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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923228/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-anal-self-sampling-for-human-papillomavirus-screening-in-hiv-infected-patients
#1
Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Amelie Menard, Philippe Colson, Andreas Stein
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals. METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection...
December 7, 2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923035/biomarkers-in-anal-cancer-from-biological-understanding-to-stratified-treatment
#2
Christopher M Jones, Vicky Goh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Duncan C Gilbert
Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922858/hiv-hpv-and-microbiota-partners-in-crime
#3
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Emilia Vásquez-Domínguez, José Antonio Pérez-Molina, Talía Sainz, Amparo de Benito, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya, María José Gosalbes, Santiago Moreno
Altered interplay between gut mucosa and dysbiotic bacteria during HIV infection seems to fuel chronic immune dysfunction and might explain the excess rates of HPV-associated anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show in HIV-infected MSM undergoing screening for HPV-related cancer that specific fecal and mucosal bacteria are able to predict the existence of precancerous anal lesions. If confirmed, these bacterial biomarkers could be exploited either as diagnostic tools or therapeutic targets.
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922853/heart-sink-topics-in-sexually-transmitted-infections-vaccinations-anal-cancer-screening-and-overlapping-infection-epidemics-in-eastern-europe
#4
Karen E Rogstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919575/a-prospective-algorithm-to-reduce-anastomotic-leaks-after-rectosigmoid-resection-for-gynecologic-malignancies
#5
E Kalogera, C C Nitschmann, S C Dowdy, W A Cliby, C L Langstraat
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether a standardized protocol for temporary bowel diversion after rectosigmoid resection (RSR) for cytoreduction can reduce the rate of anastomotic leak (AL). METHODS: A prospective quality improvement project for patients undergoing RSR during debulking surgery from 07/2013 to 01/2016 was conducted. Patients with any of the following underwent temporary diversion: preoperative albumin ≤3.0g/dL, prior pelvic radiation, RSR plus additional large bowel resection (LBR), anastomosis (AS) ≤6cm from the anal verge, failed leak test or contamination of the pelvis with stool...
December 2, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917295/circulating-human-papillomavirus-dna-detected-using-droplet-digital-pcr-in-the-serum-of-patients-diagnosed-with-early-stage-human-papillomavirus-associated-invasive-carcinoma
#6
Emmanuelle Jeannot, Véronique Becette, Maura Campitelli, Marie-Ange Calméjane, Emmanuelle Lappartient, Evelyne Ruff, Stéphanie Saada, Allyson Holmes, Dominique Bellet, Xavier Sastre-Garau
Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano-genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro-pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas...
October 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900043/second-look-surgery-following-hartmann-s-procedure-for-obstructive-left-sided-colorectal-cancer
#7
Naohito Beppu, Fumihiko Kimura, Nagahide Matsubara, Masashi Noda, Naohiro Tomita, Hidenori Yanagi, Naoki Yamanaka
The aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing second-look surgery following Hartmann's procedure for obstructive left-sided colorectal cancer (LSCC). All patients included in the present study had undergone radical surgery with Hartmann's procedure for obstructive LSCC. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended for all patients, and patients with no signs of recurrence following six months of surveillance were planned to undergo second-look surgery. The aim of second-look surgery was early detection of local recurrence and determination of the efficacy of laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897023/-current-knowledge-about-hpv-infection
#8
A Mladěnka, A Kubečková, J Sláma
OBJECTIVE: Overview of current data on HPV infection. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital in Ostrava, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General University Hospital in Prague. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes anogenital disorders...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892668/transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-in-the-treatment-of-large-rectal-adenomas
#9
Mario Guerrieri, Monica Ortenzi, Giovanni Lezoche, Stefano Mancini, Roberto Ghiselli
BACKGROUND: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique allowing to excise large rectal adenomas by local approach. This study shows the feasibility and results of a long term experience of TEM applied in this field. METHODS: A retrospective investigation was performed in patients affected by rectal adenomas (5-11 cm in diameter) who had undergone transanal endoscopic microsurgery from 1992 to 2015. A series of 207 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed for characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative results and long-term follow-up...
