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James Aluha, Stéphane Gutierrez, François Gitzhofer, Nicolas Abatzoglou
A study was done on the effect of temperature and catalyst pre-treatment on CO hydrogenation over plasma-synthesized catalysts during the Fischer⁻Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Nanometric Co/C, Fe/C, and 50%Co-50%Fe/C catalysts with BET specific surface area of ~80 m² g⁻1 were tested at a 2 MPa pressure and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 2000 cm³ h-1 g-1 of a catalyst (at STP) in hydrogen-rich FTS feed gas (H₂:CO = 2.2). After pre-treatment in both H₂ and CO, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the used catalysts shifted from a mono-modal particle-size distribution (mean ~11 nm) to a multi-modal distribution with a substantial increase in the smaller nanoparticles (~5 nm), which was statistically significant...
October 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jingjing Huang, Amr M Bakry, Shuwei Zeng, Shanbai Xiong, Tao Yin, Juan You, Mingcong Fan, Qilin Huang
Effect of phosphates on the heat-induced gel characteristics of myofibrillar protein (MP) from grass carp was investigated. Both heating and phosphates exerted significant influences. Heating induced more elastic, water-holding and less flowing gel. But phosphates had diverse effects at different temperatures. At 4 °C and 40 °C, phosphate as a dominant factor reduced the gel elasticity and resistance and increased flowability with increasing levels of phosphates. Furthermore, 280 mg/kg sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) or 440 mg/kg sodium triphosphates (STP) transformed MP from weak gel into concentrated solution...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Chao Bai, Chuan-Ti Li, Huai-Ming Hu, Bin Liu, Jin-Dian Li, Ganglin Xue
A new lanthanide-based framework, [Dy(STP)(1,2-bdc)]n (1), was constructed. It represents dysprosium(iii) 1D zigzag chains in a 3D framework and displays single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour with an energy barrier of 55.76 K under zero dc field.
October 11, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Harshavardhan V Pawar, John Tetteh, Philip Debrah, Joshua S Boateng
Infected chronic wounds heal slowly, exhibiting prolonged inflammation, biofilm formation, bacterial resistance, high exudate and ineffectiveness of systemic antimicrobials. Composite dressings (films and wafers) comprising polyox/carrageenan (POL-CAR) and polyox/sodium alginate (POL-SA), loaded with diclofenac (DLF) and streptomycin (STP) were formulated and tested for antibacterial activity against 2 × 105  CFU/mL of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus representing infected chronic wounds and compared with marketed silver dressings...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shambhunath Choudhary, Audrey Walker, Kathleen Funk, Charlotte Keenan, Imran Khan, Kimberly Maratea
The Standard for the Exchange of Nonclinical Data (SEND) is an implementation of the Study Data Tabulation Model for nonclinical studies that enables the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to modernize and streamline the review process. As a result, patients may benefit from speedier approval of new drugs. However, SEND implementation and compliance can be challenging and require effective cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and contract research organizations. In order to improve Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) members' awareness about SEND, including the steps, obstacles, and mistakes to avoid in its implementation while applying for FDA approval, the Career Development and Outreach Committee of the STP sponsored a career development lunchtime series panel discussion entitled "The Standard for the Exchange of Nonclinical Data (SEND): Challenges and Promise" in conjunction with the STP 37th Annual Symposium...
October 7, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Maria Alexandra Bighiu, Anna Norman Haldén, Willem Goedkoop, Jakob Ottoson
Aquatic pollution with faecal bacteria and subsequent consumption of contaminated water or food is a worldwide issue that causes severe health effects (e.g. meningitis, salmonellosis, dysentery). In addition, the excessive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry and human medicine has enhanced the selective pressure on pathogenic bacteria, further increasing human health risks and detrimental effects on natural microbial communities. This urges the need to monitor faecal contamination using a time-integrated approach, as grab water samples can miss pathogen peaks...
