulation. Neurostimulation is a novel technique that uses electrical currents to stimulate the nervous system. During the recent few decades, neuromodulation has gained significant attention, in particular for the treatment of chronic neurological diseases, due to its success in treating patients unresponsive to conventional pharmacological therapies...
November 9, 2018: Ocular Surface
Sidney Grosprêtre, Florent Lebon, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Alain Martin
KEY POINT SUMMARY: While the effect of Motor Imagery (MI) - the mental simulation of an action - on motor cortical areas has now reached a consensus, less is known about its impact on spinal structures. The current study, using H-reflex conditioning paradigms, examined the effect of a 20-min MI practice on several spinal mechanisms of the plantar flexors muscles. We observed modulations of spinal presynaptic circuitry while imagining, even more pronounced following an acute session of MI practice...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Fadi H Mourad, Kassem A Barada, Nayef E Saade
Nutrients in the lumen of the small intestine are sensed by special cells in the epithelial lining. The ensuing neurohumoral reflexes affect gastrointestinal absorption/secretion, motility, and vascular perfusion. To study in vivo the effect of a monosaccharide (glucose) or polysaccharide (starch) present in the jejunum on glucose absorption from an adjacent part of the intestine and investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Using the single pass intraluminal perfusion technique, a segment of jejunum (perfusion segment) was continuously perfused with 20 mM glucose to determine glucose absorption...
November 6, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Maria Knikou, Lynda M Murray
The objective of this study was to establish neural interactions between transspinal evoked potentials (TEPs) and muscle spindle group Ia afferents in healthy humans. Soleus H-reflexes were assessed following transspinal stimulation at conditioning-test (C-T) intervals that ranged from negative to positive 100 ms. TEPs were recorded from the right and left ankle/knee flexor and extensor muscles, and their amplitude was assessed following stimulation of soleus muscle spindle group Ia afferents at similar C-T intervals...
December 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Chelsea Ekstrand, Josh Neudorf, Layla Gould, Marla Mickleborough, Ron Borowsky
Recent research has shown a relationship between reading and attention, however the neuroanatomical overlap of these two processes has remained relatively unexplored. Therefore, we sought to investigate the overlapping neural mechanisms of spatial attention and lexical reading using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed two attentional orienting tasks (reflexive and voluntary), and two overt word-reading tasks (lexical and sublexical). We hypothesized that there would be greater unique activation overlap of reflexive attention with lexical reading, and of voluntary attention with sublexical reading...
October 19, 2018: Brain Research
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