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Xiao-Tao Jiang, Lin Ye, Feng Ju, Bing Li, Li-Ping Ma, Tong Zhang
Bacterial community in activated sludge (AS) is diverse and highly dynamic. Little is known about the mechanism shaping bacterial community composition and dynamics of AS and no study had quantitatively compared the contribution of abiotic environmental factors and biotic associations to the temporal dynamics of AS microbial communities with significantly different diversity. In this study, two full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) with distinct operational parameters and influent composition were sampled biweekly over 1 year to reveal the correlating factors to whole and sub-groups of AS bacterial community diversity and dynamics...
August 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mahdi Fathizadeh, Konstantin Khivantsev, Travis J Pyrzynski, Naomi B Klinghoffer, Abolfazl Nabi Shakouri, Miao Yu, Shiguang Li
A low-cost poly(ethyleneimine)-cobalt (PEI-Co) complex solution with high O2 absorption capacity (as high as 1.5 L O2 (STP)/L solution) was developed and used in a bio-mimetic system to produce high-purity O2 from air. An oxygen concentration greater than 99.6% was demonstrated.
August 7, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Muhammad Ehsan, WenJuan Wang, Javaid Ali Gadahi, Muhammad Waqqas Hasan, MingMin Lu, YuJian Wang, XinChao Liu, Muhammad Haseeb, RuoFeng Yan, LiXin Xu, XiaoKai Song, XiangRui Li
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatases (STPs), as integral constituents of parasitic excretory/secretory proteins, are assumed to be released during the host-parasite interactions. However, knowledge about these phosphatases and their immunoregulatory and immune protective efficiencies with host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is scant. In this study, an open reading frame of STP from Haemonchus contortus designated as HcSTP-1 was amplified and cloned using reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karsten Schlich, Martin Hoppe, Marco Kraas, Jonas Schubert, Munish Chanana, Kerstin Hund-Rinke
Silver nanomaterials (AgNMs) are released into sewers and consequently find their way to sewage treatment plants (STPs). The AgNMs are transformed en route, mainly into silver sulfide (Ag2 S), which is only sparingly soluble in water and therefore potentially less harmful than the original AgNMs. Here we investigated the toxicity and fate of different sulfidized AgNMs using an exposure scenario involving the application of five different test materials (NM-300K, AgNO3 , Ag2 S NM-300K, Ag2 S NM and bulk Ag2 S) into a simulated STP for 10 days...
July 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Barbara Nattabi, Seham Girgis, Veronica Matthews, Ross Bailie, Jeanette E Ward
Integration of public health and primary healthcare (PHC) is a hallmark of comprehensive PHC to reduce inequitable rates of preventable diseases in communities at risk. In the context of a syphilis outbreak among Indigenous people in Northern Australia, the association between PHC clinic factors and syphilis testing performance (STP) was examined to produce empirical insights for service managers. Data from the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease National Program (2012-14) were analysed to examine associations between clinic factors and STP (proportion of clients ≥15 years who were tested for or offered a test for syphilis in the prior 24 months)...
July 30, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
D L Renaud, T F Duffield, S J LeBlanc, D F Kelton
Providing a sufficient quantity of high-quality colostrum to male and female calves soon after birth is critical to reduce the risk of disease and mortality. Practical tests have not been validated to determine failed passive transfer of immunity upon arrival at veal facilities. There are many challenges to validation, including the lack of information on the age of the calf and the high prevalence of dehydration. The objective of this study was to validate a semiquantitative IgG antibody test using whole blood and a digital refractometer using serum to determine passive transfer of immunity status...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jian Liu, Huafeng Yang, Yang Ji, Zhongyuan Ma, Kunji Chen, Xinxin Zhang, Hui Zhang, Yang Sun, Xinfan Huang, Shunri Oda
We reported a Ti/HfO2/TiOx/Pt memristor with self-compliance and deep-Reset characteristics and excellent switching performance, including ultrafast program/erase speed (10 ns), large memory window (103) and good pulse endurance (107 cycles). The self-compliance and deep-Reset characteristics are significant for protecting the device from permanent breakdown in both Set and Reset process especially under pulse operation mode. In addition to bistable states switching, we also achieved a multiple or even continuous conductance states switching under DC sweep and pulse-train operation mode in Ti/HfO2/TiOx/Pt memristor, which can be seen as a substitution to a biological synapse...
