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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108848/glucagon-like-peptide-1-is-co-localized-with-neurotensin-in-the-chicken-ileum
#1
Kei Nishimura, Kohzy Hiramatsu, Takafumi Watanabe, Kazumi Kita
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and neurotensin (NT) are distributed throughout the chicken ileum. Here, we attempt to determine if GLP-1 and NT co-localize in the chicken ileum by using immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Three types of enteroendocrine cells, GLP-1(+)/NT(+), GLP-1(+)/NT(-) and GLP-1(-)/NT(+) cells, were detected in the mucosal epithelium by the double immunofluorescence method. The ratio of GLP-1(+)/NT(+) cells at the crypts in the distal ileum was significantly higher than that in the proximal ileum...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108335/tryptase-catalyzed-core-histone-truncation-a-novel-epigenetic-regulatory-mechanism-in-mast-cells
#2
Fabio R Melo, Ola Wallerman, Aida Paivandy, Gabriela Calounova, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Benjamin R Sabari, Giuliano Zabucchi, C David Allis, Gunnar Pejler
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are key effector cells in allergic reactions. When activated to degranulate, they release a plethora of bioactive compounds from their secretory granules, including mast cell-restricted proteases such as tryptase. In a previous study we showed that tryptase, in addition to its intragranular location, can be found within the nuclei of mast cells where it truncates core histones at their N-terminal ends. OBJECTIVE: Considering that the N-terminal portions of the core histones constitute sites for posttranslational modifications of major epigenetic impact, we here evaluated whether histone truncation by tryptase could have an impact on epigenetic events in mast cells...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107503/osteopontin-affects-insulin-vesicle-localization-and-ca2-homeostasis-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-from-female-mice
#3
Anna Wendt, Inês G Mollet, Anki Knutsson, Victor S Bolmgren, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Maria F Gomez, Lena Eliasson
Type 2 diabetic patients suffer from insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion. Osteopontin (OPN), a versatile protein expressed in several tissues throughout the body including the islets of Langerhans, has previously been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Here we have investigated the role of OPN in insulin secretion using an OPN knock out mouse model (OPN-/-). Ultra-structural analyzes of islets from OPN-/- and WT mice indicated weaker cell-cell connections between the islet cells in the OPN-/- mouse compared to WT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106629/heat-shock-protein-70-overexpression-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhances-fat-graft-survival
#4
Hao Feng, Lihong Qiu, Teng Zhang, Houyou Yu, Xianjie Ma, Yingjun Su, Hui Zheng, Yong Wang, Chenggang Yi
BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting is a prevalent technique used for soft-tissue augmentation; however, the poor survival rate of the grafted tissue remains a drawback of this method. Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive candidate for enhancing graft retention, the poor posttransplantation viability of these cells limits their application. Here we investigated whether overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) could enhance ASCs' therapeutic potential for fat transplant survival...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104809/gpnmb-promotes-proliferation-of-developing-eosinophils
#5
Sae Mi Hwang, Jin Hyun Kang, Bo Kyum Kim, Tae Gi Uhm, Hye Jung Kim, Hyune-Hwan Lee, Bert Binas, Il Yup Chung
Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a type I transmembrane protein that is expressed in a wide variety of cell types, including hematopoietic lineages. We previously demonstrated that GPNMB is one of the most highly expressed genes at an early and intermediate stage of eosinophil development. We herein examined GPNMB expression and its possible functional effect using cord blood (CB) CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells differentiating toward eosinophils during a 24-day culture period. Western blot and confocal microscopy analyses showed that GPNMB reached its highest levels at day 12 with most GPNMB-positive cells also expressing major basic protein 1 (MBP1), an eosinophil granule protein...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104477/enantioselective-oxidative-stress-and-oxidative-damage-caused-by-rac-%C3%A2-and-s-metolachlor-to-scenedesmus-obliquus
#6
Huijun Liu, YiLu Xia, Weidan Cai, Yina Zhang, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Shaoting Du
The rational use and environmental security of chiral pesticides has gained the interest of many researchers. The enantioselective effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on oxidative stress in Scenedesmus obliquus were determined in this study. Stronger green fluorescence was observed in response to S-metolachlor treatment than to Rac-metolachlor treatment, suggesting that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were stimulated by S-metolachlor. ROS levels following S-metolachlor treatment were 1.92-, 8.31-, and 1.08-times higher than those observed following Rac-metolachlor treatment at 0...
