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Impaired cognition

Jan Löhler, Martin Lehmann, Veronika Segler, Stefan Volkenstein, Rolf-Dieter Battmer, Arneborg Ernst, Frederike Gräbner, Peter Schlattmann, Rainer Schönweiler, Barbara Wollenberg, Stefan Dazert
BACKGROUND: In Germany, about 15 million people are suffering from hearing loss (HL), whereas only 16 % are using hearing aids. Untreated hearing loss may lead to severe complications (e. g. social isolation, depression, progress of dementia). An early and widespread screening, beginning at the age of 50, is meant to improve this shortage in medical care. By this study, the Mini-Audio-Test (MAT), a six-question and three-step answers containing questionnaire on subjective HL, should be verified on a normal collective of subjects (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (Ppv))...
December 5, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Carolyn H Still, Nicholas M Pajewski, Gordon J Chelune, Stephen R Rapp, Kaycee M Sink, Virginia G Wadley, Jeff D Williamson, Alan J Lerner
Objective: To examine the association of global cognitive function assessed via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and deficiencies in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) on the Functional Activity Questionnaire (FAQ) in hypertensive older adults in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Methods: In cross-sectional analysis, 9,296 SPRINT participants completed the MoCA at baseline. The FAQ was obtained from 2,705 informants for SPRINT participants scoring <21 or <22 on the MoCA, depending on education...
December 5, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Heidi C Rossetti, Emily E Smith, Linda S Hynan, Laura H Lacritz, C Munro Cullum, Aaron Van Wright, Myron F Weiner
Objective: To establish a cut score for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) that distinguishes mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) in a community-based African American (AA) sample. Methods: A total of 135 AA participants, from a larger aging study, diagnosed MCI (n = 90) or NC (n = 45) via consensus diagnosis using clinical history, Clinical Dementia Rating score, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Logistic regression models utilized sex, education, age, and MoCA score to predict MCI versus NC...
December 5, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves Alonso da Costa, Emilene Reisdorfer, Silvana Silveira Kempfer, Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes, André Luís Porporatti, Graziela De Luca Canto
OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers for Parkinson's disease, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, saliva, and urine. METHOD: The studies were collected from the Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, OpenGrey, ProQuest and Google Scholar databases starting from May 3, 2016 and updated on March 20, 2017. Twenty-two studies were evaluated, by the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies and Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Evidence shows that serum antibodies can be used as highly specific and accurate biomarkers for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at the outset...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Huaiyong Gan, Qiong Zhang, Bo Zhu, Shiwu Wu, Damin Chai
Radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy are commonly used in treatment of brain tumors, but they may also result in behavioral impairments such as anxiety and cognitive deficit. The present study sought to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on the behavioral impairments caused by radiation and temozolomide treatment. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single cranial radiation followed by 6-week cyclic temozolomide administration, and then treated with chronic administration of fluoxetine...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Stefanie J Rodenbeck, Devin D Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however, this skill requires frequent practice. Nonmydriatic tabletop and portable fundus photography and even smartphone-based photography offer alternative and practical means for approaching examination of the ocular fundus...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Anne-Josée Guimond, Hans Ivers, Josée Savard
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between subjective (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and experiential avoidance) and objective (high-frequency heart rate variability [HF-HRV]) measures of emotion regulation (ER) and a set of psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, fear of cancer recurrence [FCR], insomnia, fatigue, pain, and cognitive impairments) among women receiving radiation therapy for non-metastatic breast cancer...
