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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544051/depression-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-delusions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-different-patterns-of-association-with-prefrontal-gray-and-white-matter-volume
#1
Sara Siddi, Christian Nuñez, Carl Senior, Antonio Preti, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion, Christian Stephan-Otto
Structural brain abnormalities, including decreased gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume, have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. These decrements were found to be associated with positive and negative symptoms, but affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) were poorly explored. We hypothesized that abnormalities in GM and WM volume might also be related to affective symptoms. GM and WM volumes were calculated from high-resolution T1 structural images acquired from 24 patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls, and the associations of positive, negative, and affective symptoms with the brain volumes that showed significant reduction in patients were investigated...
December 4, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535890/the-phenomenon-of-hearing-voices-not-just-psychotic-hallucinations-a-psychological-literature-review-and-a-reflection-on-clinical-and-social-health
#2
Antonio Iudici, Maria Quarato, Jessica Neri
The phenomenon of hearing voices is currently a much-discussed topic, both in the field of research and in the field of care services. The majority of people who report "hearing voices" do not subsequently receive services or receive a diagnosis of psychopathology. This topic raises questions for professionals in the health field about the lack of tools that can help illuminate the phenomenon. The purposes of this work are (a) to highlight the psychological studies that approach the phenomenon in a non-psychopathological way and (b) to determine which concepts could aid the comprehension of the phenomenon...
December 10, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534994/age-effects-on-concurrent-speech-segregation-by-onset-asynchrony
#3
Maria V Stuckenberg, Chaitra V Nayak, Bernd T Meyer, Christoph Völker, Volker Hohmann, Alexandra Bendixen
Purpose: For elderly listeners, it is more challenging to listen to 1 voice surrounded by other voices than for young listeners. This could be caused by a reduced ability to use acoustic cues-such as slight differences in onset time-for the segregation of concurrent speech signals. Here, we study whether the ability to benefit from onset asynchrony differs between young (18-33 years) and elderly (55-74 years) listeners. Method: We investigated young (normal hearing, N = 20) and elderly (mildly hearing impaired, N = 26) listeners' ability to segregate 2 vowels with onset asynchronies ranging from 20 to 100 ms...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532655/muriel-spark-s-informed-air-the-auditory-imagination-and-the-voices-of-fiction
#4
Patricia Waugh
'Events occur in my mind', Spark has written, 'and I record them'. What does it mean to hear something that isn't there? Hearing inner speech or sounds, not as silent thoughts but as quasi-perceptual events in the world, confounds settled distinctions between perception, memory and imagination that structure our feeling of the real. This essay shows how her capacity for complex 'listening in' becomes the mainspring of her brilliance as an experimental writer, cultural observer and fictional ethicist. Eclectic in her sources - including biblical, classical, Romantic, Christian and Jewish mystic and monastic traditions of meditation - Spark reworks the concept of 'the auditory imagination' to produce one of the most sustained and innovative self-reflexive performances in modern fiction of the human mind's capacity to bring to presence and realise other worlds, multiple ontologies...
2018: Textual Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510910/smartphone-based-ecological-momentary-assessment-and-intervention-in-a-blended-coping-focused-therapy-for-distressing-voices-development-and-case-illustration
#5
Imogen H Bell, Sarah F Fielding-Smith, Mark Hayward, Susan L Rossell, Michelle H Lim, John Farhall, Neil Thomas
Common approaches to the psychological treatment of distressing voice hearing experiences, such as cognitive behavioural therapy, aim to promote more adaptive cognitive, emotional and behavioural responses to these experiences. Digital technologies such as smartphones show promise for supporting and enhancing these treatments by linking immediate therapeutic settings to the context of daily life. Two promising technologies include ecological momentary assessment and intervention (EMA/I), which may offer a means of advanced assessment and support in daily life, and inform the tailoring of interventions to suit individual needs...
December 2018: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506936/community-coalitions-as-spaces-for-collective-voice-action-and-the-sharing-of-resources
#6
David T Lardier, Carrie Bergeson, Autumn M Bermea, Kathryn G Herr, Brad Forenza, Pauline Garcia-Reid, Robert J Reid
This study examined how a community coalition, focused on prevention efforts, can aid in bridging resources between community organizations in a resource-deprived area. We also explored how it may serve as a venue to support significant changes to the community, adults, and youth who live there. Drawing on 18 individual interviews with adult coalition members from various community organizations, in a large, underserved city in the northeastern United States, we examined these data for narrations of the coalition's place within the broader prevention community and how the coalition may be an organizational venue for collective voice...
