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Neural reflex

Gillian S Townend, Raymond van de Berg, Laurèl H M de Breet, Monique Hiemstra, Laura Wagter, Eric Smeets, Josine Widdershoven, Herman Kingma, Leopold M G Curfs
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) are notoriously reliant on the use of eye gaze as a primary means of communication. Underlying an ability to communicate successfully via eye gaze is a complex matrix of requirements, with an intact oculomotor system being just one element. To date, the underlying neural and motor pathways associated with eye gaze are relatively under-researched in RTT. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to plug this gap in knowledge and to further the understanding of RTT in one specific area of development and function, namely oculomotor function...
August 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Tiril Tøien, Håvard Pedersen Haglo, Runar Jakobsen Unhjem, Jan Hoff, Eivind Wang
The search for the most potent strength training intervention is continuous. Maximal strength training (MST) yields large improvements in force generating capacity (FGC), largely attributed to efferent neural drive enhancement. However, it remains elusive whether eccentric overload, prior to the concentric phase, may augment training-induced neuromuscular adaptations. A total of 53 23±3(SD)-year-old untrained males were randomized to either a non-training control group (CG) or one of two training groups performing leg press strength training with linear progression, 3x per week for eight weeks...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kohei Okuyama, Miho Ogura, Michiyuki Kawakami, Kengo Tsujimoto, Kohsuke Okada, Kazuma Miwa, Yoko Takahashi, Kaoru Abe, Shigeo Tanabe, Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Meigen Liu
Background: The combination of motor imagery (MI) and afferent input with electrical stimulation (ES) enhances the excitability of the corticospinal tract compared with motor imagery alone or electrical stimulation alone. However, its therapeutic effect is unknown in patients with hemiparetic stroke. We performed a preliminary examination of the therapeutic effects of MI + ES on upper extremity (UE) motor function in patients with chronic stroke. Methods: A total of 10 patients with chronic stroke demonstrating severe hemiparesis participated...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Bo-Xun Liu, Wei Sun, Xiang-Qing Kong
Although visceral obesity is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the efficacy of omental fat removal in CVD treatment is still controversial. There is a need to identify other visceral fat depots for CVD management. This review aims to provide a summary on perirenal fat as an important risk factor for CVD. Studies on epidemiology, anatomy, and function of perirenal fat were reviewed. Observational studies in humans suggest that excessive perirenal fat increases the risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease...
October 9, 2018: Angiology
Ji-Hong Chen, Sean P Parsons, Mitra Shokrollahi, Andrew Wan, Alexander D Vincent, Yuhong Yuan, Maham Pervez, Wu Lan Chen, Mai Xue, Kailai K Zhang, Arshia Eshtiaghi, David Armstrong, Premsyl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi, Eric Greenwald, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Jan D Huizinga
Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) in manometry recordings of the human colon have been associated with gas expulsion. Our hypothesis was that the SPW might be a critical component of most colonic motor functions, and hence might act as a biomarker for healthy colon motility. To that end, we performed high-resolution colonic manometry (HRCM), for the first time using an 84-sensor (1 cm spaced) water-perfused catheter, in 17 healthy volunteers. Intraluminal pressure patterns were recorded during baseline, proximal and rectal balloon distention, after a meal and following proximal and rectal luminal bisacodyl administration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chin-An Wang, Leanne Tworzyanski, Jeff Huang, Douglas P Munoz
The pupil constricts or dilates in response to a luminance increase or decrease, and these transient pupillary responses are controlled by the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. Although pupillary responses of the two eyes are highly correlated, they are not always identical (referred to as anisocoria). For example, there are unequal direct and consensual pupillary constriction responses after an increase in luminance to one eye. While contraction anisocoria (i.e. constriction) has been demonstrated in the pupillary light reflex, it is not yet known if there is also dilation anisocoria in the pupillary darkness reflex...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Palittiya Sintusek, Anna Rybak, Mohamed Mutalib, Nikhil Thapar, Osvaldo Borrelli, Keith J Lindley
BACKGROUND: The colo-anal reflex is a distinct reflex whereby the internal anal sphincter (IAS) relaxes in association with colonic high amplitude propagating contractions (HAPCs) in contrast to the recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR), which is characterized by IAS relaxation upon rectal distension. The RAIR is mediated by the myenteric plexus and therefore absent in Hirschsprung disease. We retrospectively assessed the presence and the characteristics of the colo-anal reflex in children in whom large bowel continuity had been surgically disrupted to assess the role of the extrinsic nervous system in the reflex...
October 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Mitsutoshi Ota, Masaaki Murakami
Neuroimmunology is a research field that intersects neuroscience and immunology, with the larger aim of gaining significant insights into the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Conventional studies in this field have so far mainly dealt with immune responses in the nervous system (i.e. neuroinflammation) or systemic immune regulation by the release of glucocorticoids. On the other hand, recently accumulating evidence has indicated bidirectional interactions between specific neural activations and local immune responses...
