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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534888/hepatitis-a-outbreaks-in-european-homosexual-men
#1
Pablo Barreiro, Vicente Soriano
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a small RNA, non-enveloped agent predominantly transmitted via the fecal/oral route through person-to-person contact or contaminated food and water. The mean incubation period is 28 days (range: 15-50). Acute hepatitis A is always self-limited and very rarely fatal. Moreover, it never progresses to chronicity. Acutely infected persons are most likely to transmit HAV before the onset of jaundice, when viral particle concentration in stool is highest.
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501618/assessing-activity-of-hepatitis-a-virus-3c-protease-using-a-cyclized-luciferase-based-biosensor
#2
Junwei Zhou, Dang Wang, Yongqiang Xi, Xinyu Zhu, Yuting Yang, Mengting Lv, Chuanzhen Luo, Jiyao Chen, Xu Ye, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao
Hepatitis A is an acute infection caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is widely distributed throughout the world. The HAV 3C cysteine protease (3C(pro)), an important nonstructural protein, is responsible for most cleavage within the viral polyprotein and is critical for the processes of viral replication. Our group has previously demonstrated that HAV 3C(pro) cleaves human NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a kinase required in interferon signaling. Based on this finding, we generated four luciferase-based biosensors containing the NEMO sequence (PVLKAQ↓ADIYKA) that is cleaved by HAV 3C(pro) and/or the Nostoc punctiforme DnaE intein, to monitor the activity of HAV 3C(pro) in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T)...
May 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498301/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-a-12-years-following-the-implementation-of-toddlers-vaccination-a-population-based-study-in-israel
#3
Ravit Bassal, Merav Weil, Daniel Cohen, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson, Tamy Shohat
BACKGROUND: In 1999, Israel became the first country to introduce an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine into its national childhood vaccination program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in the Israeli population before and after the introduction of the program. METHODS: A cross-sectional serosurvey using the National Serum Bank was conducted on 1,883 and 2,027 serum samples collected before and after introduction of the vaccine, respectively...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492419/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-and-antigens-against-hepatitis-a-e-viruses-in-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-in-germany-in-2015
#4
Alexandra Jablonka, Philipp Solbach, Michael Wöbse, Michael P Manns, Reinhold E Schmidt, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Georg M N Behrens, Svenja Hardtke
BACKGROUND: Migration because of miscellaneous political crises in countries in the Middle East and Africa is a global challenge for whole Europe from an economic, social, and public health view. There is an urgent need to generate comprehensive, evidence-based data to expedite further screening and vaccination strategies. METHODS: A total of 604 individuals ranging in age from 2 to 68 years who enrolled at a single reception center were tested for the prevalence of serologic markers for hepatitis virus types A, B, C, D, and E (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV), respectively...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490661/surgery-for-subacromial-impingement-syndrome-in-relation-to-occupational-exposures-lifestyle-factors-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-nationwide-nested-case-control-study
#5
Annett Dalbøge, Poul Frost, Johan Hviid Andersen, Susanne Wulff Svendsen
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in a register-based cohort study of the Danish working population. For each of 3000 first-time cases of surgery for SIS, two age-matched and sex-matched controls were drawn. Cases and controls received a questionnaire on job history and other factors...
