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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341150/effect-of-akt-activation-and-experimental-pharmacological-inhibition-on-responses-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#1
F C Koyama, C M Lopes Ramos, F Ledesma, V A F Alves, J M Fernandes, B B Vailati, G P São Julião, A Habr-Gama, J Gama-Rodrigues, R O Perez, A A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is one of the preferred initial treatment strategies for locally advanced rectal cancer. Responses are variable, and most patients still require surgery. The aim of this study was to identify molecular mechanisms determining poor response to CRT. METHODS: Global gene expression and pathway enrichment were assessed in pretreatment biopsies from patients with non-metastatic cT2-4 N0-2 rectal cancer within 7 cm of the anal verge...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340993/laparoscopic-assisted-modified-intersphincter-resection-for-ultralow-rectal-cancer
#2
Haiyang Zhou, Canping Ruan, Zhiguo Wang, Zhiqian Hu
BACKGROUND: Intersphincter resection (ISR) is considered to be a superior technique offering sphincter preservation in patients with ultralow rectal cancer.1 Because high-definition laparoscopy offers wider and clearer vision into the narrow pelvic cavity and intersphincteric space, ISR has been further refined.2 However, functional outcome after ISR has not been optimal. More than half of patients receiving ISR suffer partial or even complete anal incontinence.3 We therefore propose a laparoscopic-assisted modified ISR, with the aim of improving sphincter function following ISR...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337775/comparisons-of-rigid-proctoscopy-flexible-colonoscopy-and-digital-rectal-examination-for-determining-the-localization-of-rectal-cancers
#3
Akira Tanaka, Sotaro Sadahiro, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Kazutake Okada, Gota Saito
BACKGROUND: Rigid proctoscopy is considered essential for rectal tumor localization, although the current gold standard for detection of colorectal cancers is colonoscopy. The European Society for Medical Oncology Guidelines indicate that rigid and flexible endoscopies afford essentially identical results, although little evidence is yet available to support this. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of colonoscopy in identifying the location of rectal cancer and to compare the results with those of rigid proctoscopy and digital rectal examination...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337774/gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-during-pelvic-mri-contribution-to-patient-management-in-rectal-cancer
#4
Marina J Corines, Stephanie Nougaret, Martin R Weiser, Monika Khan, Marc J Gollub
BACKGROUND: Few publications exist regarding gadolinium-enhanced sequences in rectal MRI. None have evaluated its potential impact on patient management. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether gadolinium-enhanced sequences, including dynamic contrast enhancement, change radiologic interpretation and clinical management of rectal cancer. DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of 100 rectal MRIs (50 baseline and 50 postneoadjuvant treatment), both without and with gadolinium-enhanced sequences...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337772/salvage-surgery-for-locoregional-failure-in-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Glen R Guerra, Joseph C Kong, Maria-Pia Bernardi, Robert G Ramsay, Wayne A Phillips, Satish K Warrier, A Craig Lynch, Samuel Y Ngan, Alexander G Heriot
BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare cancer with a high cure rate, making research into the treatment of locoregional failure difficult. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to local treatment failure and determine the outcomes of patients undergoing local salvage resection. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a quaternary referral center...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337769/morbidity-following-coloanal-anastomosis-a-comparison-of-colonic-j-pouch-vs-straight-anastomosis
#6
Shaun Brown, David A Margolin, Laura K Altom, Heather Green, David E Beck, Brian R Kann, Charles B Whitlow, Herschel David Vargas
BACKGROUND: Low rectal tumors are often treated with sphincter-preserving resection followed by coloanal anastomosis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term complications following straight coloanal anastomosis vs colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis. DESIGN: Patients were identified who underwent proctectomy for rectal neoplasia followed by coloanal anastomosis in the 2008 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331245/outsmart-hpv-acceptability-and-short-term-effects-of-a-web-based-hpv-vaccination-intervention-for-young-adult-gay-and-bisexual-men
#7
Annie-Laurie McRee, Abigail Shoben, Jose A Bauermeister, Mira L Katz, Electra D Paskett, Paul L Reiter
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination are needed, particularly among populations at increased risk of HPV-related disease. We developed and pilot tested a web-based intervention, Outsmart HPV, to promote HPV vaccination among young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). METHODS: In 2016, we recruited a national sample (n = 150) of YGBM ages 18-25 in the United States who had not received any doses of HPV vaccine. Participants were randomized to receive either standard HPV vaccination information (control) or population-targeted, individually-tailored content (Outsmart HPV intervention)...