September 29, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow, Elizabeth D Thompson, John J Jeka
Neural control of standing balance has been extensively studied. However, most falls occur during walking rather than standing, and findings from standing balance research do not necessarily carry over to walking. This is primarily due to the constraints of the gait cycle: Body configuration changes dramatically over the gait cycle, necessitating different responses as this configuration changes. Notably, certain responses can only be initiated at specific points in the gait cycle, leading to onset times ranging from 350 to 600 ms, much longer than what is observed during standing (50-200 ms)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jacqueline Ojala, Katharine Tooke, Harrison Hsiang, Beatrice M Girard, Victor May, Margaret A Vizzard
Neural injury, inflammation, or diseases commonly and adversely affect micturition reflex function that is organized by neural circuits in the CNS and PNS. One neuropeptide receptor system, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1), and its cognate receptor, PAC1 (Adcyap1r1), have tissue-specific distributions in the lower urinary tract. PACAP and associated receptors are expressed in the LUT and exhibit changes in expression, distribution, and function in preclinical animal models of bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic, visceral pain syndrome characterized by pain, and LUT dysfunction...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yin Yan, Li Zhaoping, Wu Li
Early sensory cortex is better known for representing sensory inputs but less for the effect of its responses on behavior. Here we explore the behavioral correlates of neuronal responses in primary visual cortex (V1) in a task to detect a uniquely oriented bar-the orientation singleton-in a background of uniformly oriented bars. This singleton is salient or inconspicuous when the orientation contrast between the singleton and background bars is sufficiently large or small, respectively. Using implanted microelectrodes, we measured V1 activities while monkeys were trained to quickly saccade to the singleton...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Thomas Cattagni, Jonathan Harnie, Marc Jubeau, Elyse Hucteau, Catherine Couturier, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Thibault Deschamps, Gilles Berrut, Christophe Cornu
Plantar-flexor muscles are key muscles in the control of postural sway. Older fallers present lower maximal plantar-flexor performance than older non-fallers; however, the mechanisms underlying this motor impairment remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether muscular and neural factors are both involved in the lower maximal plantar-flexor performance of older fallers. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, resting twitch torque, voluntary activation level (VAL), and electromyographic (EMG) activities for the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during plantar-flexor MVCs were recorded in 23 older non-fallers (age: 83...
October 2, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Diego L Guarin, Robert E Kearney
The overall mechanical properties of a joint are generated by a combination intrinsic (mechanical) and reflex (neural) mechanisms. Nevertheless, many methods for estimating joint mechanical properties have used a linear dynamic model whose parameters are commonly related to the joint inertial and visco-elastic properties. Such mechanical models cannot account for torques due to reflex mechanisms and consequently fitting them to data containing reflex torques can give biased results. This paper addresses this issue in two ways...
October 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Yumiko Umino, Rose Pasquale, Eduardo Solessio
The mammalian visual system has a remarkable capacity to detect differences in contrast across time, which is known as temporal contrast sensitivity (TCS). Details of the underlying neural mechanisms are rapidly emerging as a result of a series of elegant electrophysiological studies performed largely with the mouse as an experimental model. However, rigorous psychophysical methods are necessary to pair the electrophysiology with temporal visual behavior in mouse. The optomotor response is frequently used as a proxy for retinal temporal processing in rodents...
July 2018: ENeuro
Lindsey K Lepley, Dustin R Grooms, Julie P Burland, Steven M Davi, Jennifer L Mosher, Marc L Cormier, Adam S Lepley
OBJECTIVES: Substantial changes in neural function are historically present after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and are not rectified with traditional rehabilitation. Cross-exercise is a potential means to enhance neural excitability and improve recovery after ACLR. Hence our purpose, was to detail changes in brain activation, neural excitability and patient-reported outcomes in a cohort that completed an 8-week quadriceps-focused eccentric cross-exercise training program immediately following ACLR...
September 5, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Gaëtan Mertens, Senne Braem, Manuel Kuhn, Tina B Lonsdorf, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard
Verbal instructions are a powerful pathway to learn new fear relations, and an important question has been what fear experience can still add to the effect of such instructions. Therefore, in previous studies, we investigated the effects of pairings between conditioned stimuli (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) after CS-US contingency instructions. Although these studies found that CS-US pairings do indeed add to the effects of contingency instructions on subjective, psychophysiological and neural measures of conditioned fear, they also produce increases in US expectancy ratings...
November 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mohamed A Sabbahi, Fikriye Ovak-Bittar
Objectives: The evaluation of patients with lower back pain (LBP) is based mainly on clinical examinations and imaging procedures that are subjective or anatomic in nature. The treatments, either physical therapy or osteopathy, lack evidence-based protocol and may be disruptive to the spine. Therefore, a neurophysiologic-based approach to managing such patients is necessary. Methods: A 40-year-old female complained of LBP and radiculopathy for more than 12 years, a condition that was accompanied by numbness, tingling and weakness in the left leg...
2018: Clinical Neurophysiology Practice
Sirine Nouri, Faisal Karmali
The vestibular system enables humans to estimate self-motion, stabilize gaze and maintain posture, but these behaviors are impacted by neural noise at all levels of processing (e.g., sensory, central, motor). Despite its essential importance, the behavioral impact of noise in human vestibular pathways is not completely understood. Here, we characterize the vestibular imprecision that results from neural noise by measuring trial-to-trial vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) variability and perceptual just-noticeable differences (JNDs) in the same human subjects as a function of stimulus intensity...
September 4, 2018: Neuroscience
Qianling Hou, Yan Wang, Yingbo Li, Di Chen, Feng Yang, Shali Wang
Although studies have investigated the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic signaling in rodent neural development and behaviors relevant to autism, behavioral ontogeny, as underlain by the changes in GABAergic system, is poorly characterized in different brain regions. Here, we employed a valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism to investigate the autism-like behaviors and GABAergic glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression underlying these altered behaviors in multiple brain areas at different developmental stages from birth to adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zohra M Kakall, E Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M J Farnham, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E Nedoboy, Paul M Pilowsky
Autonomic reflex responses are critical in restoring changes to circulatory factors reduced beyond the domain of homeostasis. Intermittent hypoxia triggers repeated activation of chemoreflexes, resulting in baroreflex dysfunction and widespread changes in cellular and neuronal activity regulated by sensory/motor pathways. Hypoglycaemia initiates a rapid neurally-mediated counter-regulatory response. This counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia increases plasma adrenaline levels, liver glycogenolysis, and thus blood glucose levels...
August 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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