December 5, 2018: Psychology & Health
Akira Sekikawa, Masafumi Ihara, Oscar Lopez, Chikage Kakuta, Brian Lopresti, Aya Higashiyama, Howard Aizenstein, Yue-Fang Chang, Chester Mathis, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Lewis Kuller, Chendi Cui
BACKGROUND: Observational studies in Asia show that dietary intake of soy isoflavones had a significant inverse association with coronary heart disease (CHD). A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) of soy isoflavones on atherosclerosis in the US, however, failed to show their benefit. The discrepancy may be due to the much lower prevalence of S-equol producers in Westerners: Only 20-30% of Westerners produce S-equol in contrast to 50-70% in Asians. S-equol is a metabolite of dietary soy isoflavone daidzein by gut microbiome and possesses the most anti-atherogenic properties among all isoflavones...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Minho Moon, Eun Sun Jung, Seong Gak Jeon, Moon-Yong Cha, Yongwoo Jang, Woori Kim, Claudia Lopes, Inhee Mook-Jung, Kwang-Soo Kim
The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 (also known as NR4A2) is critical for the development and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and is associated with Parkinson's disease. However, an association between Nurr1 and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology has not previously been reported. Here, we provide evidence that Nurr1 is expressed in a neuron-specific manner in AD-related brain regions; specifically, it is selectively expressed in glutamatergic neurons in the subiculum and the cortex of both normal and AD brains...
December 4, 2018: Aging Cell
Seishi Terada, Makoto Nakashima, Yosuke Wakutani, Kenji Nakata, Yumiko Kutoku, Yoshihide Sunada, Keiko Kondo, Hideki Ishizu, Osamu Yokota, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada
AIM: Most patients with dementia frequently encounter various problems in their daily lives. Those troubles embarrass both the patients and their families, and cause problems for society. However, there have been few scientific reports on the difficulties in the daily life of patients with dementia. Therefore, we tried to clarify the frequency and characteristics of troubles experienced by patients with dementia. METHODS: Seven medical centers treating dementia patients in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, participated in this survey...
December 4, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Tessa A Hulshof, Sytse U Zuidema, Peter J K van Meer, Christine C Gispen-de Wied, Hendrika J Luijendijk
OBJECTIVES: To assess baseline imbalances in placebo-controlled trials of atypical antipsychotics in dementia, and their association with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), and mortality. METHOD: We searched for trials in multiple sources. Two reviewers extracted baseline characteristics and outcomes per treatment group. We calculated direction, range, pooled mean, and heterogeneity in the baseline differences, and used meta-regression for the relationship with the outcomes...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Maren Cecilie Strand, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde, Jørg Gustav Mørland, Johannes G Ramaekers
AIMS: The present study assessed the acute effects of methadone and buprenorphine on actual on-road driving performance and neurocognitive function. METHODS: Methadone (5 and 10 mg per oral) and buprenorphine (0.2 and 0.4 mg sublingual) were administered to 22 healthy volunteers in a five-way, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, cross-over study. Driving performance was assessed with an on-road driving test. The primary outcome measure was standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of road tracking control...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Zhihao Qi, Zhen Huang, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of neuronal function by continuously providing energy. Here, we will give a detailed review about the recent developments in regards to dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) induced unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, excessive mitochondrial division, and neuronal injury in neural system dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases, including the Drp1 knockout induced mice embryonic death, the dysfunction of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial division induced neuronal cell apoptosis and impaired neuronal axonal transportation, the abnormal interaction between Drp1 and amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington's disease (HD), and the Drp1-associated pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Irina Mihaela Abdulan, Mihai Onofriescu, Ramona Stefaniu, Alexandra Mastaleru, Veronica Mocanu, Ioana-Dana Alexa, Adrian Covic
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to objectively and precisely describe, in elderly dialysis patients from a single center, the prevalence of malnutrition and severe cognitive/functional impairment and to establish the prognostic role of malnutrition assessment for patient's severe cognitive/functional status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A single dialysis center from north-eastern Romania. SUBJECTS: Eighty-one elderly ambulatory hemodialysis patients...
