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Prostate cancer biomarker

Akbar N Ashrafi, Alessandro Tafuri, Giovanni E Cacciamani, Daniel Park, Andre L de Castro Abreu, Inderbir S Gill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present a perspective on the current status and future directions of focal therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: Focal therapy for localized PCa is a rapidly evolving field. Various recent concepts - the index lesion driving prognosis, the enhanced detection of clinically significant PCa using multiparametric MRI and targeted biopsy, improved risk-stratification using novel blood/tissue biomarkers, the recognition that reducing radical treatment-related morbidity (along with reducing pathologic progression) is a clinically meaningful end-point - have all led to a growing interest in focal therapy...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Rasha Kamal, Soha Hamed, Sahar Mahmoud Mansour, Yasmine Mounir, Sahar Abdel Sallam
Although ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal of all female malignancies, debate still exists concerning the benefits and harms of the screening programs and their impact on long term survival and mortality from the disease. The most widely tested screening strategies have focused on trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVU) and on algorithms that measure serum levels or interval changes of cancer antigen -125 (CA-125) either individually or in combination. TVU can identify size and morphology changes of the ovary that may signal a developing malignancy; yet, it is still accused of having a low specificity...
August 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Dana E Rathkopf, Howard I Scher
Five new agents have been shown to prolong survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, including two targeting androgen receptor signaling (abiraterone acetate plus prednisone; enzalutamide). Recognition that these tumors remain driven by androgen receptor signaling has prompted clinical evaluation of these agents at earlier states in the prostate cancer disease continuum, along with the continued development of new agents targeting this pathway. Areas covered: This article focuses on apalutamide, a next-generation nonsteroidal antiandrogen, with current literature queried in PubMed/Medline...
September 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Shiv Ram Krishn, Amrita Singh, Nicholas Bowler, Alexander N Duffy, Andrea Friedman, Carmine Fedele, Senem Kurtoglu, Sushil K Tripathi, Kerith Wang, Adam Hawkins, Aejaz Sayeed, Chirayu P Goswami, Madhukar L Thakur, Renato V Iozzo, Stephen C Peiper, William K Kelly, Lucia R Languino
The αvβ3 integrin has been shown to promote aggressive phenotypes in many types of cancers, including prostate cancer. We show that GFP-labeled αvβ3 derived from cancer cells circulates in the blood and is detected in distant lesions in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. We therefore hypothesized that αvβ3 travels through exosomes and we tested its levels in pools of vesicles, which we designate extracellular vesicles highly enriched in exosomes (ExVs), and in exosomes isolated from the plasma of prostate cancer patients...
August 8, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Yi X Chan, Matthew W Knuiman, Mark L Divitini, David J Handelsman, John P Beilby, Bu B Yeap
Androgens, notably testosterone (T), have been implicated in development of several common cancers and prostate cancer; however, precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study assessed prospective associations of serum T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2) with overall cancer (excluding skin cancer), prostate, colorectal and lung cancer risk in 1574 community-dwelling men aged 25-84 years. Sex hormones were assayed using mass spectrometry and men were followed for 20 years with outcomes ascertained using data linkage...
August 10, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
James T Lynch, Urszula M Polanska, Ursula Hancox, Oona Delpuech, Juliana Maynard, Catherine B Trigwell, Catherine Eberlein, Carol Lenaghan, Radoslaw Polanski, Alvaro Avivar-Valderas, Marie Cumberbatch, Teresa Klinowska, Susan E Critchlow, Francisco Cruzalegui, Simon T Barry
Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN confers a tumor cell dependency on the PI3Kβ isoform. Achieving maximal inhibition of tumor growth through PI3K pathway inhibition requires sustained inhibition of PI3K signalling, however efficacy is often limited by sub-optimal inhibition or reactivation of the pathway. To select combinations that deliver comprehensive suppression of PI3K signalling in PTEN null tumors, the PI3Kβ inhibitor AZD8186 was combined with inhibitors of kinases implicated in pathway reactivation in an extended cell proliferation assay...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Marco Bandini, Nicola Fossati, Alberto Briganti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically review the current literature regarding the recently published nomograms in urologic oncology and to examine the advantages and disadvantages of their application. RECENT FINDINGS: Several nomograms have been developed in the field of urologic oncology over the recent years, to improve clinical decision-making and patients counseling. In the current review, we examined 6 nomograms on prostate cancer, 9 nomograms on kidney cancer and 8 nomograms on bladder cancer that have been recently published...