January 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330000/histotripsy-treatment-of-benign-prostatic-enlargement-using-the-vortx-rx-system-initial-human-safety-and-efficacy-outcomes
#8
T G Schuster, J T Wei, K Hendlin, R Jahnke, W W Roberts
OBJECTIVES: To assess clinical safety (primary) and efficacy (secondary) of histotripsy for treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) in a first-in human study. METHODS: Twenty-five male subjects with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), prostate size between 30 and 80 grams and no evidence of prostate cancer were enrolled at two sites in a prospective, single-arm study. Treatment consisted of acoustic energy delivery through the perineum with integrated real-time TRUS monitoring using the Vortx RX system...
January 9, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327306/strengthening-the-case-for-gender-neutral-and-the-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Justin M Hintze, James P O'Neill
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to highlight the benefits of gender-neutral and the nonavalent human papillomavirus vaccination. Human papillomavirus infection is the most commonly sexually transmitted disease and is known to cause several types of cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal. 5% of cancers every year are attributable to human papillomavirus infection, with cervical cancer the most common and oropharyngeal cancer estimated to surpass the incidence of cervical cancer by 2020...
January 11, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325033/cancer-risk-in-older-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-united-states
#10
Parag Mahale, Eric A Engels, Anna E Coghill, Amy R Kahn, Meredith S Shiels
Background: Cancer risk is increased in people living with HIV (PLWH). Improved survival has led to an aging of PLWH. We evaluated the cancer risk in older PLWH (age ≥50 years). Methods: We included data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1996-2012) and evaluated risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical, anal, lung, liver, oral cavity/pharyngeal, breast, prostate, and colon cancers in older PLWH compared to the general population by calculating the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs)...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324375/cancer-in-an-unexpected-site-post-pouch-surgery-for-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-fap
#11
Omar A Alwahbi, Alaa S Abduljabbar, Lucman A Anwer
INTRODUCTION: Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition characterized by multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps. FAP is the most common adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Restorative proctocolectomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure performed for patients suffering from FAP with different options for anastomosis, namely ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). The occurrence of adenomas is a common finding during follow up and surveillance post surgery for these patients...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321669/phenotypic-characteristics-of-colorectal-cancer-in-brca1-2-mutation-carriers
#12
Albert Grinshpun, Naama Halpern, Roy Zvi Granit, Ayala Hubert, Tamar Hamburger, Yael Laitman, Einat Shacham-Shmueli, Yehudit Peerless, Eitan Friedman, Tamar Peretz
Mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes were recently shown to be associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer. We characterized the largest cohort available of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with colorectal cancer. We analyzed 32 patients with lower gastrointestinal cancers and germline BRCA1/2 mutations from two large academic hospital registries; 91% of patients were of Ashkenazi ancestry, 78% were women, and 62.5% were carriers of BRCA1 gene mutations. A high percentage of colorectal tumors (34.5%) had a mucinous histology and were located atypically in the left colon...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316825/on-surmounting-the-barriers-to-hpv-vaccination-we-can-do-better
#13
Aria C Attia, Judith Wolf, Ana Nuñez
The major impediment to increased HPV vaccination coverage in young males and females is lack of health care provider recommendation. Despite its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, HPV vaccination in females (49.5%) and males (37.5%) ages 13 through 17 falls well below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Healthy People 2020 target of 80% coverage. Parents' willingness to vaccinate their child has been shown to be much higher when physicians share personal vaccination decisions for their own children as well as what other parents have done at that particular clinic...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315288/the-promise-of-immunotherapy-in-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-novel-approach-for-an-orphan-disease
#14
Benny Johnson, Cathy Eng
An estimated 8200 men and women in the United States will receive a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) in 2017. Although SCCA is rare, accounting for 2.6% of gastrointestinal cancers, its incidence rate has been steadily increasing over the last few decades in the United States and around the world. More than 90% of cases of SCCA occur in the context of prior human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To date, preventive vaccinations against HPV remain markedly underutilized. Most patients who have SCCA present with locoregional disease that is cured with chemoradiation...
