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Bowen Li, Jianquan Lu, Jie Zhong, Yang Liu
In real systems, most of the biological functionalities come from the fact that the connections are not active all the time. Based on the fact, temporal Boolean networks (TBNs) are proposed in this paper, and the fast-time stability is analyzed via semi-tensor product (STP) of matrices and incidence matrices. First, the algebraic form of a TBN is obtained based on the STP method, and one necessary and sufficient condition for global fast-time stability is presented. Moreover, incidence matrices are used to obtain several sufficient conditions, which reduce the computational complexity from O(n2ⁿ) (exponential type) to O(n⁴) (polynomial type) compared with the STP method...
December 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Shiliang Wang, Xuezhi Cao, Hui Zhang, Yuewei Yang, Min Zhang
Precursors that can be transformed into perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have not been investigated in detail. In this study, the levels of potential PFAA precursors in the Jiaozhou Bay, inflowing rivers, and STP (sewage treatment plant) effluents were investigated by converting all PFAA precursors into perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by chemical oxidation. The significance of controlling PFAA precursors was indicated by the ratios of PFCAs converted by the oxidative treatment of precursors to PFAAs before oxidation (∑△[PFCAC4-C12 ]/∑[PFAA]before oxidation )...
November 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Akiko Tanaka
Nasal application of powder formulations has garnered attention because of its significant potential for systemic drug delivery. Because a powder drug must first diffuse from the formulation and dissolve in the nasal cavity fluid before transepithelial permeation, dissolution and diffusion are distinct but important factors for nasal drug absorption. Since the formulation is directly administered onto the nasal mucosal surface, the effect of excipients on drug absorption may be significant. Therefore, the influence of excipients on nasal drug absorption was evaluated...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Kumi Otori, Noriaki Tanabe, Masahiro Tamoi, Shigeru Shigeoka
We previously demonstrated that alterations in sugar partitioning affect the expression of genes involved in hormone biosynthesis and responses, including BRANCHED1 (BRC1), resulting in enhanced shoot branching in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-II in the cytosol (AcF). The exogenous treatment of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with sugars showed the same transcript characteristics, indicating that sugars act as a signal for branching. We also found that the reductions induced in BRC1 expression levels in wild-type plants by the sugar treatments were suppressed in the knockout mutant of sugar transporter 1 (stp1-1)...
November 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shuiyuan Wang, Chunsheng Chen, Zhihao Yu, Yongli He, Xiaoyao Chen, Qing Wan, Yi Shi, David Wei Zhang, Hao Zhou, Xinran Wang, Peng Zhou
Just as biological synapses provide basic functions for the nervous system, artificial synaptic devices serve as the fundamental building blocks of neuromorphic networks; thus, developing novel artificial synapses is essential for neuromorphic computing. By exploiting the band alignment between 2D inorganic and organic semiconductors, the first multi-functional synaptic transistor based on a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 )/perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) hybrid heterojunction, with remarkable short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term plasticity (LTP), is reported...
November 28, 2018: Advanced Materials
Giampaolo Formisano, Sofia Esposito, Francesco Coratti, Giuseppe Giuliani, Adelona Salaj, Paolo P Bianchi
BACKGROUND: One major issue in general surgery is how to provide novice surgeons with a structured training program (STP). The aim of our study is to assess the efficacy of a STP in robotic colorectal surgery for young surgeons without prior experience in both open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery, who were autonomous in basic minimally-invasive surgical procedures. Right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis has been chosen as a model. METHODS: Between May 2015 and December 2017 two junior attending surgeons were trained through a STP...
November 21, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
Peninah Murage, Shakoor Hajat, Angie Bone
: The Cold Weather Plan (CWP) in England was introduced to prevent the adverse health effects of cold weather; however, its impact is currently unknown. This study characterizes cold-related mortality and fuel poverty at STP (Sustainability and Transformation Partnership) level, and assesses changes in cold risk since the introduction of the CWP. Time series regression was used to estimate mortality risk for up to 28 days following exposure. Area level fuel poverty was used to indicate mitigation against cold exposure and mapped alongside area level risk...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ziyang Zhang, Tianran Li, Yujie Wu, Yinjun Jia, Congwei Tan, Xintong Xu, Guanrui Wang, Juan Lv, Wei Zhang, Yuhan He, Jing Pei, Cheng Ma, Guoqi Li, Haizheng Xu, Luping Shi, Hailin Peng, Huanglong Li
Concomitance of diverse synaptic plasticity across different timescales produces complex cognitive processes. To achieve comparable cognitive complexity in memristive neuromorphic systems, devices that are capable of emulating short-term (STP) and long-term plasticity (LTP) concomitantly are essential. In existing memristors, however, STP and LTP can only be induced selectively because of the inability to be decoupled using different loci and mechanisms. In this work, the first demonstration of truly concomitant STP and LTP is reported in a three-terminal memristor that uses independent physical phenomena to represent each form of plasticity...