January 2019: Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499363/process-and-outcomes-of-a-recursive-dialogic-member-checking-approach-a-project-ethnography
#7
Michelle Brear
There is limited empirical evidence about member checking, a long-standing qualitative research technique for establishing validity. I conducted directed content analysis of ethnographic data detailing the process and outcomes of a "dialogic" member checking approach I implemented in rural Swaziland. It involved 10 participants, checking results about their participation and empowerment as co-researchers in participatory health research. The process involved participants in four recurring stages: thinking independently, hearing findings, appraising findings, and negotiating final representations...
November 30, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444221/-occupational-diseases-in-poland-in-2016
#8
Beata Świątkowska, Wojciech Hanke
BACKGROUND: The aim of the work is to present the epidemiological situation in the field of occupational diseases in Poland in 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cases of occupational diseases identified in accordance with the applicable case law system in Poland and reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2016 were analyzed. The analysis includes nosologic units, their causative factors as well as gender and age of patients. Absolute numbers and incidence rates per 100 thousand employees were presented...
November 15, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30441655/towards-mobile-gaze-directed-beamforming-a-novel-neuro-technology-for-hearing-loss
#9
Markham H Anderson, Britt W Yazel, Matthew P F Stickle, Fernando D Espinosa Inguez, Nathaniel-Georg S Gutierrez, Malcolm Slaney, Sanjay S Joshi, Lee M Miller
Contemporary hearing aids are markedlylimited in their most important role: improving speech perception in dynamic "cocktail party" environments with multiple, competing talkers. Here we describe an open-source, mobile assistive hearing platform entitled "Cochlearity" which uses eye gaze to guide an acoustic beamformer, so a listener will hear best wherever they look. Cochlearity runs on Android and its eight-channel microphone array can be worn comfortably on the head, e.g. mounted on eyeglasses...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30441145/efficient-modeling-of-acoustic-feedback-path-in-hearing-aids-by-voice-activity-detector-supervised-multiple-noise-injections
#10
Parth Mishra, Serkan Tokgoz, Issa M S Panahi
Adaptive Feedback Cancellation (AFC) techniques are widely used to eliminate the undesired acoustic feedback effect arising in the Hearing Aid Devices (HADs) due to the coupling between the speaker and the microphone of the HAD. This paper proposes a method to eliminate the acoustic feedback effect in the HADs in presence of noisy environment. The method involves utilization of a computationally efficient Spectral Flux feature-based voice activity detector (VAD), which controls the process of Noise Injection in the proposed AFC algorithm (SFNIAFC)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30440992/integrating-signal-processing-modules-of-hearing-aids-into-a-real-time-smartphone-app
#11
Tahsin A Chowdhury, Abhishek Sehgal, Nasser Kehtarnavaz
This paper presents the integration of three major modules of the signal processing pipeline that go into a typical digital hearing aid as a real-time smartphone app. These modules include voice activity detection, noise reduction, and compression. The steps taken to allow the real-time implementation of this integration or signal processing pipeline are discussed. These steps can be utilized to create similar signal processing pipelines or integrated apps to evaluate hearing improvement algorithms. The real-time characteristics of the developed integrated app are reported as well as an objective evaluation of its noise reduction...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426672/shame-and-the-psychosis-continuum-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Louise J Carden, Pooja Saini, Claire Seddon, Megan Watkins, Peter James Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Shame is increasingly implicated in the development and maintenance of several psychological problems including psychosis. The aim of the current paper was to review the research literature concerning the relationship between shame and the psychosis continuum, examining the nature and direction of this relationship. METHOD: Systematic searches of databases PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science (from the earliest available database date until November 2016) were undertaken to identify papers that examined the relationship between shame and psychosis or psychotic experiences...
