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Prostate cancer biomarker

Matheus Neves Ribeiro da Silva, Aline Mendes, João Roberto Maciel Martins, Marcos Tobias-Machado, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal
PURPOSE: The present study evaluates chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) in the urine and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the plasma of patients with prostate cancer before and after treatment compared to a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were used for HA dosage and urine for quantification of CS and HS from forty-four cancer patients and fourteen controls. Clinical, laboratory and radiological information were correlated with glycosaminoglycan quantification by statistical analysis...
November 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Kyle H Gennaro, Kristin K Porter, Jennifer B Gordetsky, Samuel J Galgano, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Biomarkers provide objective data to guide clinicians in disease management. Prostate-specific antigen serves as a biomarker for screening of prostate cancer but has come under scrutiny for detection of clinically indolent disease. Multiple imaging techniques demonstrate promising results for diagnosing, staging, and determining definitive management of prostate cancer. One such modality, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), detects more clinically significant disease while missing lower volume and clinically insignificant disease...
November 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Andriy Fedorov, Michael Schwier, David Clunie, Christian Herz, Steve Pieper, Ron Kikinis, Clare Tempany, Fiona Fennessy
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) is widely used for characterizing prostate cancer. Standard of care use of mpMRI in clinic relies on visual interpretation of the images by an expert. mpMRI is also increasingly used as a quantitative imaging biomarker of the disease. Little is known about repeatability of such quantitative measurements, and no test-retest datasets have been available publicly to support investigation of the technical characteristics of the MRI-based quantification in the prostate...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Data
Wanwei Liu, Jiwei Xu
BACKGROUND: Prostate-cancer-associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT-1), a newly discovered lncRNA, was implicated in the progression of multiple tumors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine its prognostic potential for gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: A literature survey was conducted by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase together with Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database for articles published as of October 15, 2017...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hyun-Kyung Woo, Juhee Park, Ja Yoon Ku, Chan Ho Lee, Vijaya Sunkara, Hong Koo Ha, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
Androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to anti-androgen therapy. Despite its clinical importance, the lack of efficient methods for AR-V7 analysis remains a challenge for broader use of this biomarker in routine clinical practice. Herein, we suggest a practical and non-invasive liquid biopsy method for analysis of AR-V7 in the RNA of urine-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) without the need for blood withdrawal. Urine-derived EVs were isolated by a lab-on-a-disc integrated with six independent nanofiltration units (Exo-Hexa) allowing simultaneous processing of six individual samples...
November 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
K L Shepherd, P Cool, G Cribb
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic indicators of outcome at presentation to the orthopaedic surgeon, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Our aim was to use this information in a pragmatic, clinic-based approach so that surgical decision making could be optimized to benefit the patient in their remaining lifetime. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort analysis was undertaken of all patients with metastatic disease of the prostate who presented to a regional orthopaedic centre in the United Kingdom between 2003 and 2016...
December 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Hojun Kim, Sungwook Park, Benedict Jungmin Kang, Youngdo Jung, Hyojin Lee, Kwan Hyi Lee
The heterogeneous nature of tumor cell populations suggests that quantitative analysis at the single-cell level may provide better insights into cancer biology. Specifically, detection of multiple biomarkers from a single cell offers important initial information about cellular behavior. However, conventional approaches have limitations on biomarker detections in a single cell level. Here we fabricated a polymer microwell array to capture single cells from prostate cancer cell lines and quantitatively analyzed three different cancer-related biomarker expressions, CD44, EpCAM, and PSMA without protein extraction step...
November 28, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Qia Wang, Chun Yang, Qingui Yang, Shenghao Yu, Haipeng Yang
In 2009, Sreekumar found that sarcosine, as an effective biomarker, can be used to identify prostate cancer. However, it is difficult to detect sarcosine in urine or plasma because of its low concentration. In this work, we describe a simple strategy for the preparation of sarcosine biosensor based on platinum-loaded mesoporous nickel phosphonate (Pt/MNP) and subsequently apply it to detect sarcosine. Mesoporous structure could increase the active sites on the MNP surface, which makes the Pt/MNP have excellent electrochemical performance for detecting hydrogen peroxide, one of the enzymatic products, and the sarcosine biosensor exhibited a superior electrochemical performance...
