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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807605/adjuvant-hpv-vaccination-for-anal-cancer-prevention-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-time-is-now
#1
Ashish A Deshmukh, Scott B Cantor, Elisabeth Fenwick, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Alan G Nyitray, Elizabeth A Stier, Stephen E Goldstone, Timothy Wilkin, Jagpreet Chhatwal
IMPORTANCE: Outcomes of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), a precursor to anal cancer, remain uncertain. Emerging evidence shows that post HSIL treatment adjuvant quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination improves the effectiveness of treatment. However, no recommendations exist regarding the use of qHPV vaccine as an adjuvant form of therapy. Our objective was to determine whether post-treatment adjuvant vaccination should be adopted in HIV-infected MSM (individuals at highest risk for anal cancer) on the basis of cost-effectiveness determined using existing evidence or whether future research is needed...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802802/nodal-stage-migration-and-prognosis-in-anal-cancer-a-systematic-review-meta-regression-and-simulation-study
#2
Hema Sekhar, Marcel Zwahlen, Sven Trelle, Lee Malcomson, Rohit Kochhar, Mark P Saunders, Matthew Sperrin, Marcel van Herk, David Sebag-Montefiore, Matthias Egger, Andrew G Renehan
BACKGROUND: In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), lymph node positivity (LNP) indicates poor prognosis for survival and is central to radiotherapy planning. Over the past three decades, LNP proportion has increased, mainly reflecting enhanced detection with newer imaging modalities; a process known as nodal stage migration. If accompanied by constant T stage distributions, prognosis for both lymph node-positive and lymph node-negative groups may improve without any increase in overall survival for individual patients; a paradox termed the Will Rogers phenomenon...
August 9, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802801/nodal-status-and-survival-in-anal-cancer
#3
Rodrigo Oliva Perez, Guilherme Pagin São Julião, Bruna Borba Vailati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796730/squamous-cancers-of-the-rectum-demonstrate-poorer-survival-and-increased-need-for-salvage-surgery-compared-with-squamous-cancers-of-the-anus
#4
Audrey S Kulaylat, Christopher S Hollenbeak, David B Stewart
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796729/postoperative-chemoradiotherapy-after-local-resection-for-high-risk-t1-to-t2-low-rectal-cancer-results-of-a-single-arm-multi-institutional-phase-ii-clinical-trial
#5
Takeshi Sasaki, Yoshinori Ito, Masayuki Ohue, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Takaya Kobatake, Masaaki Ito, Yoshihiro Moriya, Norio Saito
BACKGROUND: After treatment with local excision for TNM stage I low rectal cancer, the risk of local recurrence is not only high for T2 lesions but also for T1 lesions with features of massive invasion to the submucosal layer and/or lymphovascular invasion. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy combined with local excision in the treatment of T1 to T2 low rectal cancer. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, single-arm, phase II trial...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789853/targeted-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-for-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-australia-yields-significant-population-benefits-and-is-cost-effective
#6
Lei Zhang, David G Regan, Jason J Ong, Manoj Gambhir, Eric P F Chow, Huachun Zou, Matthew Law, Jane Hocking, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for young (15-26) men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We developed a compartmental model to project HPV epidemic trajectories in MSM for three vaccination scenarios: a boys program, a targeted program for young MSM only and the combination of the two over 2017-2036. We assessed the gain in quality-adjusted-life-years (QALY) in 190,000 Australian MSM...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789851/antibody-persistence-and-evidence-of-immune-memory-at-5years-following-administration-of-the-9-valent-hpv-vaccine
#7
Ana Guevara, Robinson Cabello, Linn Woelber, Edson Duarte Moreira, Elmar Joura, Olaf Reich, Christine Shields, Misoo C Ellison, Amita Joshi, Alain Luxembourg
BACKGROUND: The 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine was developed to prevent infection and disease related to 9 HPV types (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) which cause approximately 90% of cervical cancers, HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers, and genital warts worldwide. In a pivotal efficacy study, the 9vHPV vaccine prevented infection and disease due to the 9 vaccine types. Duration of protection remains to be determined. Vaccines that induce long-term protection are generally characterized by the generation of immune memory...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789630/moderate-endurance-training-marathon-training-effects-on-immunologic-and-metabolic-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-42-km-cologne-project
#8
Stefan Schlabe, Martin Vogel, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Christian Körner, Klara Brixius, Jan-Christian Wasmuth
BACKGROUND: Improved treatment options of HIV have resulted in regular physical activities of many HIV-infected patients. However, data on effects of sports in HIV-patients are scarce. METHODS: 21 HIV-infected persons were monitored prospectively while preparing for a marathon run. Multiple parameters with regard to immunology, quality of life and metabolism were measured at 4 time points (at baseline 1 year before the marathon run, 3 and 6 months after beginning of training, and immediately before marathon)...
