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Sleep slow wave

Frank J van Schalkwijk, Monica Ricci, Armin Nikpour, Laurie A Miller
Disturbed sleep can negatively affect overnight memory retention as well as new learning the subsequent day. In healthy participants, positive associations between memory performance and sleep characteristics (e.g., time spent in slow-wave sleep [SWS]) have been detected. In a previous study, we found that SWS was much reduced in patients with focal seizures, but when correlations between memory complaints and various sleep characteristics were considered, the only significant relationship was with the time to onset of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (i...
August 7, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Fadi N Karameh, Ziad Nahas
Model-based network discovery measures, such as the brain effective connectivity, require fitting of generative process models to measurements obtained from key areas across the network. For distributed dynamic phenomena, such as generalized seizures and slow-wave sleep, studying effective connectivity from real-time recordings is significantly complicated since (i) outputs from only a subnetwork can be practically measured, and (ii) exogenous subnetwork inputs are unobservable. Model fitting, therefore, constitutes a challenging blind module identification or model inversion problem for finding both the parameters and the many unknown inputs of the subnetwork...
August 4, 2018: Brain Topography
Kazuki Katori, Hiroyuki Manabe, Ai Nakashima, Dunfu Eer, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
The olfactory piriform cortex is thought to participate in olfactory associative memory. Like the hippocampus, which is essential for episodic memory, it belongs to an evolutionally conserved paleocortex and comprises a three-layered cortical structure. During slow-wave sleep, the olfactory piriform cortex becomes less responsive to external odor stimuli and instead displays sharp wave (SPW) activity similar to that observed in the hippocampus. Neural activity patterns during hippocampal SPW have been intensively studied in terms of memory consolidation; however, little is known about the activity patterns of olfactory cortical neurons during olfactory cortex sharp waves (OC-SPWs)...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ashley F Curtis, Mary Beth Miller, Jeff Boissoneault, Michael Robinson, Roland Staud, Richard B Berry, Christina S McCrae
Sleep diary and actigraphy assessments of insomnia symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) are often discrepant. We examined whether opioid dose and age interact in predicting magnitude or direction of discrepancies. Participants (N = 199, M = 51.5 years, SD = 11.7) with FM and insomnia completed 14 days of diaries and actigraphy. Multiple regressions determined whether average opioid dose and its interaction with age predicted magnitude or direction of diary/actigraphy discrepancies in sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency (SE), controlling for sex, use of sleep medication, evening pain and total sleep time...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
V V Simonova, M A Guzeev, M N Karpenko, T S Shemyakova, I V Ekimova, Yu F Pastukhov
AIM: To assess the changes in temporal characteristics and total motor activity (MA) during the sleep-wake cycle in old rats in the model of the preclinical stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Progressing inhibition of proteasome system and prolonged (up to the 21st day) development of the preclinical stage of PD in 19-20-month Wistar rats was caused by the specific proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin administered twice with a week interval. Telemetric monitoring of sleep-wake cycle was performed along with the video recording of MA...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Chronic insomnia affects 57% of the elderly in the United States, with impairment of quality of life, function, and health. Chronic insomnia burdens society with billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs of care. The main modalities in the treatment of insomnia in the elderly are psychological/behavioral therapies, pharmacological treatment, or a combination of both. Various specialty societies view psychological/behavioral therapies as the initial treatment intervention. Pharmacotherapy plays an adjunctive role when insomnia symptoms persist or when patients are unable to pursue cognitive behavioral therapies...
July 30, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Lisa L Morselli, Karla A Temple, Rachel Leproult, David A Ehrmann, Eve Van Cauter, Babak Mokhlesi
Background: Slow-wave activity (SWA) in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, obtained by spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram, is a marker of the depth or intensity of NREM sleep. Higher levels of SWA are associated with lower arousability during NREM sleep and protect against sleep fragmentation. Multiple studies have documented that SWA levels are higher in lean women, compared to age-matched lean men, but whether these differences persist in obese subjects is unclear. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition associated with obesity, is more prevalent in men than in women...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Nicholas Ketz, Aaron Jones, Natalie Bryant, Vincent P Clark, Praveen K Pilly
Benefits in long-term memory retention and generalization have been shown to be related to sleep-dependent processes, which correlate with neural oscillations as measured by changes in electric potential. The specificity and causal role of these oscillations, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the potential for augmenting endogenous Slow-Wave (SW) oscillations in humans with closed-loop transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with an aim towards enhancing the consolidation of recent experiences into long-term memory...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Natalia Schwarzkopf, Patricia Lagos, Atilio Falconi, Cecilia Scorza, Pablo Torterolo
Caffeine is a common active adulterant found in illicit drugs of abuse, including coca paste (CP). CP is a smokable form of cocaine mainly consumed in South America, produced during the cocaine-extraction process. CP has high abuse liability and its chronic consumption induces severe sleep-wake alterations. However, the effect of CP on the sleep-wake cycle and the effect of the presence of caffeine as an adulterant remain unknown. We studied the effect of an acute intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of a representative CP sample adulterated with caffeine (CP1) on the rat sleep-wake cycle...