December 2016: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891533/screening-for-cancer-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#10
James J Goedert, H Dean Hosgood, Robert J Biggar, Howard D Strickler, Charles S Rabkin
Survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has greatly improved due to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). As infectious complications have declined, malignancy now accounts for over one-third of deaths among people living with HIV (PLWH). Based on practices in the general population, cancer screening of PLWH can decrease both morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review and consider directed approaches for colorectal, breast, cervical and lung cancer screening. Furthermore, routine physical examinations may detect lymphomas and skin, anal and oral cancers...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889041/anal-cancer-2016
#11
EDITORIAL
Nicholas J Petrelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889040/evolution-and-management-of-treatment-related-toxicity-in-anal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Ethan B Ludmir, Lisa A Kachnic, Brian G Czito
Over the past several decades, clinical trials have demonstrated improved disease-related outcomes in the definitive treatment of anal cancer. Although treatment with radiation and concurrent chemotherapy results in high rates of cure, significant acute and late toxicities are seen. This review focuses on the evolution of treatment-related toxicity for anal cancer. Management of these adverse effects is reviewed, as are future directions in anal cancer treatment and their impact on toxicity.
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889039/epidemiology-of-anal-canal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Valerie M Nelson, Al B Benson
Anal cancer is a rare malignancy, although its incidence has been increasingly in recent decades. This article discusses risk factors for anal cancer and how these risk factors affect the changing demographics of this disease.
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889038/treatment-of-the-primary-tumor-in-anal-canal-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Rob Glynne-Jones, Sheela Rao
Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C (MMC) remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Phase III trials over 2 decades have used combined radiation doses of 50 to 60 Gy with concurrent fluoropyrimidines, MMC, or cisplatin in various doses and schedules. Modern radiotherapy techniques allow the production of highly conformal plans, decreasing radiation doses to the organs at risk and ensuring a shorter overall treatment time without the need for treatment breaks...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889037/pathology-of-anal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Paulo M Hoff, Renata Coudry, Camila Motta Venchiarutti Moniz
Anal canal cancer is rather an uncommon disease but its incidence is increasing. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent primary anal neoplasm and can encompass a variety of morphologies. HPV infection has a key role in precancerous lesions and cancer development by the production of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Anal squamous precancerous lesions are now classified according to the same criteria and terminology as their cervical counterparts. The p16 expression by immunohistochemistry is a surrogate marker for human papilloma virus (HPV)...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889036/diagnosis-and-diagnostic-imaging-of-anal-canal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Kristen K Ciombor, Randy D Ernst, Gina Brown
Anal canal cancer is an uncommon malignancy but one that is often curable with optimal therapy. Owing to its unique location, histology, risk factors, and usual presentation, a careful diagnostic approach is warranted. This approach includes an excellent history and physical examination, including digital rectal examination, laboratory data, and comprehensive imaging. Anal cancer staging and formulation of a treatment plan depends on accurate imaging data. Modern radiographic techniques have improved staging quality and accuracy, and a thorough knowledge of anal anatomy is paramount to the optimal multidisciplinary treatment of this disease...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889034/human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-human-papillomavirus-and-anal-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Chia-Ching J Wang, Joseph Sparano, Joel M Palefsky
Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. Standard treatment has been fluorouracil and mitomycin (or cisplatin) plus radiation...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889032/metastatic-anal-cancer-and-novel-agents
#18
REVIEW
Van Morris, Cathy Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) represents an orphan disease. Although prior infection with human papilloma virus is associated with the development of SCCA, knowledge of this relationship has proven ineffective in identifying therapeutic agents that have activity in the management of metastatic SCCA. Combination chemotherapy with traditional cytotoxic agents has demonstrated efficacy in multiple small series. However, immune checkpoint blockade agents have demonstrated efficacy for patients with refractory metastatic SCCA; these agents hold promise in the horizon for patients with metastatic SCCA...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889031/surveillance-of-anal-canal-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Richard Adams
Anal squamous cell cancer is most frequently a locoregional disease that is amenable to curative therapy in a majority of fit patients. Complete response rates after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are good, with up to 75% of patients with no evidence of relapse on surveillance. Relapse is most frequently locoregional and is often amendable to salvage surgery with curative intent. Effective surveillance attempts to improve outcomes by identifying recurrent or persistent disease early, managing both acute and late toxicities, and offering reassurance to patients...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889030/locally-recurrent-disease-related-to-anal-canal-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Tarik Sammour, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, John M Skibber
Surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for patients with persistent disease or local recurrence after definitive chemoradiation therapy. Patients with local recurrence should be re-evaluated for evidence of metastatic disease using positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and the local anatomy should be delineated with MRI. Eligible patients should undergo tailored surgery with the aim of achieving an R0 resection. Management is best undertaken within a specialized multidisciplinary setting. Careful patient selection and shared decision making are paramount for achieving acceptable patient-centered outcomes...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
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