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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160147/impact-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury-on-healing-of-skin-ulcers-in-mouse-models
#1
Suneel Kumar, Martin L Yarmush, Biraja C Dash, Henry C Hsia, Francois Berthiaume
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common debilitating complications of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and tend to occur in soft tissues around bony prominences. There is, however, little known about the impact of SCI on skin wound healing due to the lack of suitable animal models for studies in controlled experimental settings. Herein we describe a reproducible and clinically relevant mouse model of PUs in the context of complete SCI. Adult male mice (BALB/c) were subjected to thoracic (T9-T10) complete SCI. Immediately after, a skin fold on the back of the mice was lifted and sandwiched between two magnetic discs held in place for 12 hours, thus creating an ischemic area that developed into a PU over the following days...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159836/mechanisms-of-calcium-sequestration-by-isolated-malpighian-tubules-of-the-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus
#2
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#3
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157985/evidence-for-autocrine-and-paracrine-regulation-of-allergen-induced-mast-cell-mediator-release-in-the-guinea-pig-airways
#4
Li Yu, Qi Liu, Brendan J Canning
Mast cells play an essential role in immediate type hypersensitivity reactions and in chronic allergic diseases of the airways, including asthma. Mast cell mediator release can be modulated by locally released autacoids and circulating hormones, but surprisingly little is known about the autocrine effects of mediators released upon mast cell activation. We thus set out to characterize the autocrine and paracrine effects of mast cell mediators on mast cell activation in the guinea pig airways. By direct measures of histamine, cysteinyl-leukotriene and thromboxane release and with studies of allergen-evoked contractions of airway smooth muscle, we describe a complex interplay amongst these autacoids...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157313/calpain-5-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-eye-and-brain
#5
Kellie Schaefer, MaryAnn Mahajan, Anuradha Gore, Stephen H Tsang, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize CAPN5 gene expression in the mouse central nervous system. Mouse brain and eye sections were probed with two high-affinity RNA oligonucleotide analogs designed to bind CAPN5 RNA and one scramble, control oligonucleotide. Images were captured in brightfield. RESULTS: CAPN5 RNA probes were validated on mouse breast cancer tumor tissue. In the eye, CAPN5 was expressed in the ganglion cell, inner nuclear and outer nuclear layers of the retina...
November 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155995/lysosome-biogenesis-regulated-by-the-amino-acid-transporter-slc15a4-is-critical-for-functional-integrity-of-mast-cells
#6
Toshihiko Kobayashi, Hidemitsu Tsutsui, Shiho Shimabukuro-Demoto, Reiko Sugitani-Yoshida, Hitomi Karyu, Kaori Furuyama-Tanaka, Daisuke Ohshima, Norihiro Kato, Tadashi Okamura, Noriko Toyama Sorimachi
Mast cells possess specialized lysosomes, so-called secretory granules, which play a key role not only in allergic responses but also in various immune disorders. The molecular mechanisms that control secretory-granule formation are not fully understood. Solute carrier family member 15A4 (SLC15A4) is a lysosome-resident amino-acid/oligopeptide transporter that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic-lineage cells. Here we demonstrated that SLC15A4 is required for mast-cell secretory granule homeostasis, and limits mast-cell functions and inflammatory responses by controlling the mTORC1-TFEB signaling axis...
