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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323757/the-performance-of-human-papillomavirus-biomarkers-in-predicting-anal-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-in-gay-and-bisexual-men
#1
Fengyi Jin, Jennifer M Roberts, Andrew E Grulich, I Mary Poynten, Dorothy A Machalek, Alyssa Cornall, Samuel Phillips, Deborah Ekman, Ross L Mcdonald, Richard J Hillman, David J Templeton, Annabelle Farnsworth, Suzanne M Garland, Christopher K Fairley, Sepehr N Tabrizi
BACKGROUND: We evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) biomarkers in prediction of anal histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Sydney, Australia. DESIGN: Baseline analysis of a three-year cohort study METHODS:: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC) is natural history study of anal HPV infection in GBM aged ≥35 years. All participants completed cytological and histological assessments...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320465/reduced-microbial-diversity-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-microbial-associations-with-increased-immune-activation
#2
Ling Ling Chua, Reena Rajasuriar, Mohamad Shafiq Azanan, Noor Kamila Abdullah, Mei San Tang, Soo Ching Lee, Yin Ling Woo, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Hany Ariffin, P'ng Loke
BACKGROUND: Adult survivors of childhood cancers such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have health problems that persist or develop years after cessation of therapy. These late effects include chronic inflammation-related comorbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying cause is poorly understood. RESULTS: We compared the anal microbiota composition of adult survivors of childhood ALL (N = 73) with healthy control subjects (N = 61)...
March 20, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317088/phase-i-trial-of-the-oral-smoothened-inhibitor-sonidegib-in-combination-with-paclitaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#3
A Stathis, D Hess, R von Moos, K Homicsko, G Griguolo, M Joerger, M Mark, C J Ackermann, S Allegrini, C V Catapano, A Xyrafas, M Enoiu, S Berardi, P Gargiulo, C Sessa
Purpose To establish a recommended phase II dose (RP2D) for the oral smoothened inhibitor sonidegib in combination with paclitaxel; secondary objectives include evaluation of safety, tolerability, markers of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and preliminary antitumor activity. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in cohorts of escalating sonidegib dose levels (400mg, 600mg and 800mg orally, once daily on days 1-28) in combination with paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 in 4-weekly cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were assessed using CTCAE v4...
March 20, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316766/colonic-laterally-spreading-tumor-diagnosed-as-an-early-cancer-and-treated-with-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Mohamad Abdelaziz, Motaz Sayed
Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as superficial lesions ≥10 mm in diameter that typically extend laterally rather than vertically along the colonic wall. Such lesions are now increasingly reported because of increased awareness and the introduction of chromo and magnifying colonoscopy. Although the clinicopathological characteristics and the efficacy of endoscopic management of LSTs have been defined in Japanese cohorts, reports from the Middle East are lacking where surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment...
January 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304143/anal-function-after-endoluminal-loco-regional-resection-by-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-and-radiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#5
Ivano Biviano, Andrea Balla, Danilo Badiali, Silvia Quaresima, Giancarlo D'Ambrosio, Emanuele Lezoche, Enrico Corazziari, Alessandro M Paganini
AIM: In patients with rectal cancer, surgery and chemo-radiotherapy may affect the anal sphincter function. Few studies evaluated the ano-rectal function after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (n-CRT) and/or Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-CRT and TEM on ano-rectal function. METHOD: Thirty-seven patients with rectal cancer underwent ano-rectal manometry and Wexner score for faecal incontinence at baseline, after n-CRT (cT2-T3N0 cancer) and at 4 and 12 months after surgery...
March 17, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301946/target-population-for-the-screening-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-and-anal-carcinoma-precursor-lesions-results-from-a-pilot-study-in-hiv-infected-males-with-sexual-risk-factors
#6
Carlos Pastor, Alfonso Cabello Úbeda
Ninety-five percent of precursor lesions -high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and anal intraepithelial neoplasms (AIN)- and their progression to squamous anal cancer (AC) are induced by high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) serotypes 16 and 18. Their incidence is higher particularly in HIV-infected male patients who have sex with other males (HIV-MSM) (144/100,000/patients/year).
March 17, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294676/-treatment-results-of-patients-with-rectum-tumor-in-a-city-hospital
#7
Zoltán Banai, Béla Lestár, Lajos Berczi, József Földi, Zsigmond Harkai, Tibor Karácsony
INTRODUCTION: Two hundred and three patients were operated on with rectal malignancy between 2007 and 2014 in our surgical department. METHODS: Of these, patients who had cancer within 16 cm of the anal verge were included. 73 patients received neoadjuvant treatment and 130 patients were treated with primary resection. The specimens were graded by the Dworak and the Rödel regression score system. RESULTS: We found strong response in 45 patients and pathologic complete remission in three patients...