November 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
Janina Domogalla-Urbansky, Philipp M Anger, Hermann Ferling, Florian Rager, Alexandra C Wiesheu, Reinhard Niessner, Natalia P Ivleva, Julia Schwaiger
We investigated the uptake of microplastic (MP, <5 mm) particles by using freshwater bivalves (Unio pictorum) as biological samplers in the environment. They were exposed either directly to the biologically purified sewage of a North Bavarian sewage treatment plant (STP) or placed in a small river up- and downstream of the wastewater discharge for 28 days and 6 months, respectively. A control group was maintained in a pond. After acid digestion, the soft tissue was analyzed for MP particles by means of Raman microspectroscopy (RM, over 3000 particles individually measured), which allows for identification and quantification of particles down to 1 μm...
November 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Joël Constans, Alessandra Bura-Rivière, Adriana Visona, Marianne Brodmann, Pierre Abraham, Dan-Mircea Olinic, Juraj Madaric, Sabine Steiner, Isabelle Quéré, Lucia Mazzolai, Jill Belch, Christian Heiss, Zsolt Pécsvárady, Karel Roztocil, Mary-Paula Colgan, Dragan Vasic, Anders Gottsäter, Evangelos Dimakakos, Ali Chraim, Pavel Poredoš, Patrick H Carpentier, Jean-Claude Wautrecht, Agata Stanek, Vinco Boc
Chronic critical lower limb ischemia (CLI) has been defined as ischemia that endangers the leg. An attempt was made to give a precise definition of CLI, based on clinical and hemodynamic data (Second European Consensus). CLI may be easily defined from a clinical point of view as rest pain of the distal foot or gangrene or ulceration. It is probably useful to add leg ulcers of other origin which do not heal because of severe ischemia, and to consider the impact of frailty on adverse outcome. From a hemodynamic viewpoint there is no consensus and most of the existing classifications are not based upon evidence...
November 19, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Keiko Fukino, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Jose Sanudo, Takashi Ono, Keiichi Akita
OBJECTIVE: Coordination of the various soft palate and pharyngeal muscles should be considered while evaluating velopharyngeal closure. However, it remains unclear whether different muscle bundles have specific functions during velopharyngeal closure. We macroscopically and microscopically examined these muscles in detail and particularly clarified the morphology of the palatopharyngeus (PP) in velopharyngeal closure. DESIGN: Forty halves of 21 heads from Japanese cadavers (average: 83...
November 18, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Maria Blanco, Juliane Rizzi, Denise Fernandes, Nicole Colin, Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Cinta Porte
Mediterranean rivers are strongly affected by pollution and water scarcity. Over the summer period, urban and industrial effluents arrive into the rivers with little dilution. In order to assess the water quality, two native fish species, Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus, were collected from six sites along the Ripoll River (Spain). PAH metabolites, alkylphenols (nonylphenol and octylphenol) and the musk galaxolide levels were determined in bile. 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) were measured as metabolic biomarkers, and the activity of CYP19 aromatase was determined in the ovaries of B...
November 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shamim Haider, Jon Arvid Lie, Arne Lindbråthen, May-Britt Hägg
Industrial scale production of carbon membrane is very challenging due to expensive precursor materials and a multi-step process with several variables to deal with. The optimization of these variables is essential to gain a competent carbon membrane (CM) with high performance and good mechanical properties. In this paper, a pilot scale system is reported that was developed to produce CM from regenerated cellulose precursor with the annual production capacity 700 m² of CM. The process was optimized to achieve maximum yield (>95%) of high quality precursor fibers and carbonized fibers...