December 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315090/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-anastomotic-failure-in-1594-patients-treated-by-transanal-total-mesorectal-excision-results-from-the-international-tatme-registry
#15
Marta Penna, Roel Hompes, Steve Arnold, Greg Wynn, Ralph Austin, Janindra Warusavitarne, Brendan Moran, George B Hanna, Neil J Mortensen, Paris P Tekkis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of anastomotic-related morbidity following Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME) and identify independent risk factors for failure. BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak and its sequelae are dreaded complications following gastrointestinal surgery. TaTME is a recent technique for rectal resection, which includes novel anastomotic techniques. METHODS: Prospective study of consecutive reconstructed TaTME cases recorded over 30 months in 107 surgical centers across 29 countries...
January 5, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313248/functional-outcomes-with-handsewn-versus-stapled-anastomoses-in-the-treatment-of-ultralow-rectal-cancer
#16
Lisa Ramage, Paul Mclean, Constantinos Simillis, Shengyang Qiu, Christos Kontovounisios, Emile Tan, Paris Tekkis
Adequate oncological outcomes have been demonstrated with rectal resection and handsewn coloanal anastomosis (CAA) in tumours in close proximity to the internal anal sphincter. Our aim was to assess functional differences between handsewn CAA and ultralow stapled anastomosis. Participants were identified from a single-surgeon series. Included participants underwent anorectal physiology testing of anal sphincter function, in addition to completion of several questionnaires: Wexner Incontinence Score (WIS); Birmingham Bowel, Bladder and Urinary Symptom Questionnaire (BBUSQ); Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) Score; SF36...
January 8, 2018: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313165/effectiveness-of-sacral-nerve-stimulation-in-fecal-incontinence-after-multimodal-oncologic-treatment-for-pelvic-malignancies-a-multicenter-study-with-2-year-follow-up
#17
M Schiano di Visconte, G A Santoro, N Cracco, G Sarzo, G Bellio, M Brunner, Z Cui, K E Matzel
BACKGROUND: To assess whether sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for severe fecal incontinence (FI) after radiotherapy (RT)/chemoRT (CRT) in combination with pelvic surgery. METHODS: A multicenter study was conducted on patients with FI that developed after multimodal therapy for pelvic tumors and was refractory to non-operative management, who were treated with SNS between November 2009 and November 2012. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed...
January 8, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312547/development-and-validation-of-a-machine-learning-based-predictive-model-to-improve-the-prediction-of-inguinal-status-of-anal-cancer-patients-a-preliminary-report
#18
Berardino De Bari, Mauro Vallati, Roberto Gatta, Laëtitia Lestrade, Stefania Manfrida, Christian Carrie, Vincenzo Valentini
Introduction: The role of prophylactic inguinal irradiation (PII) in the treatment of anal cancer patients is controversial. We developped an innovative algorithm based on the Machine Learning (ML) allowing the tailoring of the prescription of PII. Results: Once verified on the independent testing set, J48 showed the better performances, with specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy rates in predicting relapsing patients of 86.4%, 50.0% and 83.1% respectively (vs 36...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310590/oral-human-papillomavirus-dna-detection-in-hiv-positive-men-prevalence-predictors-and-co-occurrence-at-anal-site
#19
Alessandra Vergori, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Pierluca Piselli, Franca Del Nonno, Catia Sias, Federico Lupi, Daniele Lapa, Andrea Baiocchini, Claudia Cimaglia, Marco Gentile, Andrea Antinori, Maria Capobianchi, Adriana Ammassari
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive patients carry an increased risk of HPV infection and associated cancers. Therefore, prevalence and patterns of HPV infection at different anatomical sites, as well as theoretical protection of nonavalent vaccine should be investigated. Aim was to describe prevalence and predictors of oral HPV detection in HIV-positive men, with attention to nonavalent vaccine-targeted HPV types. Further, co-occurrence of HPV DNA at oral cavity and at anal site was assessed. METHODS: This cross-sectional, clinic-based study included 305 HIV-positive males (85...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308376/vaginal-stump-ligation-for-cervical-cancer
#20
Yanling Yang, Yang Liu, Guilin Li, Lei Li, Peng Geng, Hongjuan Song
Background: We aimed to investigate the effect of vaginal stump ligation in laparoscopic cervical cancer surgery on the prevention of cancer cell detachment. Methods: The study was conducted from 2010 to 2015, in Xuzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Jiangsu Province, China. Seventeen cases of laparoscopic surgery of cervical cancer in control group were observed, and the vaginal stump was irrigated with normal saline after the operation and the washing fluid was searched for cancer cells...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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