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Impaired cognition

Yukiko Karita, Yuka Kimura, Shizuka Sasaki, Taisuke Nitobe, Eiichi Tsuda, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
INTRODUCTION: Axillary artery and brachial plexus injuries have been reported to be associated with proximal humeral fractures. In this report, we present two cases of axillary artery and brachial plexus injury secondary to proximal humeral fracture. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: An 88-year-old woman with cognitive impairment slipped and fell at home. The diagnosis was left proximal humeral fracture. The second day, paralysis of left upper arm due to left axillary artery occlusion appeared...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Véronique H Flamand, Annabelle Denis, Fannie Allen-Demers, Monica Lavoie, Réjean Tessier, Cyril Schneider
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A very preterm birth can induce deleterious neurophysiological consequences beyond childhood; alterations of the corpus callosum (CC) are reported in adolescents born very preterm along with cognitive impairments. The question remains whether neurophysiological alterations are still detectable in adulthood such as an alteration in CC inhibitory function. The aim of the present study was thus to examine transcallosal inhibition in young adults born very preterm compared to counterparts born at term...
July 30, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Liana Shvachiy, Vera Geraldes, Ângela Amaro-Leal, Isabel Rocha
BACKGROUND: Exposures to lead (Pb) during developmental phases can alter the normal course of development, with lifelong health consequences. Permanent Pb exposure leads to behavioral changes, cognitive impairment, sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, hypertension and autonomic dysfunction. However, the effects of an intermittent lead exposure are not yet studied. This pattern of exposure has been recently increasing due to migrations, implementation of school exchange programs and/or residential changes...
August 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Matthew C L Phillips, Deborah K J Murtagh, Linda J Gilbertson, Fredrik J S Asztely, Christopher D P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that diet manipulation may influence motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD, but conflict exists regarding the ideal fat to carbohydrate ratio. OBJECTIVES: We designed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to compare the plausibility, safety, and efficacy of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet versus a ketogenic diet in a hospital clinic of PD patients. METHODS: We developed a protocol to support PD patients in a diet study and randomly assigned patients to a low-fat or ketogenic diet...
August 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Cecilia Mancini, Elisa Giorgio, Anna Rubegni, Luca Pradotto, Silvia Bagnoli, Elisa Rubino, Paolo Prontera, Simona Cavalieri, Eleonora Di Gregorio, Marta Ferrero, Elisa Pozzi, Evelise Riberi, Patrizia Ferrero, Pasquale Nigro, Alessandro Mauro, Maurizio Zibetti, Alessandra Tessa, Melissa Barghigiani, Antonella Antenora, Fabio Sirchia, Silvia Piacentini, Gabriella Silvestri, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Laura Orsi, Filippo Maria Santorelli, Alfredo Brusco
BACKGROUND: Hereditary Ataxias are heterogeneous groups of neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by cerebellar syndrome associated with dysarthria, oculomotor and corticospinal signs, neuropathy and cognitive impairment. Recent reports suggested mutations in the SPG7 gene, causing the most common form of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia (MIM#607259), as a main cause of ataxias. The majority of described patients, were homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for the c.1529C>T (p...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Rachel Waller, Mark Murphy, Claire J Garwood, Luke Jennings, Paul R Heath, Annabelle Chambers, Fiona E Matthews, Carol Brayne, Paul G Ince, Stephen B Wharton, Julie E Simpson
Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are early features of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD), occurring before the formation of classical AD neuropathology, and resulting from an imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidants. Astrocytes play a major neuroprotective role, producing high levels of anti-oxidants including metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II). In the present study we characterized the immunoreactive profile of MT-I/II in the temporal cortex of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) aging population-representative neuropathology cohort, and examined H2 O2 -modulation of MT transcription by human astrocytes...
August 10, 2018: Glia
Hilary R Davies-Kershaw, Ruth A Hackett, Dorina Cadar, Annie Herbert, Martin Orrell, Andrew Steptoe
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vision impairment is independently associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older MEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional association between self-rated vision (poor or blind, moderate, normal) and dementia was analyzed, adjusting for potential confounders (sex, wealth, education, cardiovascular risk factors) using multivariable logistic regression...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Liron Sinvani, Jessy Warner-Cohen, Andrew Strunk, Travis Halbert, Ruchika Harisingani, Colm Mulvany, Michael Qiu, Andrzej Kozikowski, Vidhi Patel, Tara Liberman, Maria Carney, Renee Pekmezaris, Gisele Wolf-Klein, Corey Karlin-Zysman
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a multicomponent intervention improves care in hospitalized older adults with cognitive impairment. DESIGN: One-year retrospective chart review with propensity score matching on critical demographic and clinical variables was used to compare individauls with cognitive impairmenet on intervention and nonintervention units. SETTING: Large tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: All hospitalized individuals age 65 and older with cognitive impairment admitted to medicine who required constant or enhanced observation for behavioral and psychological symptoms...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Michael Rosenbloom, Terry R Barclay, Soo Borson, Ann M Werner, Lauren O Erickson, Jean M Crow, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Logan H Stuck, Leah R Hanson
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, goes unrecognized in half of patients presenting to healthcare providers and is associated with increased acute care utilization. Routine cognitive screening of older adults in healthcare settings could improve rates of dementia diagnosis and patterns of healthcare utilization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of screening positive for cognitive impairment on provider action in primary and specialty care practices and patient healthcare utilization...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Henry J Woodford
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common and disabling problem among older people. Anticholinergic drugs (ADs) are a pharmacological option recommended for overactive bladder or mixed UI when non-pharmacological approaches have failed. However, UI is a more prevalent and complex condition in frail older people and to simply assume that AD actions are the same across all age groups would be wrong. This article reviews evidence for the efficacy and safety of these drugs, especially when prescribed for frail older people...
