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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337450/contributory-injustice-in-psychiatry
#1
Alex James Miller Tate
I explain the notion of contributory injustice, a kind of epistemic injustice, and argue that it occurs within psychiatric services, affecting (at least) those who hear voices. I argue that individual effort on the part of clinicians to avoid perpetrating this injustice is an insufficient response to the problem; mitigating the injustice will require open and meaningful dialogue between clinicians and service user organisations, as well as individuals. I suggest that clinicians must become familiar with and take seriously concepts and frameworks for understanding mental distress developed in service user communities, such as Hearing Voices Network, and by individual service users...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334495/turn-an-ear-to-hear-how-hearing-impaired-listeners-can-exploit-head-orientation-to-enhance-their-speech-intelligibility-in-noisy-social-settings
#2
Jacques A Grange, John F Culling, Barry Bardsley, Laura I Mackinney, Sarah E Hughes, Steven S Backhouse
Turning an ear toward the talker can enhance spatial release from masking. Here, with their head free, listeners attended to speech at a gradually diminishing signal-to-noise ratio and with the noise source azimuthally separated from the speech source by 180° or 90°. Young normal-hearing adult listeners spontaneously turned an ear toward the speech source in 64% of audio-only trials, but a visible talker's face or cochlear implant (CI) use significantly reduced this head-turn behavior. All listener groups made more head movements once instructed to explore the potential benefit of head turns and followed the speech to lower signal-to-noise ratios...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329210/a-23-year-follow-up-of-a-male-with-hajdu-cheney-syndrome-due-to-notch2-mutation
#3
Alina T Midro, Beata Stasiewicz-Jarocka, Jan Borys, Kazimierz Kozłowski, Bożena Skotnicka, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Ewa Hubert, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Barbara Panasiuk, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Agnieszka Pollak, Piotr Stawiński, Rafał Skowroński, Rafał Płoski
We present a natural history of a 32-year-old man with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS), because of the de novo truncating mutation in the exon 34 of NOTCH2 (c.6424-6427delTCTG, p.Ser2142ArgfsX4), who has been followed up for a period of 23 years (between 9 and 32 years). During follow-up, we observed abnormalities of vision, hearing, voice, and progression of craniofacial features in the form of skeletal dysplasia with affected skull, dentition, spine, limbs, fingers, and toes. Low bone mineral density and history of fragility fractures also suggested primary osteoporosis being a clinical manifestation...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326368/childhood-trauma-dissociation-and-the-internal-eating-disorder-voice
#4
Matthew Pugh, Glenn Waller, Mirko Esposito
Many individuals diagnosed with eating disorders describe their disorder as being represented by an internal 'voice'. In line with cognitive models of voice-hearing, previous research has identified associations between voice appraisals and eating psychopathology in anorexia nervosa. Whether these findings generalise to other eating disorder subtypes remains unknown. The aetiology of the internal eating disorder voice also remains unclear. Traumatic-dissociative models of voice-hearing, which link such experiences to decontexualised material arising from early traumatic events, might also be relevant to eating disorder groups...
October 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311204/a-medical-pedagogy-of-mutual-suffering
#5
Arthur W Frank
Who's afflicted? Early in Nicole Piemonte's book Afflicted: How Vulnerability Can Heal Medical Education and Practice, she quotes an email from a physician whose voice sets the problem and tone. He describes himself as someone "who has intended well" but then "nearly burned out because of the insidious process of physician formation that left me a mess at the threshold of the suffering of other human beings." His confessional manifesto regrets "the sad things I have seen and done." His narrative then turns to redemption: "I was-pardon the sentiment-loved back into a good medical practice as a form of growing wisdom and care" (pp...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309769/can-listeners-hear-who-is-singing-the-role-of-listener-experience-in-singer-discrimination-across-pitch
#6
Molly L Erickson, Payton Phillips
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Previous research has shown that listeners are unable to identify who is singing across pitch when the voices are unfamiliar to them. Implementing a very short training period, however, greatly improves this ability, but only when the voices being compared are of different voice category. The objective of this study was to determine whether experienced listeners with highly developed knowledge of voice categories can more easily discriminate between singers across pitch...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300332/effects-of-comt-polymorphism-on-the-cortical-processing-of-vocal-pitch-regulation
#7
Siyun Zhang, Wenda Wang, Baofeng Zhang, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Recent evidence has shown that auditory-motor integration for speech production is influenced by cognitive functions such as working memory and attention, suggesting that speech motor control is likely modulated by mechanisms mediated by prefrontal regions. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene plays an important role in dopamine breakdown in the prefrontal cortex and has been associated with a variety of prefrontal cognitive functions. The present event-related potential study investigated the association between COMT ValMet polymorphism and auditory-motor processing of vocal feedback errors...