March 2017: Magyar Sebészet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293746/long-standing-crohn-s-disease-and-its-implication-on-anal-squamous-cell-cancer-management
#8
Amy L Lightner, Sara B Moncrief, Thomas C Smyrk, John H Pemberton, Michael G Haddock, David W Larson, Eric J Dozois, Kellie L Mathis
BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is rare, accounting for only 1% of gastrointestinal malignancies. We sought to better understand management strategies for ASCC in the setting of Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: A retrospective chart review from 2001 to 2016 was conducted using ICD-9/10 codes for CD (555.9/K50) and ASCC (154.3/C44.520). Adult patients with a diagnosis of CD at the time of ASCC diagnosis were included. RESULTS: Seven patients (five female) were included with a median age of 50 years...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291401/pelvic-insufficiency-fracture-pif-incidence-in-patients-treated-with-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt-for-gynaecological-or-anal-cancer-single-institution-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Louis Bazire, Haoping Xu, Jean-Philippe Foy, Malika Amessis, Caroline Malhaire, Kim Cao, Anne De La Rochefordiere, Youlia M Kirova
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the results of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) incidence in patients with anal or gynaecological cancer treated by pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: The clinical and morphological (CT and/or pelvic MRI) characteristics of patients treated by IMRT at our institution between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. The global incidence of PIF after external beam radiotherapy and the impact of tumour site (gynaecological or anal cancer) were determined...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289834/the-impact-of-anastomotic-leakage-on-anal-function-following-intersphincteric-resection
#10
Mitsuru Yokota, Masaaki Ito, Yuji Nishizawa, Akihiro Kobayashi, Norio Saito
BACKGROUND: Data regarding anastomotic leakage (AL) following intersphincteric resection (ISR) are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the effect of AL on anal function in a retrospective review of patients who developed AL following ISR. METHODS: We evaluated 341 consecutive patients who underwent ISR between 2000 and 2012. Patients were classified into three groups: anastomotic dehiscence (AD), major AL (Clavien-Dindo grade III+), or control (<grade III or no AL)...
March 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280625/defining-the-distal-margin-of-rectal-cancer-for-surgical-planning
#11
Sumito Sato, Takashi Kato, Jun-Ichi Tanaka
Accurate measurement of the distal rectal tumor margin is essential in selecting the appropriate surgical procedure. However, there is no standard measurement method. The National Cancer Institute consensus group recommends use of the anal verge (AV) as a landmark, and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology recommends use of the anorectal ring (ARR). In addition, whether measurements should be made on double contrast barium enema (BE) radiographs or magnetic resonance (MR) images remains controversial...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280616/differences-in-symptom-occurrence-severity-and-distress-ratings-between-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancers-who-received-chemotherapy-alone-or-chemotherapy-with-targeted-therapy
#12
Ilufredo Y Tantoy, Anand Dhruva, Janine Cataldo, Alan Venook, Bruce A Cooper, Steven M Paul, Jon D Levine, Yvette P Conley, Frances Cartwright, Kathryn Lee, Fay Wright, Christine Miaskowski
BACKGROUND: Approximately 28% of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers will receive targeted therapy (TT) because of the associated increases in survival. Only four studies have examined the symptom experience of these patients. To date, no studies have evaluated for differences in symptom occurrence, severity, and distress between patients who received chemotherapy (CTX) alone (n=304) or CTX with TT (n=93). METHODS: Patients completed self-report questionnaires, approximately one week after they received CTX...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277833/capecitabine-in-locally-advanced-anal-cancer-do-we-need-randomised-evidence
#13
Li Chia Chong, Tabitha Healey, Tony Michele, Timothy J Price
Standard treatment for locally advanced anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and fluorouracil. However, infusional fluorouracil requires central venous catheter placement potentiating risk of infection and thrombosis. Capecitabine which is an oral tumor activated fluoropyrimidine carbamate is an established treatment alternative to infusional fluorouracil for patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Areas covered: This review examines and discusses the current evidence for substitution of Capecitabine for infusional fluorouracil in locally advanced anal cancer...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277671/enzyme-cleavable-polymeric-micelles-for-the-intracellular-de-livery-of-pro-apoptotic-peptides
#14
Hanna B Kern, Selvi Srinivasan, Anthony J Convertine, David Hockenbery, Oliver W Press, Patrick S Stayton