January 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102307/corrigendum-nanoimaging-granule-dynamics-and-subcellular-structures-in-activated-mast-cells-using-soft-x-ray-tomography
#7
Huan-Yuan Chen, Dapi Meng-Lin Chiang, Zi-Jing Lin, Chia-Chun Hsieh, Gung-Chian Yin, I-Chun Weng, Peter Guttmann, Stephan Werner, Katja Henzler, Gerd Schneider, Lee-Jene Lai, Fu-Tong Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101374/arginine-methylation-of-usp9x-promotes-its-interaction-with-tdrd3-and-its-anti-apoptotic-activities-in-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Nithya Narayanan, Zhihao Wang, Ling Li, Yanzhong Yang
The Tudor domain-containing proteins are characterized by their specific interactions with methylated protein motifs, including methyl-arginines and methyl-lysines. The Tudor domain-containing protein 3 (TDRD3) is one of the major methyl-arginine effector molecules that recognizes methylated arginine residues on histones and the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, and activates transcription. However, majority of the cellular TDRD3 localizes to the cytoplasm and its functions there are still elusive. Here, we have identified ubiquitin-specific protease 9 X-linked (USP9X) as a TDRD3-interacting protein by GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#9
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100639/munc13-4-functions-as-a-ca2-sensor-for-homotypic-secretory-granule-fusion-to-generate-endosomal-exocytic-vacuoles
#10
Sang Su Woo, Declan J James, Thomas F J Martin
Munc13-4 is a Ca(2+)-dependent SNARE- and phospholipid-binding protein that localizes to and primes secretory granules (SGs) for Ca(2+)-evoked secretion in various secretory cells. Studies in mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells provides direct evidence that Munc13-4 with its two Ca(2+)-binding C2 domains functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for SG exocytosis. Unexpectedly, Ca(2+) stimulation also generated large (>2.4 μm diameter) Munc13-4(+)/Rab7(+)/Rab11(+) endosomal vacuoles. Vacuole generation involved the homotypic fusion of Munc13-4(+)/Rab7(+) SGs followed by a merge with Rab11(+) endosomes, and depended on Ca(2+) binding to Munc13-4...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100223/surface-attachment-promoted-by-the-actomyosin-system-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-efficient-gliding-motility-and-invasion
#11
Jamie A Whitelaw, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Simon Gras, Gurman S Pall, Jacqueline M Leung, Aoife Heaslip, Saskia Egarter, Nicole Andenmatten, Shane R Nelson, David M Warshaw, Gary E Ward, Markus Meissner
BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites employ a unique form of movement, termed gliding motility, in order to invade the host cell. This movement depends on the parasite's actomyosin system, which is thought to generate the force during gliding. However, recent evidence questions the exact molecular role of this system, since mutants for core components of the gliding machinery, such as parasite actin or subunits of the MyoA-motor complex (the glideosome), remain motile and invasive, albeit at significantly reduced efficiencies...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100031/impact-of-melatonin-receptor-signaling-on-zeitgeber-time-dependent-changes-in-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-the-adult-murine-hippocampus
#12
Michaela Fredrich, Mareike Hampel, Kay Seidel, Elmar Christ, Horst-Werner Korf
The hippocampus is subjected to diurnal/circadian rhythms on both the morphological and molecular levels. Certain aspects of cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus are regulated by melatonin and accompanied by apoptosis to ensure proper tissue maintenance and function. The present study investigated Zeitgeber time (ZT)-dependent changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in the adult murine hippocampus and their regulation by melatonin receptor type1 and type2 (MT1/2)-mediated signaling. Adult melatonin-proficient C3H/HeN mice and melatonin-proficient (C3H/HeN) mice with targeted deletion of MT1/2 were adapted to a 12-hours light, 12-hours dark photoperiod and were sacrificed at ZT00, ZT06, ZT12, and ZT18...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099120/the-clinical-significance-of-platelet-microparticle-associated-micrornas
#13
Patrick Provost
Circulating blood platelets play a central role in the maintenance of hemostasis. They adhere to subendothelial extracellular matrix proteins that become exposed upon vessel wall damage, which is followed by platelet activation, further platelet recruitment, platelet aggregation and formation of an occlusive, or non-occlusive, platelet thrombus. Platelets host a surprisingly diverse transcriptome, which is comprised of ~9500 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and different classes of non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, as well as a significant repertoire of proteins that contribute to their primary (adhesion, aggregation, granule secretion) and alternative (RNA transfer, mRNA translation, immune regulation) functions...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098908/protective-effects-of-ethyl-pyruvate-on-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibition-of-autophagy-in-neutrophils
#14
Qingteng Zhu, Hui Wang, Hairong Wang, Yong Luo, Yang Yu, Qirong Du, Aihua Fei, Shuming Pan
Among a number of clinical factors, bacterial infection is one of the most common causes of acute lung injury (ALI), a serious complication that carries a high risk of mortality (~40%). During the process of ALI, intense local and systemic inflammation is elicited, which exacerbates the injury. Neutrophil infiltration into airspace is observed in early stage of ALI, and is required for the full development of ALI through an array of mechanisms, including the release of granule contents and the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, due to the overactivation of complement and cytokines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098567/multiple-enlarged-lymph-nodes-in-axilla-a-case-report-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#15
Muatasim Noorelahi, Rana Mahmood
: We present the case of a 59-year-old man with a growing mass in his left axillary area. A biopsy and immunostainings demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma, which is Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). The disease is characterised by neurosecretory granules in tumor cells. MCC is a rare entity. The disease is predominantly seen in the inguinal region or the axilla and typically found incidentally. It presents clinically as multiple lymph nodes enlargement. Yet controversy exists regarding treatment modality of MCC...