October 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299343/factors-affecting-sound-source-localization-in-children-with-simultaneous-or-sequential-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#8
Catherine Killan, Andrew Scally, Edward Killan, Catherine Totten, Christopher Raine
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the effect of interimplant interval and onset of profound deafness on sound localization in children with bilateral cochlear implants, controlling for cochlear implant manufacturer, age, and time since second implant. DESIGN: The authors conducted a retrospective, observational study using routinely collected clinical data. Participants were 127 bilaterally implanted children aged 4 years or older, tested at least 12 mo post- second implant...
October 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292085/does-mindfulness-help-people-adapt-to-the-experience-of-hearing-voices
#9
Louise Stephanie, Rossell Susan L, Toh Wei Lin, Scott Monique, Thomas Neil
Mindfulness-based interventions show promise in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. From a theoretical perspective, there may be several benefits of mindfulness for individuals who experience hearing voices. Related cross-sectional findings suggest mindfulness may protect against distress, disruption, negative beliefs, dysfunctional relational style and responding, and mood symptoms for individuals who hear voices. To extend on previous findings, this study aimed to identify whether mindful relating to voices predicted voice-related negative impacts (distress, disruption and resistance), when the influence of voice-topography and mood symptoms were controlled for...
September 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291381/diagnostic-yield-of-head-ct-in-pediatric-emergency-department-patients-with-acute-psychosis-or-hallucinations
#10
Alain Cunqueiro, Alejandra Durango, Daniel M Fein, Kenny Ye, Meir H Scheinfeld
BACKGROUND: Children presenting to the emergency department with acute psychosis or hallucinations sometimes undergo a head CT to evaluate for a causative lesion. The diagnostic yield of head CT in this scenario has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the yield for head CT in children with acute psychosis or hallucinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively searched the radiology report database over a 7.5-year period for head CT reports for pediatric emergency department patients using the following keywords: hallucination, psychosis, psychotic or "hearing voices...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287116/surgical-treatments-for-a-case-of-superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-associated-with-patulous-eustachian-tube
#11
Ryoukichi Ikeda, Hiromitsu Miyazaki, Masahiro Morita, Daisuke Yamauchi, Tetsuaki Kawase, Yukio Katori, Toshimitsu Kobayashi
OBJECTIVES: The patulous Eustachian tube (PET) and superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) have similarity in their symptoms and similar effects caused by positional changes, causing difficulty in the differentiation between the two disorders. This report describes a case of both SCDS and PET that was eventually successfully treated. METHODS: A 68-year-old man presented with hyperacusis to his own footsteps and gait disturbance. He had been diagnosed as PET two years before and had been treated by insertion of a silicone plug (Kobayashi plug) at the other hospital...