July 27, 2018: Nanotechnology
Roshan Appa, V A Mhaisalkar, Amit Bafana, S Saravana Devi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Tapan Chakrabarti, Pravin K Naoghare
Environmental occurrence of CECs poses a great threat to both aquatic life and human health. The aim of this study was to optimize and validate SPE/LC-(ESI)MS-MS method for simultaneous quantitative monitoring of two sub-classes of CECs (pharmaceuticals and hormones) and to estimate the concentrations of select CECs in environmental water samples. For all the tested analytes, recoveries in laboratory reagent water were greater than 81%. Average percent (relative standard deviation) RSD of the analytes in recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility experiments were ≤ 10%...
July 25, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
K McAdam, C Vas, H Kimpton, A Faizi, C Liu, A Porter, T Synnerdahl, P Karlsson, B Rodu
BACKGROUND: We are interested in comparing the levels of harmful or potentially harmful constituents in Swedish and American smokeless tobacco products (STPs). We report here the concentrations of the IARC Group 2 A (probable human) carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC) in seventy commercial STPs from the US and Sweden, representing 80-90% of the market share of the major STP categories in these countries. We also examine the effects of various additives, processing and storage conditions on EC concentrations in experimental snus samples...
July 24, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Adrian N Buttazzoni, Stephanie E Coen, Jason A Gilliland
Physical inactivity among children is a significant public health concern. Active school travel (AST) methods, such as walking and wheeling to school, can be a valuable way to increase children's levels of daily physical activity. In Canada, Active and Safe Routes to School (ASRTS), a national health promotion initiative, has led the campaign for AST through its flagship school travel plan (STP) program. At present little is known about the on-the-ground implementation processes that impede or facilitate the success of STPs...
September 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Maryam Eslami, Bahman Sadeghi, Fatemeh Goshadrou
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a common age-related dementia, is a progressive manifestation of cognitive decline following synaptic failure resulted majorly by senile plaques composed of deposits of amyloid beta (Aβ). Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with receptors present in various brain tissues including hippocampus and has been associated with neuroprotection, neuromodulation and memory processing. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective and therapeutic effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) ghrelin infusion for two weeks on passive avoidance learning (PAL), memory retention and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 of both normal rats and Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in AD model...
July 15, 2018: Hippocampus
Grzegorz M Brożek, Jan E Zejda, Agnieszka Jarosińska, Agnieszka Idzik, Joshua Lawson, Kamil Barański
Introduction: It is recommended that spirometric testing in children be completed while sitting. Our experience indicates that children prefer standing during spirometry. Aim: We sought to compare spirometric results obtained from the sitting (SIP) and standing (STP) positions. Material and methods: Two testing sessions were performed in random order (SIP vs. STP: 30-45 min apart) in 118 children (7-13 years), attending one, randomly selected, primary school (response rate: 92%)...