May 10, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490497/protein-composition-of-the-hepatitis-a-virus-quasi-envelope
#6
Kevin L McKnight, Ling Xie, Olga González-López, Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Xian Chen, Stanley M Lemon
The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered "nonenveloped," recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482131/incidence-of-acute-hepatitis-a-among-hiv-positive-patients-during-an-outbreak-among-msm-in-taiwan-impact-of-hav-vaccination
#7
Guan-Jhou Chen, Kuan-Yin Lin, Hsin-Yun Sun, Wang-Huei Sheng, Szu-Min Hsieh, Yi-Chia Huang, Aristine Cheng, Wen-Chun Liu, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented outbreak of acute hepatitis A has occurred among MSM in Taiwan since June 2015. We aimed to describe the seroepidemiology of HAV infection and to investigate the relationship between HAV vaccination and the incidence of acute hepatitis A among HIV-positive patients at the largest designated hospital for HIV care during the outbreak. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, the HAV serostatus, vaccination history, and clinical characteristics of HIV-positive patients were retrospectively reviewed...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481680/modeling-the-hepatitis-a-epidemiological-transition-in-brazil-and-mexico
#8
Thierry Van Effelterre, Adrienne Guignard, Cinzia Marano, Rosalba Rojas, Kathryn H Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452010/occurrence-and-trend-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-bivalve-molluscs-production-areas-following-a-contamination-event
#9
Elisabetta Suffredini, Yolande Thérèse Rose Proroga, Simona Di Pasquale, Orlandina Di Maro, Maria Losardo, Loredana Cozzi, Federico Capuano, Dario De Medici
The aim of this study was to assess the trend of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a coastal zone impacted by a contamination event, providing data for the development of management strategies. A total of 352 samples, including four bivalve mollusc species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Solen vagina, Venus gallina and Donax trunculus), were taken over a period of 6 months from 27 production areas of the coast and analysis were performed according to ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. HAV presence was detected in 77 samples from 11 production areas and all positive results were related to samples collected in the first 3 months of the surveillance, during which HAV prevalence was 39...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452009/detection-of-potential-infectious-enteric-viruses-in-fresh-produce-by-rt-qpcr-preceded-by-nuclease-treatment
#10
Elisabet Marti, Monique Ferrary-Américo, Célia Regina Monte Barardi
Foodborne illnesses associated with contaminated fresh produce are a common public health problem and there is an upward trend of outbreaks caused by enteric viruses, especially human noroviruses (HNoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). This study aimed to assess the use of DNase and RNase coupled to qPCR and RT-qPCR, respectively, to detect intact particles of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), HNoV GI and GII and HAV in fresh produce. Different concentrations of DNase and RNase were tested to optimize the degradation of free DNA and RNA from inactivated HAdV and murine norovirus (MNV), respectively...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435772/self-assembled-bifunctional-peptide-as-effective-drug-delivery-vector-with-powerful-antitumor-activity
#11
Rangrang Fan, Lan Mei, Xiang Gao, Yuelong Wang, Mingli Xiang, Yu Zheng, Aiping Tong, Xiaoning Zhang, Bo Han, Liangxue Zhou, Peng Mi, Chao You, Zhiyong Qian, Yuquan Wei, Gang Guo
E-cadherin/catenin complex is crucial for cancer cell migration and invasion. The histidine-alanine-valine (HAV) sequence has been shown to inhibit a variety of cadherin-based functions. In this study, by fusing HAV and the classical tumor-targeting Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif and Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif to the apoptosis-inducing peptide sequence-AVPIAQK, a bifunctional peptide has been constructed with enhanced tumor targeting and apoptosis effects. This peptide is further processed as a nanoscale vector to encapsulate the hydrophobic drug docetaxel (DOC)...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426700/southern-tunisia-a-still-high-endemicity-area-for-hepatitis-a
#12
Houcine Neffatti, Patricia Lebraud, Corinne Hottelet, Jawher Gharbi, Taieb Challouf, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. METHODS: Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401478/improved-detection-of-norovirus-and-hepatitis-a-virus-in-surface-water-by-applying-pre-pcr-processing
#13
Emmy Borgmästars, Mehrdad Mousavi Jazi, Sofia Persson, Linda Jansson, Peter Rådström, Magnus Simonsson, Johannes Hedman, Ronnie Eriksson
Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of waterborne RNA viruses generally requires concentration of large water volumes due to low virus levels. A common approach is to use dead-end ultrafiltration followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. However, this procedure often leads to the co-concentration of PCR inhibitors that impairs the limit of detection and causes false-negative results. Here, we applied the concept of pre-PCR processing to optimize RT-qPCR detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI), genogroup II (GII), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in challenging water matrices...