September 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hyun-Joong Kang, Hee-Jin Park, Oh-Kyung Kwon, Won-Seok Lee, Dong-Hwan Jeong, Byoung-Kyu Ju, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) are thought to be important point sources of microplastics in freshwater systems and many peer-reviewed articles have been published on this issue since mid-2010s. In this review, we summarize existing literature on the occurrence of microplastics in STPs and experimental methods used for isolation and identification of microplastics. The number concentrations of microplastics in STP influents were 15.1-640 L-1 , whereas those in the STP effluents were highly variable and ranged from not detectable to 65 L-1 ...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Helen Motanis, Michael J Seay, Dean V Buonomano
The ability to detect time intervals and temporal patterns is critical to some of the most fundamental computations the brain performs, including the ability to communicate and appraise a dynamically changing environment. Many of these computations take place on the scale of tens to hundreds of milliseconds. Electrophysiological evidence shows that some neurons respond selectively to duration, interval, rate, or order. Because the time constants of many time-varying neural and synaptic properties, including short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), are also in the range of tens to hundreds of milliseconds, they are strong candidates to underlie the formation of temporally selective neurons...
October 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Sathish Dyawanapelly, Pihu Mehrotra, Goutam Ghosh, Dhanashree D Jagtap, Prajakta Dandekar, Ratnesh Jain
To understand the effect of counter ions (Na+ ) on the secondary conformation and functionality of the lysozyme, we have studied the interaction of lysozyme with counterion associated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The investigation was carried out at pH 7.4 and 9.0, with three different types of NPs, namely, bare IONPs, low molecular weight chitosan modified IONPs (LMWC-IONPs) and the counterion (Na+ ) associated sodium tripolyphosphate IONPs (STP-LMWC-IONPs) and confirmed by using various spectroscopy techniques...
September 15, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Hua-Feng Wang, Rong-Na Ma, Fei Sun, Li-Ping Jia, Wei Zhang, Lei Shang, Qing-Wang Xue, Wen-Li Jia, Huai-Sheng Wang
A versatile label-free electrochemical biosensor based on dual enzyme assisted multiple amplification strategy was developed for ultrasensitive detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). The biosensor consists of a triple-helix molecular switch (THMS) as molecular recognition and signal transduction probe, ribonuclease HII (RNase HII) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) as dual enzyme assisted multiple amplification accelerator. The presence of target ctDNA could open THMS and trigger RNase HII-assisted homogenous target recycling amplification to produce substantial signal transduction probe (STP)...
December 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Eiji Fujimori, Suzuka Nagata, Hidetoshi Kumata, Tomonari Umemura
When iminodiacetic acid chelating-resin solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the preconcentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in river water samples around sewage treatment plant (STP), low recovery values for heavy REEs were observed. In order to find out the reason for the low recovery, in the present paper, organic ligands in the STP effluent, which may compete with iminodiacetic acids, were analyzed by GC-NPD. It was found that EDTA was contained in the STP effluent at several-100 nM level and interfered with the adsorption of REEs, especially heavy REEs (present at pM level) on the chelating-resin due to the formation of stable complexes...
September 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Taylor D Landis, Katie C Hart, Paulo A Graziano
The purpose of this study was to examine the additional benefit of an adaptive Cogmed working memory training (CWMT) to a social-emotional/self-regulation classroom curriculum for preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 49 children (71% boys, Mage  = 4.52) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Children participated in an 8-week summer treatment program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), where they were randomly assigned to either adaptive CWMT (n = 24), or nonadaptive CWMT (n = 25)...
September 26, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Hanlin Wang, Qiang Zhao, Zhenjie Ni, Qingyuan Li, Hongtao Liu, Yunchang Yang, Lifeng Wang, Yang Ran, Yunlong Guo, Wenping Hu, Yunqi Liu
Human eyes undertake the majority of information assimilation for learning and memory. Transduction of the color and intensity of the incident light into neural signals is the main process for visual perception. Besides light-sensitive elements that function as rods and cones, artificial retinal systems require neuromorphic devices to transform light stimuli into post-synaptic signals. In terms of plasticity timescale, synapses with short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) represent the neural foundation for experience acquisition and memory formation...