September 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Scott A Sands, Kevin P Grace, Ali Azarbarzin, Ludovico Messineo, Rebecca Salant, David P White, D Andrew Wellman
RATIONALE: Several studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) improves during slow wave sleep (SWS) for reasons that remain unclear. Recent studies have identified forms of neural memory such as short-term potentiation or after-discharge that can occur in response to upper airway obstruction. Neural memory may play a role in the development of stable breathing during SWS by increasing upper airway muscles activity in this sleep stage. We hypothesize that the after-discharge of the genioglossus muscle following upper airway obstruction is enhanced during SWS compared to non-REM stage 2 (N2)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Cheng-Yu Lin, Perng-Jy Tsai, Kuei-Yi Lin, Chih-Yong Chen, Lin-Hui Chung, Jiunn-Liang Wu, Yueliang Leon Guo
BACKGROUND: Nighttime environmental noise affects sleep quality. However, the effects of daytime occupational noise remain unclear. METHODS: A quasi-experiment of 48 participants who had been employed for at least six months in two hospital cafeterias. The participants were randomly designated to be assessed on high- and low-noise workdays for 8 h or low- and high-noise workdays, separated by a washout period of 14 days. Subsequently, pure tone audiometry, autonomic nervous system (ANS) function tests, serum cortisol tests, and polysomnography were conducted...
June 6, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Mathilde Flamand, Samuel Boudet, Renaud Lopes, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Nicolas Reyns, Christelle Charley-Monaca, Laure Peter-Derex, William Szurhaj
Study Objectives: Confusional arousals (CA) are characterized by the association of behavioral awakening with persistent slow-wave electro-encephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) - suggesting that sensorimotor areas are "awake" while non-sensorimotor areas are still "asleep". In the present work, we aimed to study the precise temporo-spatial dynamics of EEG changes in cortical areas during CA using intracerebral recordings. Methods: Nineteen episodes of CA were selected in five drug-resistant epileptic patients suffering incidentally from arousal disorders...
July 16, 2018: Sleep
Chi Chung Alan Fung, Tomoki Fukai
The membrane potentials of cortical neurons in vivo exhibit spontaneous fluctuations between a depolarized UP state and a resting DOWN state during the slow-wave sleeps or in the resting states. This oscillatory activity is believed to engage in memory consolidation although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recently, it has been shown that UP-DOWN state transitions exhibit significantly different temporal profiles in different cortical regions, presumably reflecting differences in the underlying network structure...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bilgay Izci-Balserak, Brendan T Keenan, Charles Corbitt, Beth Staley, Michael Perlis, Grace W Pien
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Few studies have objectively evaluated sleep characteristics during pregnancy or investigated the relationship between altered spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) bands and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The study aimed to describe changes in sleep as measured by polysomnography (PSG) and spectral EEG bands during pregnancy and to examine the relationship between delta power in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and SDB. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective study...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Ciro Della Monica, Sigurd Johnsen, Giuseppe Atzori, John A Groeger, Derk-Jan Dijk
Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20-84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Md Aftab Alam, Andrey Kostin, Jerome Siegel, Dennis McGinty, Ronald Szymusiak, Md Noor Alam
Growing evidence supports a role for the medullary parafacial zone in non-rapid eye movement (nonREM) sleep regulation. Cell-body specific lesions of the parafacial zone or disruption of its GABAergic/glycinergic transmission causes suppression of nonREM sleep, whereas, targeted activation of parafacial GABAergic/glycinergic neurons reduce sleep latency and increase nonREM sleep amount, bout duration, and cortical EEG slow-wave activity. Parafacial GABAergic/glycinergic neurons also express sleep-associated c-fos immunoreactivity...
July 7, 2018: Sleep
Barbara E Jones
A great pioneer in sleep research, Michel Jouvet applied rigorous scientific methods to the study of sleep-wake states and associated changes in consciousness which, with his vivid imagination and creative mind, he unveiled as the mysteries of sleep and waking such as to inspire a generation of researchers in the field. His initial discovery of a third state distinguished from waking (W) and slow wave sleep (SWS) by the paradoxical association of W-like cortical activity with sleep-like behavior and muscle atonia that he accordingly called "paradoxical sleep" (PS) began his investigation over some 50 years of the mechanisms of these three sleep-wake states...
June 6, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Miriam Kessi, Jing Peng, Lifen Yang, Juan Xiong, Haolin Duan, Nan Pang, Fei Yin
BACKGROUND: Electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESESS) which is also known as continuous spike-wave of slow sleep (CSWSS) is type of electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern which is seen in ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy aphasia spectrum. This EEG pattern can occur alone or with other syndromes. Its etiology is not clear, however, brain malformations, immune disorders, and genetic etiologies are suspected to contribute. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all genetic etiologies which have been reported to associate with ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy-aphasia spectrum...
July 6, 2018: BMC Genetics
Asmaa M Abumuamar, Paul Dorian, David Newman, Colin M Shapiro
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common and usually underdetected in patients with cardiac arrhythmia. Ambulatory sleep testing may provide an alternative method for detection of OSA under realistic conditions compared to in-laboratory polysomnography. We aimed to (1) determine the sleep architecture in arrhythmia patients; (2) detect differences in sleep parameters between patients with and without OSA; and (3) compare the results of two consecutive nights of unattended ambulatory sleep testing...
2018: Sleep Disorders
Giulio Bernardi, Francesca Siclari, Giacomo Handjaras, Brady A Riedner, Giulio Tononi
Previous work showed that two types of slow waves are temporally dissociated during the transition to sleep: widespread, large and steep slow waves predominate early in the falling asleep period ( type I ), while smaller, more circumscribed slow waves become more prevalent later ( type II ). Here, we studied the possible occurrence of these two types of slow waves in stable non-REM (NREM) sleep and explored potential differences in their regulation. A heuristic approach based on slow wave synchronization efficiency was developed and applied to high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings collected during consolidated NREM sleep to identify the potential type I and type II slow waves...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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