November 15, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155785/modeling-neuronal-death-and-degeneration-in-mouse-primary-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#7
Matthew Laaper, Takrima Haque, Ruth S Slack, Arezu Jahani-Asl
Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are a commonly used neuronal model, forming an abundant homogeneous population in the cerebellum. In light of their post-natal development, abundance, and accessibility, CGNs are an ideal model to study neuronal processes, including neuronal development, neuronal migration, and physiological neuronal activity stimulation. In addition, CGN cultures provide an excellent model for studying different modes of cell death including excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Within a week in culture, CGNs express N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, a specific ionotropic glutamate receptor with many critical functions in neuronal health and disease...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155721/visualizing-macrophage-extracellular-traps-using-confocal-microscopy
#8
Roleen Sharma, Kim M O'Sullivan, Stephen R Holdsworth, Philip G Bardin, Paul T King
A primary method used to define the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is confocal microscopy. We have modified established confocal microscopy methods to visualize macrophage extracellular traps (METs). These extracellular traps are defined by the presence of extracellular chromatin with co-expression of other components such as granule proteases, citrullinated histones, and peptidyl arginase deiminase (PAD). The expression of METs is generally measured after exposure to a stimulus and compared to un-stimulated samples...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155277/neurotrophin-and-fgf-signaling-adapter-proteins-frs2-and-frs3-regulate-dentate-granule-cell-maturation-and-excitatory-synaptogenesis
#9
Sayan Nandi, Karina Alviña, Pablo J Lituma, Pablo E Castillo, Jean M Hébert
Dentate granule cells (DGCs) play important roles in cognitive processes. Knowledge about how growth factors such as FGFs and neurotrophins contribute to the maturation and synaptogenesis of DGCs is limited. Here, using brain-specific and germline mouse mutants we show that a module of neurotrophin and FGF signaling, the FGF Receptor Substrate (FRS) family of intracellular adapters, FRS2 and FRS3, are together required for postnatal brain development. In the hippocampus, FRS promotes dentate gyrus morphogenesis and DGC maturation during developmental neurogenesis, similar to previously published functions for both neurotrophins and FGFs...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155076/genotoxicity-and-28-day-oral-toxicity-studies-of-a-functional-food-mixture-containing-maltodextrin-white-kidney-bean-extract-mulberry-leaf-extract-and-niacin-bound-chromium-complex
#10
Cheng-Tien Wu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Chun-Fa Huang, Fu-Chuo Peng, Shing-Hwa Liu
Steady-fiber granule (SFG) is a functional food mixture that is composed of four major ingredients, resistant maltodextrin, white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) extract, mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract, and niacin-bound chromium complex. This study focused on determining the safety of SFG. Genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity were evaluated. SFG did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay using five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 system)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153328/tdp-43-promotes-neurodegeneration-by-impairing-chromatin-remodeling
#11
Amit Berson, Ashley Sartoris, Raffaella Nativio, Vivianna Van Deerlin, Jon B Toledo, Sílvia Porta, Shichong Liu, Chia-Yu Chung, Benjamin A Garcia, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, F Brad Johnson, Shelley L Berger, Nancy M Bonini
Regulation of chromatin structure is critical for brain development and function. However, the involvement of chromatin dynamics in neurodegeneration is less well understood. Here we find, launching from Drosophila models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, that TDP-43 impairs the induction of multiple key stress genes required to protect from disease by reducing the recruitment of the chromatin remodeler Chd1 to chromatin. Chd1 depletion robustly enhances TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration and promotes the formation of stress granules...
November 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151137/blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-neuroprotective-potential-of-blackberry-digested-polyphenols-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Inês Figueira, Lucélia Tavares, Carolina Jardim, Inês Costa, Ana P Terrasso, Andreia F Almeida, Coen Govers, Jurriaan J Mes, Rui Gardner, Jörg D Becker, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Augusto Filipe, Kwang S Kim, Dora Brites, Catarina Brito, M Alexandra Brito, Cláudia N Santos
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151075/formation-of-new-blood-vessels-during-gastric-ulcer-healing-role-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#13
A Ahluwalia, T Brzozowski, M K Jones, Y Ichikawa, A S Tarnawski
Regeneration of blood vessels (neovascularization) is critical for gastric ulcer (GU) healing. The contributions of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMD-EPCs) to neovascularization during GU healing are not fully elucidated. Our specific aims were to determine whether in GU, BMD-EPCs are incorporated into blood vessels of GU granulation tissue jointly with ECs, thus forming hybrid vessels; or, form separate vessels consisting of only BMD-EPCs. GUs were induced in rats by serosal application of acetic acid...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149443/migration-of-interneuron-precursors-in-the-nascent-cerebellar-cortex
#14
Annika K Wefers, Christian Haberlandt, Lachezar Surchev, Christian Steinhäuser, Ronald Jabs, Karl Schilling
The cerebellum arguably constitutes one of the best characterized central nervous circuits, and its structure, cellular function, and histogenesis have been described in exceptional quantitative detail. A notable exception to this is the development of its inhibitory interneurons, and in particular the extensive migrations of future basket and stellate cells. Here, we used acute slices from 8-day-old mice to assess the migration of Pax2-EGFP-tagged precursors of these cells en route to the molecular layer during their transit through the nascent cerebellar cortex...
