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Prostate cancer biomarker

M De Santis
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCA) seems to be more of an immunologic desert than other tumor entities. It is striking that only rarely does prostate cancer show abundant immune cells and a proimmunogenic microenvironment. OBJECTIVES: Is immunotherapy in PCA effective and which patients can benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature and recent congress data are presented. RESULTS: Preliminary results with sipuleucel-T for PCA cancer were very promising showing a significant overall survival benefit in randomised phase III studies and the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this individualised vaccine...
October 19, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Laurent Fradet, Rabia Temmar, Frédéric Couture, Mathieu Belzile, Pierre-Hugues Fortier, Robert Day
BACKGROUND: To date, no single molecular marker has been demonstrated as clinically useful in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules when a fine needle aspiration falls in the "unknown significance" categories of the Bethesda Classification. PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertase family of enzymes, has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, through the formation of an oncogenic isoform named PACE4-altCT. PACE4 isoforms have also been suggested to play a role in other cancers, including thyroid cancer, but have never been investigated in a detailed manner...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Sadakatsu Ikeda, Sheryl K Elkin, Brett N Tomson, Jennifer L Carter, Razelle Kurzrock
Despite being one of the most common cancers, treatment options for prostate cancer are limited. Novel approaches for advanced disease are needed. We evaluated the relative rate of use of clinical-grade next generation sequencing (NGS) in prostate cancer, as well as genomic alterations identified and their potential actionability. Of 4864 patients from multiple institutions for whom NGS was ordered by physicians, only 67 (1.4%) had prostate cancer, representing 1/10 the ordering rate for lung cancer. Prostate cancers harbored 148 unique alterations affecting 63 distinct genes...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
H-W Qu, Y Jin, Z-L Cui, X-B Jin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether microRNA-373-3p could inhibit the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) by targeting and degrading AKT1. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression levels of microRNA-373-3p and AKT1 in PCa tissues and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPN) tissues were detected by quantitative Real-Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). According to the follow-up data, survival curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to investigate whether microRNA-373-3p could be served as a biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of PCa...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Leire Moya, John Lai, Andrea Hoffman, Srilakshmi Srinivasan, Janaththani Panchadsaram, Suzanne Chambers, Judith A Clements, Jyotsna Batra
With an estimated 1.1 million men worldwide diagnosed with prostate cancer yearly, effective and more specific biomarkers for early diagnosis could lead to better patient outcome. As such, novel genetic markers are sought for this purpose. The tribbles homologue 1 gene ( TRIB1 ) has recently shown to have a role in prostate tumorigenesis and data-mining of prostate cancer expression data confirmed clinical significance of TRIB1 in prostate cancer. For the first time, a polymorphic microsatellite in this gene was studied for its potential association with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Vincenza Conteduca, Emanuela Scarpi, Samanta Salvi, Valentina Casadio, Cristian Lolli, Giorgia Gurioli, Giuseppe Schepisi, Daniel Wetterskog, Alberto Farolfi, Cecilia Menna, Delia De Lisi, Salvatore Luca Burgio, Himisha Beltran, Gerhardt Attard, Ugo De Giorgi
Recently, mixed forms between adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) have emerged that are characterized by persistent androgen receptor (AR)-signalling and elevated chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The main aim of this study was to analyze castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide, assessing progression-free/overall survival (PFS/OS) in association with circulating AR and CgA. AR aberrations were analyzed by droplet digital PCR in pre-treatment plasma samples collected from two biomarker protocols [197 patients from a retrospective study (REC 2192/2013) and 59 from a prospective trial (REC 6798/2015)]...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tyler Etheridge, Jane Straus, Mark A Ritter, David F Jarrard, Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Alpha methylacyl A coenzyme racemase (AMACR) has shown to be an excellent immunohistological biomarker for prostate cancer (CaP). Given the connection between prostate and urethra, we hypothesized that semen ejaculate would be an ideal specimen for detection of CaP specific biomarkers, such as AMACR. This study explores the detection of semen AMACR protein in men with and without CaP. METHODS: Semen ejaculates from 28 biopsy proven CaP patients prior to radical prostatectomy and 15 age-comparable controls were analyzed...