November 13, 2018: Membranes
Fu-Wen Zhou, Adam C Puche, Michael T Shipley
Output projections of the olfactory bulb (OB) to the olfactory cortex (OCX) and reciprocal feedback projections from OCX provide rapid regulation of OB circuit dynamics and odor processing. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), a feature of many synaptic connections in the brain, can modulate the strength of feedback based on preceding network activity. We used light-gated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to investigate plasticity of excitatory synaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked at the OCX to granule cell (GC) synapse in the OB...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jie Luo, Lu-Yi Jiang, Hongyuan Yang, Bao-Liang Song
Cholesterol is dynamically transported among membrane-bound organelles primarily by nonvesicular mechanisms. Sterol transfer proteins (STPs) bind cholesterol in their hydrophobic pockets and facilitate its transfer across the aqueous cytosol. However, STPs alone may not account for the specific and efficient movement of cholesterol between intracellular membranes. Accumulating evidence has shown that membrane contact sites (MCSs), regions where two distinct organelles are in close apposition to one another, can facilitate STP-mediated cholesterol trafficking in a cell...
November 8, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
John A Villamil, Angel F Mohedano, Juan J Rodriguez, M A De la Rubia
The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization (LFHTC) of dewatered waste activated sludge with primary sewage sludge (PSS) has been studied. Mixtures of different composition (25, 50 and 75% of LFHTC on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis), as well as the individual substrates, have been tested using two inocula (flocculent (FS) and granular (GS) sludges). Methane production decreased as the LFHTC/PSS ratio increased, which can be related to the presence of recalcitrant compounds in the LFHTC, such as alkenes, phenolics, and other oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing aromatics hard-to-degrade through anaerobic digestion...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Caroline E Wright, Stephen Yeung, Helen Knowles, Antoinette Woodhouse, Emma Barron, Sian Evans
Objective: Participation in the National Diabetes Audit (NDA) has become a contractual requirement for all general practices in England and is used as part of the assessment framework for sustainability and transformation partnership (STP) footprints. The study aimed to investigate general practice-related factors which may influence participation in the NDA, and the impact that participation in the NDA may have on diabetes management and patient care. Research design: A cross-sectional analysis of routine primary care data from 45 725 646 patients aged 17+ years registered across 7779 general practices in England was performed using logistic regression...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
G Norquay, G J Collier, M Rao, N J Stewart, J M Wild
Here we present a Rb-^{129}Xe spin-exchange optical pumping polarizer capable of rapid generation of large volumes of highly polarized ^{129}Xe gas. Through modeling and measurements we maximize the ^{129}Xe nuclear spin polarization output to enable the generation of polarized ^{129}Xe gas imaging volumes (300  cm^{3}) every 5 min within a clinical setting. Our model is verified by experiment to correctly predict the optimum Rb vapor density for maximum ^{129}Xe nuclear polarization for a flux 3.4  W/cm^{2} of circularly polarized Rb D_{1} photons incident on an 80 cm long cylindrical optical cell...
October 12, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xuanjun Wu, Liang Peng, Sichen Xiang, Weiquan Cai
CH4 is considered as an environmentally benign fuel and there is considerable interest in the development of new materials for CH4 storage. In this study, 424 tetrazolate-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were computationally designed including 304 structures with the, urr and fcu topological nets and 120 structures with diverse nets. The CH4 deliverable volumetric capacities of all designed nanoporous materials and the adsorption isotherms of the top 10 hypothetical MOFs with high volumetric deliverable capacity at 298 K were predicted using molecular simulations...
October 25, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fengying Duan, Ricardo F H Giehl, Niko Geldner, David E Salt, Nicolaus von Wirén
In plants, nutrient provision of shoots depends on the uptake and transport of nutrients across the root tissue to the vascular system. Nutrient delivery to the vasculature is mediated via the apoplastic transport pathway (ATP), which uses the free space in the cell walls and is controlled by apoplastic barriers and nutrient transporters at the endodermis, or via the symplastic transport pathway (STP). However, the relative importance of these transport routes remains elusive. Here, we show that the STP, mediated by the epidermal ammonium transporter 1;3 (AMT1;3), dominates the radial movement of ammonium across the root tissue when external ammonium is low, whereas apoplastic transport controlled by AMT1;2 at the endodermis prevails at high external ammonium...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
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