September 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Monika Janczarek, José-María Vinardell, Paulina Lipa, Magdalena Karaś
Reversible phosphorylation is a key mechanism that regulates many cellular processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, signal transduction includes two-component signaling systems, which involve a membrane sensor histidine kinase and a cognate DNA-binding response regulator. Several recent studies indicate that alternative regulatory pathways controlled by Hanks-type serine/threonine kinases (STKs) and serine/threonine phosphatases (STPs) also play an essential role in regulation of many different processes in bacteria, such as growth and cell division, cell wall biosynthesis, sporulation, biofilm formation, stress response, metabolic and developmental processes, as well as interactions (either pathogenic or symbiotic) with higher host organisms...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Allisson B Justino, Anibal Mm Neto, Miguel J S Bortolini, Leonardo G Peixoto, Eduardo S Prado, Marina Garcia-Hortal, Françoise V Botelho, Foued S Espindola
This study aimed to verify whether salivary total protein (STP) would reflect anaerobic threshold in elderly athletes subjected to an incremental exercise test. METHODS: Seven elderly elite athletes (EEA) and six physically active elderly men (PAE) completed a treadmill protocol in which blood and saliva samples were collected. RESULTS: Blood lactate (BL) and STP increased significantly in EEA during the test (0.8 ± 0.2 to 5.1 ± 2.0 mmol/L and 42.5 ± 7.5 to 222...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Carl-Fredrik Flach, Maja Genheden, Jerker Fick, D G Joakim Larsson
There is concern that sewage treatment plants (STPs) serve as hotspots for emergence and selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, field studies investigating resistance selection by comparing bacterial populations in influents and effluents have produced variable and sometimes contradictive results. Also, large taxonomic changes between influents and effluents make interpretation of studies measuring relative gene abundances ambiguous. The aim here was to investigate whether within-species selection occurs by conducting a comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolated from composite influent and effluent samples collected at Scandinavia's largest STP, accompanied by analyses of antibiotics residues...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Afarin Golabgir Anbarani, Cherie Wink, Jessica Ho, Tracie Lam, Karan Sahni, Ali Forghany, William Ngo, Thinh Vu, Janet Ajdaharian, Thair Takesh, Petra Wilder-Smith
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare examiner-assessed changes in enamel gloss, extrinsic dental stain, and surface smoothness following one, two, four, and eight weeks of twice-daily use of an experimental low abrasivity desensitizing dentifrice (relative dentin abrasivity [RDA] ~40) containing 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) chemical cleaning agent and 1% aluminum trioxide abrasive. This was compared with an ultra-low abrasivity dentifrice (5% STP only; RDA ~13), a moderate abrasivity fluoride dentifrice (RDA ~80), and a higher abrasivity marketed whitening dentifrice (RDA ~142)...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Marcel Jarick, Ute Bertsche, Mark Stahl, Daniel Schultz, Karen Methling, Michael Lalk, Christian Stigloher, Mirco Steger, Andreas Schlosser, Knut Ohlsen
The cell wall synthesis pathway producing peptidoglycan is a highly coordinated and tightly regulated process. Although the major components of bacterial cell walls have been known for decades, the complex regulatory network controlling peptidoglycan synthesis and many details of the cell division machinery are not well understood. The eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase Stk and the cognate phosphatase Stp play an important role in cell wall biosynthesis and drug resistance in S. aureus. We show that stp deletion has a pronounced impact on cell wall synthesis...
September 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J Schmitt, Brian J Dlouhy, Adam S Vesole, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Daichi Nakagawa, Mark A Granner, Matthew A Howard, Hiroto Kawasaki
OBJECTIVE The epileptogenic zones in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) involve regions outside the typical extent of anterior temporal lobectomy (i.e., "temporal plus epilepsy"), including portions of the supratemporal plane (STP). Failure to identify this subset of patients and adjust the surgical plan accordingly results in suboptimum surgical outcomes. There are unique technical challenges associated with obtaining recordings from the STP. The authors sought to examine the clinical utility and safety of placing depth electrodes within the STP in patients with TLE...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Katrina A Macintosh, Donnacha G Doody, Paul J A Withers, Richard W McDowell, Douglas R Smith, Laura T Johnson, Tom W Bruulsema, Vincent O'Flaherty, John W McGrath
Despite greater emphasis on holistic phosphorus (P) management, current nutrient advice delivered at farm-scale still focuses almost exclusively on agricultural production. This limits our ability to address national and international strategies for the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (ES). Currently there is no operational framework in place to manage P fertility for multiple ES delivery and to identify the costs of potentially sacrificing crop yield and/or quality. As soil P fertility plays a central role in ES delivery, we argue that soil test phosphorus (STP) concentration provides a suitable common unit of measure by which delivering multiple ES can be economically valued relative to maximum potential yield, in $ ha-1  yr-1  units...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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