October 15, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Nicolás M Ballarini, Gerd K Rosenkranz, Thomas Jaki, Franz König, Martin Posch
Identifying subgroups of treatment responders through the different phases of clinical trials has the potential to increase success in drug development. Recent developments in subgroup analysis consider subgroups that are defined in terms of the predicted individual treatment effect, i.e. the difference between the predicted outcome under treatment and the predicted outcome under control for each individual, which in turn may depend on multiple biomarkers. In this work, we study the properties of different modelling strategies to estimate the predicted individual treatment effect...
2018: PloS One
Hao He, Baolei Liu, Shihui Wen, Jiayan Liao, Gungun Lin, Jiajia Zhou, Dayong Jin
Paper-based lateral flow assays, though being low-cost and widely used for rapid in vitro diagnostics, are indicative and do not provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection and quantification of low abundant biomarkers for early stage cancer diagnosis. Here, we design a compact device to create a focused illumination spot with high irradiance, which activates a range of highly doped 50 nm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to produce orders of magnitude brighter emissions. The device employs a very low-cost laser diode, simplified excitation, and collection optics and permits a mobile phone camera to record the results...
October 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Zujie Mao, Alin Ji, Kebing Yang, Wei He, Yingfang Hu, Qi Zhang, Dahong Zhang, Liping Xie
OBJECTIVES: The prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3), human kallikrein 2, and miRNA-141 are promising prostate cancer (Pca) specific biomarkers. Our aim was to evaluate the detection of PCA3, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hk2), and miRNA-141 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients received prostate biopsy. What's more, we want to detect the value of combination of PSA (prostate specific antigen) in the early diagnosis of PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred patients were divided into 2 groups according to the results of pathologic diagnosis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Iwona Belczacka, Martin Pejchinovski, Magdalena Krochmal, Pedro Magalhães, Maria Frantzi, William Mullen, Antonia Vlahou, Harald Mischak, Vera Jankowski
PURPOSE: Urine is a rich source of potential biomarkers, including glycoproteins. Glycoproteomic analysis remains difficult due to the high heterogeneity of glycans. Nevertheless, recent advances in glycoproteomics software solutions facilitate glycopeptide identification and characterization. The aim is to investigate intact glycopeptides in the urinary peptide profiles of normal subjects using a novel PTM-centric software-Byonic. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The urinary peptide profiles of 238 normal subjects, previously analyzed using CE-MS and CE-MS/MS and/or LC-MS/MS, are subjected to glycopeptide analysis...
October 18, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Xingchen Wu, Petri Reinikainen, Mika Kapanen, Tuula Vierikko, Pertti Ryymin, Pirkko-Liisa Kellokumpu-Lehtinen
Background and Purpose: Although several methods have been developed to predict the outcome of patients with prostate cancer, early diagnosis of individual patient remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to correlate tumor perfusion parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and clinical prognostic factors and further to explore the diagnostic value of DCE-MRI parameters in early stage prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two newly diagnosed patients with histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in our prospective study...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Ulka Vaishampayan, Izabela Podgorski, Lance K Heilbrun, Jawana M Lawhorn-Crews, Kimberlee C Dobson, Julie L Boerner, Karri Stark, Daryn Smith, Elisabeth I Heath, Joseph Fontana, Anthony F Shields
BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor demonstrating remarkable responses in prostate cancer bone metastases . We studied the dynamics of biomarker changes with imaging, and biopsies pre- and post-therapy to explore factors that are likely to be predictive of efficacy with cabozantinib. METHODS: Eligibility included metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer patients with normal organ function and performance status 0-2. Cabozantinib 60 mg orally was administered daily...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Xiaogang Guo, Tao Han, Pingping Hu, Xiaojun Guo, Changming Zhu, Youbao Wang, Shaoyan Chang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignant human tumor and one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in men. At present, prostate-specific antigen levels are widely used to diagnose PCa in the clinic, but they are not sufficient for an accurate early diagnosis or prognosis. METHODS: To identify potential molecular markers for PCa, we used real-time PCR to measure the expression levels of various microRNAs, including miR-1825, miR-484, miR-205, miR-141, and let-7b, in the serum of 72 PCa patients and 34 healthy controls...