Peptides derived from the third Bcl-2 homology domain (BH3) renormalize apoptotic signaling by antagonizing pro-survival Bcl-2 family members. They serve as a model for potential peptide drugs that possess therapeutic activities but are limited by delivery barriers including short circulation half-lives and poor penetration into cells. A diblock polymeric micelle carrier for the BIM BH3 peptide was recently described that demonstrated anti-tumor activity in a B-cell lymphoma xenograft model [Berguig et al., Mol Ther, 2015]...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277103/hematologic-toxicity-in-anal-cancer-patients-during-combined-chemo-radiation-a-radiation-oncologist-perspective
#15
Pierfrancesco Franco, Francesca Arcadipane, Riccardo Ragona, Massimiliano Mistrangelo, Paola Cassoni, Patrizia Racca, Mario Morino, Gianmauro Numico, Umberto Ricardi
Hematologic toxicity is an important side effect occurring in patients affected with anal cancer, undergoing combined radio-chemotherapy, with consistent clinical meaningfulness. Areas covered: Since more than a half of bone marrow is comprised within the pelvic region, the radiation dose received by this functional compartment is crucial. Modern imaging modalities may provide a useful tool to identify bone marrow and new delivery technology may enhance the radiation oncologist's possibility to selectively spare these structures, potentially decreasing acute hematologic toxicity profile in this setting...
February 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275036/predictors-of-nonadherence-to-nccn-guideline-recommendations-for-the-management-of-stage-i-anal-canal-cancer
#16
Adam J Kole, John M Stahl, Henry S Park, Sajid A Khan, Kimberly L Johung
Background: Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is recommended by the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Anal Carcinoma for all patients with stage I anal canal cancer. Because these patients were not well represented in clinical trials establishing CRT as standard therapy, it is unclear whether NCCN recommendations are being closely followed for stage I disease. This study identified factors that predict for NCCN Guideline-concordant versus NCCN Guideline-discordant care. Methods: Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified patients diagnosed with anal canal carcinoma from 2004 to 2012 who received concurrent CRT (radiotherapy [RT] 45...
March 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272854/comparative-study-of-extralevator-vs-conventional-abdominoperineal-excision-in-a-single-centre-in-the-developing-world
#17
M Oostenbroek, E Coetzee, A Boutall, R Baigrie, P Goldberg
ABSTRACT: Abdominoperineal excision (APE) is used to resect cancers in the distal rectum and anus where sphincterpreserving surgery is not possible. It is associated with increased local recurrence rates compared to anterior resection. The extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) was developed to reduce local recurrence and was widely adopted without sound evidence. AIM: To compare the short-term (2 years) outcomes of patients managed with ELAPE to those with conventional APE in a single institution in a developing country...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271342/a-comparison-of-the-localization-of-rectal-carcinomas-according-to-the-general-rules-of-the-japanese-classification-of-colorectal-carcinoma-jccrc-and-western-guidelines
#18
Akira Tanaka, Sotaro Sadahiro, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Kazutake Okada, Gota Saito
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the localization of rectal cancers as classified according to the general rules of the Japanese classification of colorectal carcinoma (JCCRC) and also according to the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, which are based on rigid endoscopic measurements. METHODS: The medical records of patients scheduled to receive curative surgery for histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma during 2009-2015 were investigated (n = 230)...
March 7, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267274/utility-of-touch-imprint-cytology-in-the-preoperative-diagnosis-of-malignancy-in-low-resource-setting
#19
Amit Kumar Adhya, Ranjan Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) is a very rapid, cheap, and easy method used for the rapid evaluation of intraoperative specimens and post mortem cases. This study aims to evaluate its utility in preoperative diagnosis of cancer. METHODS: A total of 476 cases of suspected malignancy of different sites and different histological subtypes were studied. TIC was obtained in all the biopsies and the cytological findings were correlated with the corresponding biopsy diagnosis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy...
March 7, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255426/anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-a-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Joseph R Roberts, Lacey L Siekas, Andrew M Kaz
Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a premalignant lesion of the anal mucosa that is a precursor to anal cancer. Although anal cancer is relatively uncommon, rates of this malignancy are steadily rising in the United States, and among certain high risk populations the incidence of anal cancer may exceed that of colon cancer. Risk factors for AIN and anal cancer consist of clinical factors and behaviors that are associated with the acquisition and persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The strongest HPV-associated risk factors are HIV infection, receptive anal intercourse, and high risk sexual behavior...
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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