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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326496/discriminative-accuracy-of-18f-flortaucipir-positron-emission-tomography-for-alzheimer-disease-vs-other-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
Rik Ossenkoppele, Gil D Rabinovici, Ruben Smith, Hanna Cho, Michael Schöll, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Niklas Mattsson, Shorena Janelidze, Alexander Santillo, Tomas Ohlsson, Jonas Jögi, Richard Tsai, Renaud La Joie, Joel Kramer, Adam L Boxer, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Bruce L Miller, Jae Y Choi, Young H Ryu, Chul H Lyoo, Oskar Hansson
Importance: The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]flortaucipir allows in vivo quantification of paired helical filament tau, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but its diagnostic utility is unclear. Objective: To examine the discriminative accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir for AD vs non-AD neurodegenerative disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 719 participants were recruited from 3 dementia centers in South Korea, Sweden, and the United States between June 2014 and November 2017 (160 cognitively normal controls, 126 patients with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], of whom 65...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326283/exercise-induced-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-therapeutic-implications-for-alzheimer-s-dementia
#2
REVIEW
Rosy Wang, R M Damian Holsinger
Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF expression...
October 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326237/mechanisms-underlying-prelimbic-prefrontal-cortex-mglu-3-mglu-5-dependent-plasticity-and-reversal-learning-deficits-following-acute-stress
#3
Max E Joffe, Chiaki I Santiago, Branden J Stansley, James Maksymetz, Rocco G Gogliotti, Julie L Engers, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn
Stress can precipitate or worsen symptoms of many psychiatric illnesses. Dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate system may underlie these disruptions and restoring PFC glutamate signaling has emerged as a promising avenue for the treatment of stress disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGlu3 ) induces a postsynaptic form of long-term depression (LTD) that is dependent on the activity of another subtype, mGlu5 . Stress exposure disrupted this plasticity, but the underlying signaling mechanisms and involvement in higher-order cognition have not yet been investigated...
October 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326151/differential-effects-of-d1-and-d2-dopamine-agonists-on-memory-motivation-learning-and-response-time-in-non-human-primates
#4
Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in cognition, motivation and information processing. DA action has been shown to both improve and/or impair cognition across different receptor types, species, subjects, and tasks. This complex relationship has been described as an inverted U-shaped function and may be due to the differential effects of DA receptor activation in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We have investigated the effects of selective DA agonists on cognitive performance in healthy monkeys using a touch screen running tasks from the CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326011/association-of-bilateral-salpingo-oophorectomy-before-menopause-onset-with-medial-temporal-lobe-neurodegeneration
#5
Burcu Zeydan, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Robert I Reid, Liliana Gazzuola Rocca, Timothy G Lesnick, Carin Y Smith, Kent R Bailey, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Virginia M Miller, Michelle M Mielke, Walter A Rocca, Kejal Kantarci
Importance: There is an increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in women who undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) before menopause. However, data are lacking on the association of BSO before menopause with imaging biomarkers that indicate medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and Alzheimer disease pathophysiology. Objective: To investigate medial temporal lobe structure, white matter lesion load, and β-amyloid deposition in women who underwent BSO before age 50 years and before reaching natural menopause...
October 15, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325914/association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-sleeping-difficulties-anxiety-and-depression-among-pakistani-physicians
#6
Muhammad Haaris Sheikh, Ahmed Waqas, Sadiq Naveed, Maria Shoaib, Shahwar Yousuf, Samia Rauf Butt, Mohammad Hasnain Tahir
Previous literature has highlighted a high burden of a variety of psychopathologies such as anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality among Pakistani physicians. These psychopathologies are associated with a poor quality of life and cognitive difficulties, affecting empathy levels, doctor patient relationship, and work performance. It is a cross sectional study in which 300 Pakistani physicians aged 45 and above, were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising hospital anxiety and depression scale, cognitive difficulties scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325902/determining-the-incidence-of-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-who-undergo-orthopaedic-surgical-interventions-in-turkey
#7
Ayfer Ozbas, Ezgi Seyhan Ak, Ikbal Cavdar, Ummu Yildiz Findik, Fatma Yasemin Kutlu, Nuray Akyuz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients having undergone orthopaedic surgical interventions. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the traumatology clinic of GATA Haydarpasa Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, from April 2014 to April 2015 and comprised patients who underwent orthopaedic surgical interventions. The subjects included were aged >65 years, had no mental disorders, no acute cerebrovascular disease, no known history of delirium and/or dementia...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325874/cognitive-impairment-correlates-with-serum-carbonyl-compound-profiles-in-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis
#8
Dong-Mei Wu, Jun-Jian Zhang, Ning Guo, Shu-Jian Zheng, Quan-Fei Zhu, Yu-Qi Feng, Si-Si Peng, Yan-Hong Wu, Ming-Hui Tuo
Current evidence indicates that carotid atherosclerosis is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. Serum metabolomic analysis holds significant promise for uncovering the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the profiling of serum carbonyl compounds in subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA) patients and to explore the relationship between serum carbonyl compounds and cognitive performance. We enrolled 51 SCA patients and 45 healthy control individuals using carotid ultrasound assessment...
October 15, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325806/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#9
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325748/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#10
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
October 16, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325721/communication-predictors-of-patient-and-companion-satisfaction-with-alzheimer-s-genetic-risk-disclosure
#11
Yue Guan, Debra L Roter, Lori H Erby, Jennifer L Wolff, Laura N Gitlin, J Scott Roberts, Robert C Green, Kurt D Christensen
The objective of this study was to identify how features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) genetic risk disclosure communication relate to patient and visit companion satisfaction. We conducted secondary analyses of 79 session recordings from the fourth REVEAL Study, a randomized-controlled trial of AD genetic risk disclosure among patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patient and companion satisfaction were ascertained from postdisclosure surveys. The Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) was used to code triadic communication between the counselor, patient, and companion...