October 15, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Heide Schatten
Despite significant progress in early detection and improved treatment modalities prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in American men which results in about 30,000 deaths per year in the USA. An aggressive phenotype leading to 2.58% risk of dying from prostate cancer still exists and immunotherapy has offered new possibilities to treat metastatic prostate cancer that cannot be treated by other modalities. Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field of research aimed at identifying biomarkers in immunodiagnosis and to develop new therapies by enabling the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shuang G Zhao, Jonathan Lehrer, S Laura Chang, Rajdeep Das, Nicholas Erho, Yang Liu, Martin Sjöström, Robert B Den, Stephen J Freedland, Eric A Klein, R Jeffrey Karnes, Edward M Schaeffer, Melody Xu, Corey Speers, Paul L Nguyen, Ashley E Ross, June M Chan, Matthew R Cooperberg, Peter R Carroll, Elai Davicioni, Lawrence Fong, Daniel E Spratt, Felix Y Feng
Background: Immunotherapy has been less successful in treating prostate cancer than other solid tumors. We sought to better understand the immune landscape in prostate cancer and identify immune-related biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Methods: We analyzed gene expression data from 7826 prospectively collected prostatectomy samples (2013-2016), and 1567 retrospective samples with long-term clinical outcomes, for a total of 9393 samples, all profiled on the same commercial clinical platform in a CLIA-certified lab...
October 13, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Fei Zhan, Jingling Shen, Ruitao Wang, Liang Wang, Yao Dai, Yanqiao Zhang, Xiaoyi Huang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. When the disease becomes metastatic, limited treatment strategies exist, and metastatic disease prognoses are difficult to predict. Recently, evidence has emerged, which indicates that small RNAs are detectable in patient fluids, and exosomal small RNA ectopic expression is correlated with the development, progression, and metastasis of human PCa; however, the role of small RNAs in PCa is only partially understood. In this review, we discuss the research status regarding circulating exosomal small RNAs and applications using these small RNAs in PCa particularly looking at metastatic disease...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Cristina Quicios-Dorado, Eduardo Bolufer-Moragues, Carmen Gomis-Goti, Ramiro Cabello-Benavente, Pablo Javier Cannata-Ortiz, Carmen González-Enguita
Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is characterized by an important molecular, pathological and clinical heterogeneity. Although most of them present androgen receptor (AR) signal dependence, there are independent phenotypes. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a rare histologic subtype with adverse prognosis due to late diagnosis, heterogeneous clinical features and lack of effective systemic treatments. Platinum based chemotherapy is the standard treatment, presenting short limited responses...
September 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Ana Victoria Ojeda, María José Ledo, José Luís Alvarez-Ossorio
Prostate Cancer is the second most frequent malignant neoplasm in males in the world. At the end of the disease, when the tumor becomes resistant to castration, we have a wide range of treatment possibilities aimed at the Androgenic Receptor, androgens synthesis, the skeleton, chemotherapy, and even new molecular targets that are still under investigation. Today, the best sequence of treatment for each patient has not been established yet. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to review the current scene of treatment in castrate resistant prostate cancer, as well as the latest developments and strategies to choose the best sequence in each patient...
September 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Juan Ignacio Pascual Piédrola, Mateo Hevia Suárez, Francisco Javier Ancizu Markert, Angel García Cortés, Pablo Doménech López, Santiago Chiva San Román, José María Velis Campillo, Fernando Díez-Caballero Alonso, José Enrique Robles García, David Rosell Costa, Felipe Villacampa Aubá, Fernando Ramón de Fata Chillón, Bernardino Miñana López
Prostate cancer is a health problem in many Countries worldwide. Understanding the essential function of androgens in the prostate physiology led to the development of hormonal blockade as a therapeutic option in advanced disease, with limited response with time and development of resistance. In this stage, where castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is defined, it is associated with poor prognosis because survival varies between 18 and 24 months. Even with castration levels, tumors are dependent on the functional androgen receptor (AR)...
September 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
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