January 16, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098245/natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-1-in-mouse-unk-cell-maturation-and-function
#16
A M Felker, B A Croy
Early and midgestational decidua of mice genetically ablated for expression of the natural killer (NK) cell natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR; Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp) mice) shows restricted angiogenesis and atypically small uterine (u)NK cells . We hypothesized that NCR1 inactivation disturbs maturation and angiokine production by uterine natural killer (uNK) cells. Using histological and morphometric approaches, we observed that Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp) but not control C57BL/6 (B6) implantation sites sustain immature, non-granulated uNK cells into midpregnancy...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097666/understanding-external-cervical-resorption-patterns-in-endodontically-treated-teeth
#17
M Mavridou, E Hauben, M Wevers, E Schepers, L Bergmans, P Lambrechts
AIM: To understand the pattern of external cervical resorption (ECR) in endodontically treated teeth. To compare characteristics and mechanisms of ECR in root filled teeth with those established in teeth with vital pulps. METHODOLOGY: Seven cases of endodontically treated permanent teeth displaying ECR were investigated. ECR diagnosis was based on clinical findings and radiographic examination with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The extracted teeth were further analysed by a nano-focus computed tomographic (nano-CT) system, hard tissue histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 18, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096534/novel-therapeutic-approach-to-improve-hematopoiesis-in-low-risk-mds-by-targeting-mdscs-with-the-fc-engineered-cd33-antibody-bi-836858
#18
E A Eksioglu, X Chen, K-H Heider, B Rueter, K L McGraw, A A Basiorka, M Wei, A Burnette, P Cheng, J Lancet, R Komrokji, J Djeu, A List, S Wei
We recently reported that the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), defined as CD33(+)HLA-DR(-)Lin(-), plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In particular, CD33 is strongly expressed in MDSC isolated from patients with MDS where it plays an important role in MDSC-mediated hematopoietic suppressive function through its activation by S100A9. Therefore, we tested whether blocking this interaction with a fully human, Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody against CD33 (BI 836858) suppresses CD33-mediated signal transduction and improves the bone marrow microenvironment in MDS...
January 18, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096475/stress-specific-differences-in-assembly-and-composition-of-stress-granules-and-related-foci
#19
Anaïs Aulas, Marta M Fay, Shawn M Lyons, Christopher A Achorn, Nancy Kedersha, Paul Anderson, Pavel Ivanov
Cells have developed different mechanisms to respond to stress, including the formation of cytoplasmic foci known as stress granules (SGs). SGs are dynamic and formed as a result of stress-induced inhibition of translation. Despite enormous interest in SGs due to their contribution to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, many aspects of SG formation are poorly understood. SGs induced by different stresses are generally assumed to be uniform, although some studies suggest that different SG subtypes and SG-like cytoplasmic foci exist...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096412/transmembrane-protein-108-is-required-for-glutamatergic-transmission-in-dentate-gyrus
#20
Hui-Feng Jiao, Xiang-Dong Sun, Ryan Bates, Lei Xiong, Lei Zhang, Fang Liu, Lei Li, Hong-Sheng Zhang, Shun-Qi Wang, Ming-Tao Xiong, Mihir Patel, Alexis M Stranahan, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Bao-Ming Li, Lin Mei
Neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG) is critical for spatial coding, learning memory, and emotion processing. Although DG dysfunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, underlying pathological mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that transmembrane protein 108 (Tmem108), a novel schizophrenia susceptibility gene, is highly enriched in DG granule neurons and its expression increased at the postnatal period critical for DG development. Tmem108 is specifically expressed in the nervous system and enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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