November 17, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148542/prrt2-dependent-dyskinesia-cerebellar-paroxysmal-and-persistent
#15
Lieke Kros, Chris I De Zeeuw
In an elegant publication in Cell Research, Tan and colleagues showed that ablation of PRRT2 in cerebellar granule cells is sufficient to induce paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. PRRT2 turns out to downregulate the presynaptic SNARE complex in granule cell axons, which in turn controls the activity patterns of Purkinje cells, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex.
November 17, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148536/characterization-of-foreign-materials-in-paraffin-embedded-pathological-specimens-using-in-situ-multi-elemental-imaging-with-laser-spectroscopy
#16
Benoit Busser, Samuel Moncayo, Florian Trichard, Vincent Bonneterre, Nicole Pinel, Frédéric Pelascini, Philippe Dugourd, Jean-Luc Coll, Michel D'Incan, Julie Charles, Vincent Motto-Ros, Lucie Sancey
Pathologists typically encounter many disparate exogenous materials in clinical specimens during their routine histopathological examinations, especially within the skin, lymph nodes, and lungs. These foreign substances may be free extracellular deposits or induce several clinical abnormalities or histopathological patterns. However, pathologists almost never investigate or report the chemical nature of exogenous metals in clinical specimens due to a lack of convenient and available technologies. In this paper, a novel strategy based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is evaluated for in situ multi-elemental tissue imaging...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148072/ultrastructure-of-endocrine-pancreatic-granules-during-pancreatic-differentiation-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-l-lepidosauria-serpentes
#17
Magdalena Kowalska, Weronika Rupik
We used transmission electron microscopy to study the pancreatic main endocrine cell types in the embryos of the grass snake Natrix natrix L. with focus on the morphology of their secretory granules. The embryonic endocrine part of the pancreas in the grass snake contains four main types of cells (A, B, D, and PP), which is similar to other vertebrates. The B granules contained a moderately electron-dense crystalline-like core that was polygonal in shape and an electron-dense outer zone. The A granules had a spherical electron-dense eccentrically located core and a moderately electron-dense outer zone...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147828/a-reliable-spectral-method-to-reaction-diffusion-equations-in-entrapped-cell-photobioreactor-packed-with-gel-granules-using-chebyshev-wavelets
#18
M Salai Mathi Selvi, G Hariharan, K Kannan
A mathematical model of a reaction-diffusion within an entrapped-cell photobioreactor packed with gel granules containing immobilized photosynthetic bacterial cells is discussed. A theoretical model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. In this research work, we have developed an efficient wavelet-based spectral approach for solving the proposed model. Analytical expressions for the concentration of substrate and product are established for all values of reaction-diffusion parameters using second kind Chebyshev wavelet method...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147716/complex-coacervation-of-mg-ii-phospho-polymethacrylate-a-synthetic-analog-of-sandcastle-worm-adhesive-phosphoproteins
#19
In Taek Song, Russell J Stewart
The highly phosphorylated Pc3 proteins, major components of the sandcastle worm adhesive, are sequestered with Mg as spherical sub-granules within heterogeneous secretory granules in adhesive gland cells. The phase behavior of a synthetic phospho-polymethacrylate analog of the Pc3 phosphoproteins, in the presense of Mg(ii), was characterized to determine whether it is chemically possible for the natural adhesive components to be packaged and stored as liquid complex coacervates. Of several multivalent metal salts tested, only MgCl induced complex coacervation of the phospho-copolymer...
November 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147489/the-effect-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced-bone-regeneration-of-canine-alveolar-defects-with-calcium-phosphate-based-scaffolds
#20
Reihaneh Shafieian, Maryam Moghaddam Matin, Amin Rahpeyma, Alireza Fazel, Hamideh Salari Sedigh, Ariane Sadr-Nabavi, Halimeh Hassanzadeh, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
Objectives: Autologous bone transplantation known as the "gold standard" to reconstruction of osseous defects has known disadvantages. This study was designed to explore the effects of hydroxy-apatite/tricalcium-phosphate (HA/TCP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the osteogenesis ability of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: hAdMSCs were incubated with HA/TCP granules and/or PRP in vitro and then, cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed by MTT assay, AZR S staining and SEM examination...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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