April 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395349/examining-the-usefulness-of-iso-10819-anti-vibration-glove-certification
#14
Diandra Budd, Ron House
Anti-vibration gloves are commonly worn to reduce hand-arm vibration exposure from work with hand-held vibrating tools when higher priority and more effective controls are unavailable. For gloves to be marketed as 'anti-vibration' they must meet the vibration transmissibility criteria described in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 10819 (2013). Several issues exist with respect to the methodology used for glove testing as well as the requirements for glove design and composition in ISO 10819 (2013)...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391171/a-two-scale-modeling-and-computational-framework-for-vibration-induced-raynaud-syndrome
#15
Yue Hua, Pierre Lemerle, Jean-François Ganghoffer
Hand-Arm Vibration syndrome (HAVS), usually caused by long-term use of hand-held power tools, can in certain manifestations alter the peripheral blood circulation in the hand-arm region. HAVS typically occurs after exposure to cold, causing an abnormally strong vasoconstriction of blood vessels. A pathoanatomical mechanism suggests that a reduction of the lumen of the blood vessels in VWF (Vibration White Finger) subjects, due to either hypertrophy or thickening of the vessel wall, may be at the origin of the disease...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384115/epidemiological-study-of-hepatitis-a-infection-in-eastern-bulgaria
#16
Gabriela St Tsankova, Tatina T Todorova, Neli M Ermenlieva, Tsvetelina K Popova, Dayana T Tsankova
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an acute, self-limited liver disease transmitted usually through the faecal-oral route via person-to-person contact. Bulgaria has intermediate HAV endemicity with higher susceptibility among adults and recurrent outbreaks. AIM: As HAV infection is strongly related to human movements and represents a significant risk to travelers and migrants, as well as to local population receiving these groups, we set out to analyze the epidemiological data on hepatitis A in five of the largest tourist border regions of Bulgaria located in its eastern part: Varna, Shumen, Dobrich, Burgas and Yambol...
March 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377449/acute-infectious-hepatitis-in-hospitalised-children-a-british-paediatric-surveillance-unit-study
#17
Serena Braccio, Adam Irwin, Andrew Riordan, Delane Shingadia, Deirdre A Kelly, Sanjay Bansal, Mary Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis remains a key public health priority globally. Most childhood cases are caused by viruses, especially hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aimed to estimate the burden of acute infectious hepatitis in hospitalised children and to describe their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Paediatricians in the UK and Ireland reported cases in children aged 1 month to 14 years diagnosed between January 2014 and January 2015 (inclusive) through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) and completed a detailed questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370030/a-nonenveloped-virus-with-a-lipid-envelope-hepatitis-a-virus-as-used-in-virus-reduction-studies
#18
Anna-Maria Kapsch, Maria R Farcet, Gerhard Antoine, Thomas R Kreil
BACKGROUND: Recently, a quasi-lipid-enveloped (LE) form of the traditionally nonlipid-enveloped (NLE) hepatitis A virus (HAV) was described in human serum and cell culture-derived HAV stocks. This discovery challenges the understanding of HAV reduction in virus clearance studies of plasma products, which were performed under the premise of an NLE nature of this virus. Here, the presence of LE particles in HAV stocks used for reduction studies was verified, and the hypothesis that LE and NLE particles might contribute to the differential heat sensitivity of HAV variants during heat treatment of human serum albumin was evaluated...
March 28, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367028/hepatitis-e-virus-a-leading-cause-of-waterborne-viral-hepatitis-in-northwest-districts-of-punjab-india
#19
Maninder Kaur, Shailpreet K Sidhu, Kanwardeep Singh, Pushpa Devi, Manpreet Kaur, Nachhatar Jit Singh
BACKGROUND: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) caused by enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses a major health problem in developing countries such as India. Despite improving sanitation, heath awareness, and socioeconomic conditions, these infections continue to occur both in sporadic as well as in epidemic forms in different parts of India. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the total as well as age-specific prevalence rates of HAV and HEV in the outbreaks of waterborne hepatitis in districts surrounding Amritsar region of Punjab...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357965/racial-differences-in-seroprevalence-of-hav-and-hev-in-blood-donors-in-the-western-cape-south-africa-a-clue-to-the-predominant-hev-genotype
#20
T Lopes, R Cable, C Pistorius, T Maponga, S Ijaz, W Preiser, R Tedder, M I Andersson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. This infection causes major water-borne outbreaks in low- and middle-income countries, whilst in industrialised countries this infection is zoonotic. These differences in epidemiology are related to different HEV genotypes. HEV genotype 3 is a zoonotic infection, whilst genotype 2 causes large outbreaks. This study determined the seroprevalence of HEV in blood donors from the Western Cape. Anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody was detected in 184/300 (61%) donors...
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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