June 2018: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Pham Thai Giang, Sidika Sakalli, Ganna Fedorova, Sarvenaz Khalili Tilami, Tomas Bakal, Lucie Najmanova, Katerina Grabicova, Jitka Kolarova, Sabine Sampels, Galia Zamaratskaia, Roman Grabic, Tomas Randak, Vladimir Zlabek, Viktoriia Burkina
Concerns about the effect of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on the health of freshwater ecosystems have increased. In this study, a unique approach was designed to show the effect of an STP effluent-dominated stream on native wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed under fully natural conditions. Zivny stream is located in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. The downstream site of Zivny stream is an STP-affected site, which receives 25% of its water from Prachatice STP effluent. Upstream, however, is a minimally polluted water site and it is considered to be the control site...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David M Bannerman, Thilo Borchardt, Vidar Jensen, Andrey Rozov, Nadia N Haj-Yasein, Nail Burnashev, Daniel Zamanillo, Thorsten Bus, Isabel Grube, Giselind Adelmann, J Nicholas P Rawlins, Rolf Sprengel
The GluA1 subunit of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) plays a crucial, but highly selective, role in cognitive function. Here we analyzed AMPAR expression, AMPAR distribution and spatial learning in mice ( Gria1R/R ), expressing the "trafficking compromised" GluA1(Q600R) point mutation. Our analysis revealed somatic accumulation and reduction of GluA1(Q600R) and GluA2, but only slightly reduced CA1 synaptic localization in hippocampi of adult Gria1R/R mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Xiaolin Li, Anne Cooper Doherty, Bruce Brownawell, Pablo A Lara-Martin
Surfactants are high production volume chemicals used in numerous domestic and industrial applications and, after use, the most abundant organic contaminants in wastewater. Their discharge might jeopardize the receiving aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, where they tend to accumulate. This is the first comprehensive study on their distribution and fate in this environmental compartment as we performed simultaneous analysis of the three main classes of surfactants (anionic: LAS; nonionic: NPEO and AEO; cationic: DTDMAC, DADMAC, BAC, and ATMAC) and some of their transformation products (SPC, NP, NPEC, and PEG)...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hang Xu, Yang Li, Mingmei Ding, Wei Chen, Kang Wang, Chunhui Lu
The residual dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrate in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent have potential negative impacts on the aqueous environment. To that end, we used formic acid (FA) to enhance the photochemical behavior of the photocatalytic membrane for the simultaneous removal of DOM and nitrate from secondary STP effluent. Effluent samples were collected from two different biological treatment processes, Anaerobic-Oxic and Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic-membrane bioreactor, respectively. Through Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) analysis, we found that the addition of FA resulted in a similar molecular transformation in different STP effluent samples...
June 19, 2018: Water Research
Yuichiro Cho, Barbara A Cohen
RATIONALE: We report new K-Ar isochron data for two ~380 Ma basaltic rocks, using an updated version of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), which is being developed for future in situ dating of planetary materials. These basalts have K contents comparable with those of lunar KREEP basalts or igneous lithologies found by Mars rovers, whereas previous proof-of-concept studies focused primarily on more K-rich rocks. We aim to measure these analogue samples to show the advancing capability of in situ K-Ar geochronology...
June 25, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Thomas Leifeld, Zhihua Zhang, Ping Zhang
Motivation: Mathematical models take an important place in science and engineering. A model can help scientists to explain dynamic behavior of a system and to understand the functionality of system components. Since length of a time series and number of replicates is limited by the cost of experiments, Boolean networks as a structurally simple and parameter-free logical model for gene regulatory networks have attracted interests of many scientists. In order to fit into the biological contexts and to lower the data requirements, biological prior knowledge is taken into consideration during the inference procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lauren R Pacek, Jenny L Wiley, F Joseph McClernon
Introduction: Over 35% of the adult tobacco-using population regularly use more than one tobacco product. While rates of tobacco use in the U.S. have declined over the last decade, rates of multiple tobacco product (MTP) have either remained stable (among adults) or increased (among youth). Methods: In this paper we review the literature and propose a framework for understanding both MTP use and how regulatory actions on any single tobacco product (STP) may influence the use of other tobacco products...
June 20, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Stéphanie Duchamp-Alphonse, Giuseppe Siani, Elisabeth Michel, Luc Beaufort, Yves Gally, Samuel L Jaccard
Several synergistic mechanisms were likely involved in the last deglacial atmospheric pCO2 rise. Leading hypotheses invoke a release of deep-ocean carbon through enhanced convection in the Southern Ocean (SO) and concomitant decreased efficiency of the global soft-tissue pump (STP). However, the temporal evolution of both the STP and the carbonate counter pump (CCP) remains unclear, thus preventing the evaluation of their contributions to the pCO2 rise. Here we present sedimentary coccolith records combined with export production reconstructions from the Subantarctic Pacific to document the leverage the SO biological carbon pump (BCP) has imposed on deglacial pCO2 ...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
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