August 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Feilun Cui, Jianpeng Hu, Songyi Ning, Jian Tan, Huaming Tang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most malignant tumors of the male urogenital system. There is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers for PCa. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of MCM10 in prostate cancer by analyzing public datasets (including The Cancer Genome Atlas and GSE21032). Furthermore, loss of function assays was performed to evaluate the effects of MCM10 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and colony formation...
August 10, 2018: Prostate
Vincenzo Serretta, Alberto Abrate, Simone Siracusano, Cristina Scalici Gesolfo, Marco Vella, Fabrizio Di Maida, Antonina Cangemi, Giuseppe Cicero, Elisabetta Barresi, Chiara Sanfilippo
Context: The correlation between aggressive prostate cancer and obesity mainly based on body mass index (BMI) and pathology after surgery remains controversial. Aims: The aim of the study was to correlate BMI, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and the plasmatic levels of leptin, adiponectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and biomarkers of adipose tissue function, with the detection of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 at biopsy. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive patients with prostate cancer at 12-core transrectal biopsy were enrolled...
July 2018: Urology Annals
Shibao Li, Yao Zhao, Wenbai Chen, Lingyu Yin, Jie Zhu, Haoliang Zhang, Chenchen Cai, Pengpeng Li, Lingyan Huang, Ping Ma
Up-regulation of serum ephrinA2 is common in various malignancies and has been suggested as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the type of serum ephrinA2 expressed in PCa patients remains elusive. Furthermore, the level of exosomal ephrinA2 derived from serum is increased in patients with osteoporosis, a common complication of PCa patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. It is unknown whether exosomes derived from PCa patient serum contains ephrinA2...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Michael J Donovan, Gerardo Fernandez, Richard Scott, Faisal M Khan, Jack Zeineh, Giovanni Koll, Nataliya Gladoun, Elizabeth Charytonowicz, Ash Tewari, Carlos Cordon-Cardo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative risk assessment remains an important variable in the effective treatment of prostate cancer. There is an unmet clinical need for a test with the potential to enhance the Gleason grading system with novel features that more accurately reflect a personalized prediction of clinical failure. METHODS: A prospectively designed retrospective study utilizing 892 patients, post radical prostatectomy, followed for a median of 8 years. In training, using digital image analysis to combine microscopic pattern analysis/machine learning with biomarkers, we evaluated Precise Post-op model results to predict clinical failure in 446 patients...
August 7, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Laura Muinelo-Romay, Carlos Casas-Arozamena, Miguel Abal
The identification of new molecular targets and biomarkers associated with high risk of recurrence and response to therapy represents one of the main clinical challenges in the management of advanced disease in endometrial cancer. In this sense, the field of liquid biopsy has emerged as a great revolution in oncology and is considered "the way" to reach personalised medicine. In this review, we discuss the promising but already relatively limited advances of liquid biopsy in endometrial cancer compared to other types of tumours like breast, colorectal or prostate cancer...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tine Maj Storebjerg, Siri H Strand, Søren Høyer, Anne-Sofie Lynnerup, Michael Borre, Torben F Ørntoft, Karina D Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Prognostic tools for prostate cancer (PC) are inadequate and new molecular biomarkers may improve risk stratification. The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has recently been proposed as a novel candidate prognostic biomarker in several malignancies including PC. 5hmC is an oxidized derivative of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). The present study is the first to investigate the biomarker potential in PC for all four DNA methylation marks in parallel...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
John P Rooney, Brian Chorley, Nicole Kleinstreuer, J Christopher Corton
High-throughput transcriptomic (HTTr) technologies are increasingly being used to screen environmental chemicals in vitro to identify molecular targets and provide mechanistic context for regulatory testing. Here, we describe the development and validation of a novel gene expression biomarker to identify AR-modulating chemicals using a pattern matching method. AR biomarker genes were identified by their consistent expression after exposure to 4 AR agonists and 4 AR antagonists and included only those genes that were regulated by AR...