2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325715/perspective-effects-on-recall-in-a-testimony-paradigm
#12
Magali Ginet, Olivier Dodier, Brigitte Bardin, Michel Désert, Catherine Greffeuille, Fanny Verkampt
The two present studies examined the influence of perspective instructions given during encoding and retrieval on the recall of a visual event. Participants viewed slides or a film depicting a day in the life of a man. Before viewing the to-be-remembered event, they were instructed to adopt the perspective of an alcoholic vs. an unemployed man vs. no perspective (Experiment 1), or of an unemployed man vs. no perspective (Experiment 2). Participants in the first study were interviewed twice, with the second recall being preceded by either a change perspective instruction or without any specific instruction...
October 16, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325648/is-semantic-vigilance-impaired-by-narrative-memory-demands-theory-and-applications
#13
Samantha L Epling, Graham K Edgar, Paul N Russell, William S Helton
OBJECTIVE: Two verbal tasks were utilized in a dual-task paradigm to explore performance theories and prior dual-tasking results. BACKGROUND: Both the decline in vigilance performance over time, or vigilance decrement, and limited dual-tasking ability may be explained by limited mental resources. Resource theorists would recommend removing task demands to avoid cognitive overload, while mindlessness theorists may recommend adding engaging task demands to prevent boredom...
October 16, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325532/hardness-of-the-habitual-diet-and-its-relationship-with-cognitive-function-among-70-year-old-japanese-elderly-findings-from-the-sonic-study
#14
Hitomi Okubo, Kentaro Murakami, Hiroki Inagaki, Yasuyuki Gondo, Kazunori Ikebe, Kei Kamide, Yukie Masui, Yasumichi Arai, Tatsuro Ishizaki, Satoshi Sasaki, Takeshi Nakagawa, Mai Kabayama, Ken Sugimoto, Hiromi Rakugi, Yoshinobu Maed, Madoka Ogawa, Yoshiko Lily Ishioka, Chisato Inomatae, Taiji Ogawa, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Hirochika Ryuno, Ryosuke Oguro, Koichi Yamamoto, Yasushi Takeya, Yoichi Takami, Norihisa Ito
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of causal links between poor mastication and cognitive impairment, but possible effects of dietary hardness, which clearly affects mastication, on cognitive function is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hypothesis that hardness of the habitual diet would be associated with cognitive function among older Japanese adults. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 635 Japanese community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325217/relationship-between-social-cognition-and-social-behaviour-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Maarten Milders
OBJECTIVE: To present an overview of studies that investigated associations between social cognition functions (social cue perception, empathy, understanding intentions) and social behaviour or social outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The literature search was conducted in the Medline, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Main criteria for selection were that the participants were adult persons with TBI, social cognition as well as social behaviour or social outcome post-TBI was assessed and correlations between social cognition and social behaviour or outcome were reported...
October 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325200/participation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-surplus-value-of-social-cognition-tests-beyond-measures-for-executive-functioning-and-dysexecutive-behavior-in-a-statistical-prediction-model
#16
Herma J Westerhof-Evers, Luciano Fasotti, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the contribution of measures for social cognition (SC), executive functioning (EF) and dysexecutive behavior to the statistical prediction of social and vocational participation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), taking into account age and injury severity. METHOD: A total 63 patients with moderate to severe TBI participated. They were administered a semi-structured Role Resumption List for social (RRL-SR) and vocational participation (RRL-RTW)...
October 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325063/hiv-tat-causes-synapse-loss-in-a-mouse-model-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-that-is-independent-of-the-classical-complement-cascade-component-c1q
#17
Jennetta W Hammond, Wen Q Qiu, Daniel F Marker, Jeffrey M Chamberlain, Will Greaves-Tunnell, Matthew J Bellizzi, Shao-Ming Lu, Harris A Gelbard
Microglial activation, increased proinflammatory cytokine production, and a reduction in synaptic density are key pathological features associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Even with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), more than 50% of HIV-positive individuals experience some type of cognitive impairment. Although viral replication is inhibited by cART, HIV proteins such as Tat are still produced within the nervous system that are neurotoxic, involved in synapse elimination, and provoke enduring neuroinflammation...
October 16, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325016/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#18
Lis Evered, Brendan Silbert, David S Knopman, David A Scott, Steven T DeKosky, Lars S Rasmussen, Esther S Oh, Greg Crosby, Miles Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324989/the-cognitive-remediation-therapy-program-among-children-with-adhd-tunisian-experience
#19
Meriem Hamza, Zeineb Abbes, Houda Ben Yahyia, Radhouane Fakhfekh, Isabelle Amado, Asma Bouden
BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with neuropsychological deficits including executive and attentional impairments. The cognitive remediation therapy is a new promising technique designed to improve the neurocognitive abilities damaged in ADHD. AIM: Adapt and apply the cognitive remediation program CRT (Cognitive Remediation Therapy) for children and adolescents with ADHD and to evaluate its effectiveness on attentional and executive abilities...
January 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324844/cognitive-improvement-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-in-schizophrenia
#20
Borja Santos, Eduardo González-Fraile, Arantzazu Zabala, Virginia Guillén, José R Rueda, Javier Ballesteros
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severe, persistent mental disorder, and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Cognitive impairments presented in schizophrenia lead to a worse prognostic, thus treatments targeted to enhance cognition in schizophrenia may be clinically relevant. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors as add-on medication to antipsychotics on cognition in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Search strategies were developed for Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and are current to March 2018...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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