December 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Andreas Johnen, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Nils C Landmeyer, Björn Ambrosius, Pasquale Calabrese, Jeremias Motte, Nicole Hessler, Gisela Antony, Inke R König, Luisa Klotz, Muna-Miriam Hoshi, Lilian Aly, Sergiu Groppa, Felix Luessi, Friedemann Paul, Björn Tackenberg, Florian Then Bergh, Tania Kümpfel, Hayrettin Tumani, Martin Stangel, Frank Weber, Antonios Bayas, Brigitte Wildemann, Christoph Heesen, Uwe K Zettl, Frauke Zipp, Bernhard Hemmer, Sven G Meuth, Ralf Gold, Heinz Wiendl, Anke Salmen
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) affects approximately one-third of the patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Little is known about factors predicting CI and progression after initial diagnosis. METHODS: Neuropsychological screening data from baseline and 1-year follow-up of a prospective multicenter cohort study (NationMS) involving 1123 patients with newly diagnosed MS or CIS were analyzed. Employing linear multilevel models, we investigated whether demographic, clinical and conventional MRI markers at baseline were predictive for CI and longitudinal cognitive changes...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Elisa de Paula França Resende, Howard J Rosen, Kevin Chiang, Adam M Staffaroni, Isabel Allen, Lea T Grinberg, Karoline Carvalho Carmona, Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães, Viviane Amaral Carvalho, Maira Tonidandel Barbosa, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Paulo Caramelli
According to the cognitive reserve theory, intellectual stimuli acquired during life can prevent against developing cognitive impairment. The underlying cognitive reserve mechanisms were underexplored in low-educated individuals. Because episodic memory impairment due to hippocampal dysfunction is a key feature of Alzheimer's dementia (AD), we sought to look at a possible cognitive reserve mechanism by determining whether few years of education moderated the relationship between the hippocampal volumes and the episodic-memory scores...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sofia Toniolo, Laura Serra, Giusy Olivito, Camillo Marra, Marco Bozzali, Mara Cercignani
The role of the cerebellum in cognitive function has been broadly investigated in the last decades from an anatomical, clinical, and functional point of view and new evidence points toward a significant contribution of the posterior lobes of the cerebellum in cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present work we used SUIT-VBM (spatially unbiased infratentorial template, voxel-based morphometry) to perform an analysis of the pattern of cerebellar gray matter (GM) atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and AD dementia patients compared to healthy subjects (HS), in order to follow the changes of non-motor features of cerebellar degeneration throughout disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Jesse Mez, Emily H Trittschuh, Andrew J Saykin, Laura E Gibbons, David W Fardo, Madeline Wessels, Julianna Bauman, Mackenzie Moore, Seo-Eun Choi, Alden L Gross, Joanne Rich, Diana K N Louden, R Elizabeth Sanders, Thomas J Grabowski, Thomas D Bird, Susan M McCurry, Beth E Snitz, M Ilyas Kamboh, Oscar L Lopez, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett, C Dirk Keene, Eric B Larson, Paul K Crane
Categorizing people with late-onset Alzheimer's disease into biologically coherent subgroups is important for personalized medicine. We evaluated data from five studies (total n = 4050, of whom 2431 had genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data). We assigned people to cognitively defined subgroups on the basis of relative performance in memory, executive functioning, visuospatial functioning, and language at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. We compared genotype frequencies for each subgroup to those from cognitively normal elderly controls...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Jing Zhang, Qing Yu, Yang Liu, Hui Liu, Mang Sun, Qin Tian, Shengfen Tu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of propofol combined with hypoxia on cognitive function of immature rats and the possible role of p38 pathway and tau protein in mediating such effects. METHODS: Ninety 7-day-old (P7) SD rats were randomized for daily intraperitoneal injection of propofol (50 mg/kg) or lipid emulsion (5.0 mL/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After each injection, the rats were placed in a warm box (38 ℃) with an oxygen concentration of 18% (hypoxia), 21% (normal air), or 50% (oxygen) until full recovery of the righting reflex...
November 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Adam Gerstenecker, Lacey Grimsley, Brittney Otruba, Linda Cowden, Daniel C Marson, Kristen Triebel Gerstenecker, Roy C Martin, Erik D Roberson
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is common in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) but its effect on medical decision-making has not been well studied. To address this gap in the research literature, we compared the medical decision-making capacity of patients with PSP to groups of patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. We also investigated the cognitive correlates of medical decision-making in our PSP sample. METHODS: The sample was composed of 65 participants that belonged to five study groups: 13 with PSP, 13 with PD-MCI, 13 with PDD, 13 with AD, and 13 cognitively healthy controls...
November 26, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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