July 31, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Yiji Liao, Kexin Xu
Epigenetics is the main mechanism that controls transcription of specific genes with no changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Epigenetic alterations lead to abnormal gene expression patterns that contribute to carcinogenesis and persist throughout disease progression. Because of the reversible nature, epigenetic modifications emerge as promising anticancer drug targets. Several compounds have been developed to reverse the aberrant activities of enzymes involved in epigenetic regulation, and some of them show encouraging results in both preclinical and clinical studies...
August 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Mi-Hyun Kim, Mi-Kyeong Choi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum tumor markers and dietary intakes in healthy adults to address a nutrition guide for cancer prevention. We analyzed tumor-related markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in serum and daily food and nutrient intakes using a 24-hour recall method in 23 healthy men and 32 healthy women. The average age was 50.7 years for men and 48.9 years for women...
July 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Howard B Lieberman, Alex J Rai, Richard A Friedman, Kevin M Hopkins, Constantinos G Broustas
Prostate cancer is a complex disease, with multiple subtypes and clinical presentations. Much progress has been made in recent years to understand the underlying genetic basis that drives prostate cancer. Such mechanistic information is useful for development of novel therapeutic targets, to identify biomarkers for early detection or to distinguish between aggressive and indolent disease, and to predict treatment outcome. Multiple tests have become available in recent years to address these clinical needs for prostate cancer...
July 2018: Translational Cancer Research
E David Crawford, Phillip J Koo, Neal Shore, Susan F Slovin, Raoul S Concepcion, Stephen J Freedland, Leonard G Gomella, Lawrence Karsh, Thomas E Keane, Paul Maroni, David Penson, Daniel P Petrylak, Ashley Ross, Vlad Mouraviev, Robert E Reiter, Chaitanya Divgi, Evan Y Yu
PURPOSE: The advanced prostate cancer therapeutic landscape has changed dramatically over the last several years, resulting in improved overall survival for patients with both castration-naive and castration-resistant disease. The evolution and development of novel next generation imaging (NGI) techniques will affect diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. Clinicians must navigate when and which NGI techniques to use and how to adjust treatment strategies based upon their results, oftentimes in the absence of correlative therapeutic data...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Urology
Eleanor L Watts, Paul N Appleby, Aurora Perez-Cornago, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, June M Chan, Chu Chen, Barbara A Cohn, Michael B Cook, Leon Flicker, Neal D Freedman, Graham G Giles, Edward Giovannucci, Randi E Gislefoss, Graeme J Hankey, Rudolf Kaaks, Paul Knekt, Laurence N Kolonel, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Loïc Le Marchand, Robert N Luben, Tapio Luostarinen, Satu Männistö, E Jeffrey Metter, Kazuya Mikami, Roger L Milne, Kotaro Ozasa, Elizabeth A Platz, J Ramón Quirós, Harri Rissanen, Norie Sawada, Meir Stampfer, Frank Z Stanczyk, Pär Stattin, Akiko Tamakoshi, Catherine M Tangen, Ian M Thompson, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Shoichiro Tsugane, Giske Ursin, Lars Vatten, Noel S Weiss, Bu B Yeap, Naomi E Allen, Timothy J Key, Ruth C Travis
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical evidence implicates testosterone in the aetiology of prostate cancer. Variation across the normal range of circulating free testosterone concentrations may not lead to changes in prostate biology, unless circulating concentrations are low. This may also apply to prostate cancer risk, but this has not been investigated in an epidemiological setting. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether men with low concentrations of circulating free testosterone have a reduced risk of prostate cancer...
August 1, 2018: European Urology
Abbas Salavaty, Fatemeh Movahedi Motlagh, Mehri Barabadi, Hamid Cheshomi, Mohammad Javad Dehghan Esmatabadi, Mozhdeh Shahmoradi, Hamid Reza Soleimanpour-Lichaei
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) refer to a group of non-protein-coding RNAs that are usually more than 200 nucleotides. These long transcripts play significant roles in diverse cellular processes, mostly through epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, dysregulation of lncRNAs is associated with various diseases, especially cancer. This study aims to investigate the probable roles of RAB6C-AS1 lncRNA in different cancers. METHODS: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was applied for the analysis of RAB6C-AS1 lncRNA amplification in gastric cancer (GC) samples compared with normal ones...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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