August 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778099/predictive-clinical-model-of-tumor-response-after-chemoradiation-in-rectal-cancer
#9
Marisa D Santos, Cristina Silva, Anabela Rocha, Carlos Nogueira, Fernando Castro-Poças, António Araujo, Eduarda Matos, Carina Pereira, Rui Medeiros, Carlos Lopes
Survival improvement in rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is achieved only if pathological response occurs. Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG) proved to be a valid system to measure nCRT response. The ability to predict tumor response before treatment may significantly have impact the selection of patients for nCRT in rectal cancer. The aim is to identify potential predictive pretreatment factors for Mandard response and build a clinical predictive model design. 167 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were treated with nCRT and curative surgery...
July 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770514/pharmacotherapy-of-anal-cancer
#10
Jane E Rogers, Cathy Eng
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA), among other malignancies, is associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV) and its incidence continues to rise. Anal SCCA will likely remain an existing healthcare concern given compliance issues with the HPV vaccination seen in the US. Localized disease is predominantly treated with standard of care (SOC) definitive chemoradiation that has remained unchanged for decades. Clinical and molecular prognostic factors have emerged to characterize patients unresponsive to SOC, revealing the need for an alternate approach...
August 2, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766076/multicenter-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-anastomotic-leakage-after-middle-and-low-rectal-cancer-resection-without-diverting-stoma-a-retrospective-study-of-319-consecutive-patients
#11
Wei Zhang, Zheng Lou, Qizhi Liu, Ronggui Meng, Haifeng Gong, Liqiang Hao, Peng Liu, Ge Sun, Jun Ma, Wei Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection for middle and low rectal cancer in order to help surgeons to decide which patients could benefit from a diverting stoma. METHODS: Data on 319 patients having a middle and low rectal cancer resection with anastomosis between May 2011 and October 2015 from two hospitals were included in the study. The analysis included the following variables: patient-related variables (gender, age, diabetes mellitus, ASA score, preoperative radiochemotherapy, body mass index, blood hemoglobin, and serum albumin level), tumor-related variables (K-ras status, distance of tumor from the anal verge, histopathologic grade, pathological T stage, pathological N stage, pathological M stage, TNM stage, and tumor size), and surgery-related variables (laparoscopic or open surgery, blood loss, and operative time)...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764707/delayed-anastomotic-leakage-following-laparoscopic-intersphincteric-resection-for-lower-rectal-cancer-report-of-four-cases-and-literature-review
#12
Masayoshi Iwamoto, Kenji Kawada, Koya Hida, Suguru Hasegawa, Yoshiharu Sakai
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most dreadful postoperative complications because it can result in increased morbidity and mortality as well as poorer long-term prognosis. Although most studies of AL limited their investigation time to a period of 30 days postoperatively, only a few studies have shown that AL can occur after that period. Here, we report four patients of rectal cancer with delayed AL following laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR) and conduct a literature review on delayed AL...
August 1, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755450/men-s-perspectives-on-cancer-prevention-behaviours-associated-with-hpv
#13
Serena Fitzgerald, Nicola Cornally, Josephine Hegarty
BACKGROUND: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the diagnosis of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Evidence indicates that correct condom use in addition to obtaining the HPV vaccine provides the greatest protection from HPV infections. AIM: To explore young male's beliefs and behavioural intention in relation to receiving the HPV vaccine and using a condom correctly and consistently for sexual contact. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour was conducted with male participants (n=359, 18-28 years) who completed an online survey...
July 28, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749860/anal-pap-tests-to-decrease-anal-cancer-burden-in-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Courtney DuBois Shihabuddin
Usually HPV related, the cancer is increasingly common in this population.