November 14, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425660/reliving-replaying-lived-experiences-through-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-implications-on-theories-and-management
#13
Smriti Vallath, Tanya Luhrmann, Joske Bunders, Lakshmi Ravikant, Vandana Gopikumar
Objective: This study aims to understand the impact of negative life experience (NLE) in auditory hallucinations (AHs) and explain the heterogeneity in phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). Method: In depth interviews were conducted with 21 individuals (7 males and 14 females) experiencing AHs and accessing mental health treatment services at a not-for-profit organization. Maximum variation purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample to ensure variegation is accounted for and was collected until saturation of themes data was obtained...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416463/content-matters-a-qualitative-analysis-of-verbal-hallucinations
#14
Nienke Moernaut, Stijn Vanheule, Jasper Feyaerts
Auditory verbal hallucinations have traditionally especially been researched from a form-based approach, with content getting much less attention. In this article, we argue for the importance of looking at content to get a fuller understanding of the hallucinatory experience. Guided by Lacanian psychoanalysis, we conducted a thematic and a narrative analysis on interviews with 10 schizophrenic patients about their hallucinations. We discerned five themes in the data, which were based on Lacanian theory and had to do with existential questions: parenthood and authority, sexuality and relationships, gender identity, life in the light of death , and what does the other want? Furthermore, we added a theme for unclassified content...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411989/hearing-distressing-voices-simulation-students-perspectives
#15
Hyun Jung Kim, Danuta M Wojnar
The aim of this qualitative study was to describe nursing students' experiences of hearing distressing voices through content analysis of essays regarding changes they encountered during simulation. Data, obtained from undergraduate (n = 237) and graduate (n = 128) students' short self-reflection papers, were analysed using a six-step thematic analysis. The following six themes emerged: (a) experiencing cognitive and perceptual challenges, (b) feeling unpleasant emotions, (c) dealing with functional changes and hardships, (d) experiencing somatic changes, (e) making attempts to cope, and (f) facing lingering impact...
November 9, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406619/-vocal-changes-and-laryngeal-modifications-in-the-elderly-presbyphonia-and-presbylarynx
#16
Wolfgang Angerstein
In about 20 % of the population older than 60 years of age, voice problems (presbyphonia) are manifest, often combined with hearing deficits (presbyacusis), swallowing disorders (presbyphagia), dizziness (presbyvertigo) and/or impaired vision (presbyopia).The singing voice is afflicted more often, earlier and more severely than the speaking voice. But it is not just the vocal quality and capacity that are affected. Due to reduced pulmonary function, the breathing impetus is also weakened. As a result of the descending of the larynx, resonance properties of the vocal tract change in seniors, and there is increased risk of aspiration...
November 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404485/perceptual-grouping-in-the-cocktail-party-contributions-of-voice-feature-continuity
#17
Jens Kreitewolf, Samuel R Mathias, Régis Trapeau, Jonas Obleser, Marc Schönwiesner
Cocktail parties pose a difficult yet solvable problem for the auditory system. Previous work has shown that the cocktail-party problem is considerably easier when all sounds in the target stream are spoken by the same talker (the voice-continuity benefit ). The present study investigated the contributions of two of the most salient voice features-glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL)-to the voice-continuity benefit. Twenty young, normal-hearing listeners participated in two experiments. On each trial, listeners heard concurrent sequences of spoken digits from three different spatial locations and reported the digits coming from a target location...
October 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399504/prevalence-of-auditory-pseudohallucinations-in-adult-survivors-of-physical-and-sexual-trauma-with-chronic-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#18
Georgina Clifford, Tim Dalgleish, Caitlin Hitchcock
Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs) are commonly associated with psychosis but are also reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hearing voices after the experience of stress has been conceptualised as a dissociative experience. Brewin and Patel's (2010) seminal study reported that hearing voices is relatively common in PTSD, as hearing voices was associated with PTSD in half and two thirds of military veterans and survivors of civilian trauma, respectively. The authors conceptualised these voices as "auditory pseudohallucinations...
October 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397215/timing-variability-of-sensorimotor-integration-during-vocalization-in-individuals-who-stutter
#19
Anastasia G Sares, Mickael L D Deroche, Douglas M Shiller, Vincent L Gracco
Persistent developmental stuttering affects close to 1% of adults and is thought to be a problem of sensorimotor integration. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals who stutter respond differently to changes in their auditory feedback while speaking. Here we explore a number of changes that accompany alterations in the feedback of pitch during vocal production. Participants sustained the vowel /a/ while hearing on-line feedback of their own voice through headphones. In some trials, feedback was briefly shifted up or down by 100 cents to simulate a vocal production error...
November 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396462/the-pharyngeal-recess-eustachian-tube-complex-forms-an-acoustic-passageway
#20
M J O Boedts
We propose that the complex formed by the Pharyngeal Recess and Eustachian Tube, acts as an acoustic passageway for sounds originating inside the body: sounds made by one's voice, breathing, mastication, one's heartbeats. The antagonistic effect of two sets of muscles, one innervated by the trigeminal nerve, the other by the vagal nerve and cervical plexus, enables the body to modulate transmission of sound via this passageway and hence modulate the awareness of body sounds. Impairment of this system can be due to local factors, such as adhesions over the pharyngeal recess or inflammation inside the pharyngeal recess and/or Eustachian tube; or to tensions of the muscles involved, related to other causes...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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