January 10, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Shubha Bellur, Theodorus Van der Kwast, Ozgur Mete
Prostatic neuroendocrine manifestations encompass a heterogeneous spectrum of morphological entities. In the era of evidence-based and precision-led treatment, distinction of biologically relevant clinical manifestations expanded the evolving clinical role of pathologists. Recent observations on the occurrence of hormone-therapy induced aggressive prostatic cancers with neuroendocrine features have triggered the need to refine the spectrum and nomenclature of prostatic neuroendocrine manifestations. Although the morphological assessment still remains the basis of the diagnostic workup of prostatic neoplasms, the application of ancillary biomarkers is crucial in the accurate classification of such presentations...
November 24, 2018: Human Pathology
Elizabeth M Grainger, Nancy E Moran, David M Francis, Steven J Schwartz, Lei Wan, Jennifer Thomas-Ahner, Rachel E Kopec, Ken M Riedl, Gregory S Young, Ronney Abaza, Robert R Bahnson, Steven K Clinton
Background: Tomato and soy intake is associated with reduced prostate cancer risk or severity in epidemiologic and experimental studies. Objective: On the basis of the principle that multiple bioactives in tomato and soy may act on diverse anticancer pathways, we developed and characterized a tomato-soy juice for clinical trials. In this phase 2 dose-escalating study, we examined plasma, prostate, and urine biomarkers of carotenoid and isoflavone exposure. Methods: Men scheduled for prostatectomy were recruited to consume 0, 1, or 2 cans of tomato-soy juice/d before surgery (mean ± SD duration: 24 ± 4...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yue Zhao, Hou Liu, Yingnan Jiang, Shanliang Song, Yueqi Zhao, Chuan Zhang, Jingwei Xin, Bai Yang, Quan Lin
The profiling of disease-related biomarkers is an essential procedure for the accurate diagnosis and intervention of metabol-ic disorders. Therefore, the development of ultrasensitive and highly selective fluorogenic biosensors for diverse biomarkers is extremely desirable. There is still a considerable challenge to prepare nanocluster-based fluorescence turn-on probes capa-ble of recognizing multiple biomolecules. We herein provide a novel nanocluster-based chemical information processing system (CIPS) for the programmable detecting various metabolites and enzymes...
November 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Z Yazdani, H Yadegari, H Heli
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a biomarker employed for detection of prostate cancer. An electrochemical nanobiosensor is designed and fabricated using a molecularly imprinted polymer for the simple and fast PSA detection. The imprinted polymer served as a PSA artificial receptor fabricated by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on screen-printed gold electrode in the presence of PSA. PSA was a molecular template for the polymer. The fabricated nanobiosensor was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry and using K3 [Fe(CN)6 ]/K4 [Fe(CN)6 ] as an electrochemical marker...
November 22, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Fang Zhao, Ekaterina Olkhov-Mitsel, Shivani Kamdar, Renu Jeyapala, Julia Garcia, Rachel Hurst, Marcelino Yazbek Hanna, Robert Mills, Alexandra V Tuzova, Eve O'Reilly, Sarah Kelly, Colin Cooper, Daniel Brewer, Antoinette S Perry, Jeremy Clark, Neil Fleshner, Bharati Bapat
BACKGROUND: Prevention of unnecessary biopsies and overtreatment of indolent disease remains a challenge in the management of prostate cancer. Novel non-invasive tests that can identify clinically significant (intermediate-risk and high-risk) diseases are needed to improve risk stratification and monitoring of prostate cancer patients. Here, we investigated a panel of six DNA methylation biomarkers in urine samples collected post-digital rectal exam from patients undergoing prostate biopsy, for their utility to guide decision making for diagnostic biopsy and early detection of aggressive prostate cancer...