August 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747781/targeting-phosphorylation-of-stat3-delays-tumor-growth-in-hpv-negative-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-mouse-model
#15
Lin-Lin Bu, Yi-Cun Li, Guang-Tao Yu, Jian-Feng Liu, Wei-Wei Deng, Wen-Feng Zhang, Lu Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
Although conventional chemoradiotherapy is effective for most anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) patients, HPV-negative ASCC patients respond poorly to this treatment and new therapeutic approach is required. Our group has previously established an HPV-negative ASCC mouse model and demonstrated that signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) is hyper-activated in the model. Here, we show that in vivo inhibition of STAT3 by S3I-201 effectively delays tumor growth in ASCC mouse model indicated by significantly smaller tumor size and burden in the treatment group compared with control group at the same point...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746085/impact-of-screening-and-antiretroviral-therapy-on-anal-cancer-incidence-in-hiv-positive-msm
#16
Nello Blaser, Barbara Bertisch, Roger D Kouyos, Alexandra Calmy, Heiner C Bucher, Matthias Cavassini, Janne Estill, Olivia Keiser, Matthias Egger
BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-positive MSM. We modeled the impact of screening strategies and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) coverage on anal cancer incidence in Switzerland. METHODS: Individual-based, dynamic simulation model parameterized with Swiss HIV Cohort Study and literature data. We assumed all men to be human papillomavirus infected. CD4 cell count trajectories were the main predictors of anal cancer. From 2016 we modeled cART coverage either as below 100% (corresponding to 2010-2015) or as 100%, and the following four screening strategies: no screening, yearly anal cytology (Papanicolaou smears), yearly anoscopy and targeted anoscopy 5 years after CD4 count dropped below 200 cells/μl...
August 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745796/safety-and-efficacy-evaluation-of-laparoscopy-in-colorectal-cancer-with-liver-metastasis
#17
M-F Ye, G-G Xu, J-F Gu, Q-L Zhou, F-Q Lin, K-L Tao, F Tao
OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and efficacy of simultaneous completion of colorectal cancer resection and liver metastasis resection by total laparoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the observation group, 40 patients with colorectal cancer combined with liver metastasis (CRCLM) were selected to receive total laparoscopic surgery. At the same time, 40 cases were selected for laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer and hepatic resection as control group. RESULTS: The outcomes of the two methods in the treatment of CRCLM were compared...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745699/-sacral-resection-in-surgical-treatment-of-locally-advanced-primary-and-recurrent-rectal-and-anal-cancer-short-term-outcomes
#18
P V Tsarkov, S K Efetov, L V Sidorova, I A Tulina
AIM: To assess safety of rectum removal with distal sacral resection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The short-term results of surgical treatment of primary and recurrent locally advanced rectal and anal cancer with sacral fixation have been analyzed. 32 patients underwent combined operations with sacral resection at the level of S2-S5. In 12 patients only one point of tumor fixation (F1) was revealed, 10 patients had two points of fixation (F2), three patients had three fixation points (F3) and in 7 cases the tumor was fixed to four points (F4) of fixation to different pelvic structures...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742696/transanal-versus-transabdominal-minimally-invasive-completion-proctectomy-with-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-comparative-study
#19
Anthony de Buck van Overstraeten, Anders Mark-Christensen, Karin A Wasmann, Vivian P Bastiaenen, Christianne J Buskens, Albert M Wolthuis, Koen Vanbrabant, André D'hoore, Willem A Bemelman, Anders Tottrup, Pieter J Tanis
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare surgical outcome of transanal ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (ta-IPAA) with transabdominal minimal invasive approach in ulcerative colitis (UC), using the comprehensive complication index (CCI). BACKGROUND: Recent evolutions in rectal cancer surgery led to transanal dissection of the rectum resulting in a better exposure of the distal rectum and presumed better outcome. The same approach was introduced for patients with UC, resulting in decreased invasiveness...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740921/long-term-outcomes-and-toxicities-of-a-large-cohort-of-anal-cancer-patients-treated-with-dose-painted-imrt-per-rtog-0529
#20
Devarati Mitra, Theodore S Hong, Nora Horick, Brent Rose, Lorraine N Drapek, Lawrence S Blaszkowsky, Jill N Allen, Eunice L Kwak, Janet E Murphy, Jeffrey W Clark, David P Ryan, James C Cusack, Liliana G Bordeianou, David L Berger, Jennifer Y Wo
PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes and toxicities of the largest cohort to date of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma uniformly treated with concurrent chemoradiation using dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) according to RTOG 0529. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 99 eligible patients with anal cancer who were treated at our institution with definitive chemoradiation using DP-IMRT between 2005 and 2015 per RTOG 0529 dosing guidelines...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
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