October 1, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286148/judgements-of-a-speaker-s-personality-are-correlated-across-differing-content-and-stimulus-type
#12
Gaby Mahrholz, Pascal Belin, Phil McAleer
It has previously been shown that first impressions of a speaker's personality, whether accurate or not, can be judged from short utterances of vowels and greetings, as well as from prolonged sentences and readings of complex paragraphs. From these studies, it is established that listeners' judgements are highly consistent with one another, suggesting that different people judge personality traits in a similar fashion, with three key personality traits being related to measures of valence (associated with trustworthiness), dominance, and attractiveness...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278864/the-effect-of-increased-cognitive-demand-on-auditory-processing-assessment
#13
Kathryn Hamlyn, Katie Welldon, Benjamin Clark, Willem van Steenbrugge, Sarosh Kapadia
BACKGROUND: Auditory processing (AP) is commonly regarded as the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system. However, the degree to which higher level cognitive processes are involved in AP or its disorders is contentious. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the effects of nonauditory cognitive processes on the various tests of AP in common clinical usage and thus on clinical diagnoses of auditory processing disorder. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of increased cognitive demand, generated by using a dual-task paradigm, on performance on different AP tests and types of AP tests in common clinical usage...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267381/-beliefs-and-distress-related-to-hearing-voices-the-german-version-of-the-beliefs-about-voices-questionnaire-revised-bavq-r
#14
Andrea Gmeiner, Jessica Aslan, Amy Gaglia, Tamara Rumpold, Beate Schrank, Stefanie Süßenbacher, Michaela Amering
BACKGROUND: Beliefs about voices are a determining factor with regards to distress, coping and therapeutic interventions in verbal auditory hallucinations. Aim of the present study was to use and validate the internationally well established Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire-Revised (BAVQ-R) in a German translation with people suffering from schizophrenic psychoses. METHODS: 93 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and current verbal auditory hallucinations completed the BAVQ-R autonomously for their dominant voice...
September 28, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266773/fifteen-minute-consultation-not-the-whole-story-considering-children-s-spirituality-and-advance-care-planning
#15
Mark Clayton, Jan Aldridge
In a society of diverse views, faiths and beliefs, what can paediatric palliative care contribute to our understanding of children's spirituality? By failing to recognise and respond to their spirituality in this work, we risk missing something of profound importance to children and their families. We overlook their search for wholeness in the absence of cure and fall short of offering truly holistic care. This paper explores how developments in advance care planning and related documentation are addressing these issues...
September 28, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253717/forgotten-silent-and-overruled-hearing-the-voice-of-the-nursing-home-patient
#16
Andrea Williams, Amber Cadick
As the population ages, more Americans are moving into nursing homes/long-term care facilities. Per Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2017 guidelines, family medicine residents are required to gain experience and competence working in long-term care facilities; however, this unique environment poses several challenges for residents to hear the wishes of their patients over the demands of the patient's medical care team and family members. Also, many patients in long-term care facilities have sensory impairments (e...
November 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252734/hearing-the-patient-voice-patients-as-educators-in-medical-education
#17
Hedy S Wald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250774/a-convolutional-neural-network-smartphone-app-for-real-time-voice-activity-detection
#18
Abhishek Sehgal, Nasser Kehtarnavaz
This paper presents a smartphone app that performs real-time voice activity detection based on convolutional neural network. Real-time implementation issues are discussed showing how the slow inference time associated with convolutional neural networks is addressed. The developed smartphone app is meant to act as a switch for noise reduction in the signal processing pipelines of hearing devices, enabling noise estimation or classification to be conducted in noise-only parts of noisy speech signals. The developed smartphone app is compared with a previously developed voice activity detection app as well as with two highly cited voice activity detection algorithms...
2018: IEEE Access: Practical Innovations, Open Solutions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247111/can-t-you-hear-them-the-science-and-significance-of-hearing-voices-by-simon-mccarthy-jones-jessica-kingsley-publishers-2017-%C3%A2-13-99-pb-376-pp-isbn-9781785922565
#19
Femi Oyebode
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237901/female-genital-mutilation-in-the-uk-where-are-we-where-do-we-go-next-involving-communities-in-setting-the-research-agenda
#20
S Dixon, K Agha, F Ali, L El-Hindi, B Kelly, L Locock, N Otoo-Oyortey, S Penny, E Plugge, L Hinton
Background: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is all practices involving cutting, alteration or injury to the female genitalia for non-medical reasons. It is a form of violence against women and children, with no benefits and many harms. In 2014, the UK Government committed to working to eliminate FGM. Steps taken towards this aim included creation of educational and safeguarding resources for professionals, and legislative changes including a mandatory reporting duty for professionals in England and Wales (where if a girl under 18 discloses or is found on examination to have FGM then the professional is mandated to report this to the police), and an FGM Enhanced Dataset applicable to NHS organisations in England requiring the submission of personal data about women and girls who have had FGM to NHS Digital...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
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