August 10, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Yana Van Den Herrewegen, Lissa Denewet, An Buckinx, Giulia Albertini, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Dimitri De Bundel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an acquired form of focal epilepsy, in which patients not only suffer from unprovoked, devastating seizures, but also from severe comorbidities, such as cognitive dysfunction. Correspondingly, several animal models of TLE exhibit memory dysfunction, especially spatial memory. The Morris water maze test is the most commonly used test for assessing spatial learning and memory in rodents. However, high stress and poor swimming abilities are common confounders and may contribute to misinterpretation...
August 10, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mensur Osman Yassin
Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Anita K Chisholm, Vicki A Anderson, Natalie A Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1...
August 11, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Julie L Ji, Emily A Holmes, Colin MacLeod, Fionnuala C Murphy
Anomalies in future-oriented cognition are implicated in the maintenance of emotional disturbance within cognitive models of depression. Thinking about the future can involve mental imagery or verbal-linguistic mental representations. Research suggests that future thinking involving imagery representations may disproportionately impact on-going emotional experience in daily life relative to future thinking not involving imagery (verbal-linguistic representation only). However, while higher depression symptoms (dysphoria) are associated with impaired ability to deliberately generate positive relatively to negative imagery representations of the future (when instructed to do so), it is unclear whether dysphoria is associated with impairments in the tendency to do so spontaneously (when not instructed to deliberately generate task unrelated cognition of any kind)...
August 10, 2018: Psychological Research
Fiona H McLean, Christine Grant, Amanda C Morris, Graham W Horgan, Alex J Polanski, Kevin Allan, Fiona M Campbell, Rosamund F Langston, Lynda M Williams
Alzheimer's disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality with no cure and only limited treatment available. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are positively associated with the development of premature cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease, linking diet with these conditions. Here we demonstrate that in mice episodic memory, together with spatial and contextual associative memory, is compromised after only one day of high-fat diet. However, object memory remains intact. This shows not only a more rapid effect than previously reported but also that more complex memories are at higher risk of being compromised by a high-fat diet...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Giusti, Cristina Angeloni, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Serena Lacerenza, Federica Ciregia, Maurizio Ronci, Andrea Urbani, Clementina Manera, Maria Digiacomo, Marco Macchia, Maria Rosa Mazzoni, Antonio Lucacchini, Silvana Hrelia
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that share common features like abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, impairment of mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Despite recent advances in the research of biomarkers, early diagnosis, and pharmacotherapy, there are no treatments that can halt the progression of these age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that long-term intake of a Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, correlates with better cognition in aged populations...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marzia Bianchi, Melania Manco
Prolyl isomerases (Peptidylprolyl isomerase, PPIases) are enzymes that catalyze the isomerization between the cis / trans Pro conformations. Three subclasses belong to the class: FKBP (FK506 binding protein family), Cyclophilin and Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among Prolyl isomerases, Pin1 presents as distinctive feature, the ability of binding to the motif pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Modulation of Pin1 is implicated in cellular processes such as mitosis, differentiation and metabolism: The enzyme is dysregulated in many diverse pathological conditions, i...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haibin Li, Jin Guo, Anxin Wang, Deqiang Zhang, Yanxia Luo, Wei Wang, Xia Li, Zhe Tang, Xiuhua Guo
INTRODUCTION: There are few studies on how lifestyle factors and mental conditions modulate the cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) mortality risk are rare in the Asian elderly. AIM: To comprehensively assess the impact of lifestyle factors and mental conditions on the mortality risk of CBVD among the Chinese older adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This community-based prospective cohort study was based on the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging. We included 2101 participants aged ≥55 years who were interviewed in August 1992 and followed until December 2015...
July 29, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Saima Zameer, Abul Kalam Najmi, Divya Vohora, Mohd Akhtar
Neurodegenerative disorders and osteoporosis share some common underlying pathological features including calcium overload, accumulation of toxic chemicals, inflammation and impaired protein prenylation by isoprenoids (farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate) appear later stage of life. Substantial number of pre-clinical and clinical reports as well as in vitro data univocally acknowledged the negative impact of altered post-translational modification (prenylation) of proteins like small GTPases (Rffhes, Rho, Rac etc...
March 30, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Maria Górska, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: According to the European Drug Report, the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly growing. NPS are widely abused by human adolescent subjects. 5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) is one of the most frequently used hallucinogenic NPS. 5-MeO-DIPT intoxication results in hallucinations, vomiting, and tachycardia. Long-term exposure to 5-MeO-DIPT was reported to lead to development of post-hallucinogenic perception disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether repeated-intermittent administration of 5-MeO-DIPT during adolescence affects learning and memory in adult rats...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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