November 23, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Jinan Guo, Jiequn Fang, Xiangjiang Huang, Yanfeng Liu, Yeqing Yuan, Xueqi Zhang, Chang Zou, Kefeng Xiao, Jianhong Wang
BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconsistent. Here we quantify the prognostic impact of these biomarkers and assess their consistency in PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase for eligible studies embracing multivariate results. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the study quality...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Anna Linder, Malin Hagberg Thulin, Jan-Erik Damber, Karin Welén
Prostate cancer (PC) represents the second highest cancer-related mortality among men and the call for biomarkers for early discrimination between aggressive and indolent forms is essential. Downregulation of Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) has been shown in PC, however the underlying mechanism has not been described. Aberrant RGS2 expression has also been reported for other carcinomas in association to both positive and negative prognosis. In this study, we assessed RGS2 expression during PC progression in terms of regulation and impact on tumour phenotype and evaluated its prognostic value...
November 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kate L Mahon, Wenjia Qu, Hui-Ming Lin, Calan Spielman, Daniel Cain, Cindy Jacobs, Martin R Stockler, Celestia S Higano, Johann S de Bono, Kim N Chi, Susan J Clark, Lisa Glen Horvath
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) expression is inactivated in >90% of all prostate cancers in association with aberrant DNA methylation. Detection of serum free methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) DNA is associated with overall survival (OS) and response to docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in test and internal validation cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between serum free mGSTP1 and treatment outcomes in SYNERGY, a phase 3 multicentre randomised trial testing the addition of custirsen to first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel in mCRPC...
November 19, 2018: European Urology
Fatemeh Yazarlou, Seyed Javad Mowla, Vahid Kholghi Oskooei, Elahe Motevaseli, Leila Farhady Tooli, Mandana Afsharpad, Leila Nekoohesh, Nafiseh Sadat Sanikhani, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
Background: Exosomes have been regarded as emerging tools for cancer diagnosis. Tumor-derived exosomes contain molecules that enhance cancer progression and affect immune responses. Material and methods: In the present study, we evaluated expression of seven cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) that are regarded as putative biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets along with NMP22 in urinary exosomes of bladder cancer patients, healthy subjects and patients affected with nonmalignant urinary disorders...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Loïc Ferrer, Hein Putter, Cécile Proust-Lima
After the diagnosis of a disease, one major objective is to predict cumulative probabilities of events such as clinical relapse or death from the individual information collected up to a prediction time, usually including biomarker repeated measurements. Several competing estimators have been proposed, mainly from two approaches: joint modelling and landmarking. These approaches differ by the information used, the model assumptions and the complexity of the computational procedures. This paper aims to review the two approaches, precisely define the derived estimators of dynamic predictions and compare their performances notably in case of misspecification...
November 22, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Athanasios E Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris
 Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Regardless of the initial treatment of localized disease, almost all patients develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind castration resistance has led to the approval of novel oral androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, such as enzalutamide and apalutamide. Indeed, research has accelerated with numerous agents being studied for the management of CRPC. Areas covered: Herein, the authors present currently used and emerging AR antagonists for the treatment of CRPC...
November 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Chunjiao Song, Huan Chen
Background: Prostate cancer is a major malignancy in males. TMPRSS2 - ERG is a high-frequency fusion gene expressed in prostate cancer and plays a vital role in carcinogenesis. Recent studies showed that TMPRSS2 - ERG is a potential predictive biomarker for prostate cancer. However, the predictive value of TMPRSS2 - ERG fusion is yet unclear. Methods: A total of 76 relevant articles, published from 2015 to 2017, were obtained from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and CNKI databases to investigate the predictive significance of TMPRSS2 - ERG fusion in prostate cancer...
2018: Cancer Cell International
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