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Sleep slow wave

Thomas Lehoux, Julie Carrier, Roger Godbout
Autism is a developmental disorder with a neurobiological aetiology. Studies of the autistic brain identified atypical developmental trajectories that may lead to an impaired capacity to modulate electroencephalogram activity during sleep. We assessed the topography and characteristics of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram slow waves in 26 boys aged between 6 and 13 years old: 13 with an autism spectrum disorder and 13 typically developing. None of the participants was medicated, intellectually disabled, reported poor sleep, or suffered from medical co-morbidities...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Paul-Antoine Libourel, Baptiste Barrillot, Sébastien Arthaud, Bertrand Massot, Anne-Laure Morel, Olivier Beuf, Anthony Herrel, Pierre-Hervé Luppi
It is crucial to determine whether rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow-wave sleep (SWS) (or non-REM sleep), identified in most mammals and birds, also exist in lizards, as they share a common ancestor with these groups. Recently, a study in the bearded dragon (P. vitticeps) reported states analogous to REM and SWS alternating in a surprisingly regular 80-s period, suggesting a common origin of the two sleep states across amniotes. We first confirmed these results in the bearded dragon with deep brain recordings and electro-oculogram (EOG) recordings...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Harald Murck, Matthias C Braunisch, Carsten Konrad, Daniela Jezova, Tilo Kircher
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its hormone receptors, i.e. the angiotensin and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), have emerged as important targets for central nervous system disorders and in particular for major depression. We have recently characterized baseline MR function as a predictor for treatment outcome with standard antidepressants. The aims of this study are (i) to characterize how strongly an early biomarker change (after 2 weeks) is related to outcome and (ii) whether these biomarker changes are related to the final outcome, that is, could serve as surrogate markers for response...
October 8, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Surbhi, Jeremy C Borniger, Kathryn L G Russart, Ning Zhang, Ulysses J Magalang, Randy J Nelson
Immune signaling is known to regulate sleep. miR-155 is a microRNA that regulates immune responses. We hypothesized that miR-155 would alter sleep regulation. Thus, we investigated the potential effects of miR-155 deletion on sleep-wake behavior in adult female homozygous miR-155 knockout (miR-155KO ) mice and littermate controls (WT). Mice were implanted with biotelemetry units and EEG/EMG biopotentials were recorded continuously for three baseline days. miR-155KO mice had decreased bouts of NREM and REM sleep compared with WT mice, but no differences were observed in the length of sleep bouts or total time spent in sleep-wake states...
October 9, 2018: Chronobiology International
Chia-Chu Chiang, Rajat S Shivacharan, Xile Wei, Luis E Gonzalez-Reyes, Dominique M Durand
KEY POINTS: Slow periodic activity can propagate with speeds around 0.1 m/s and be modulated by weak electric fields. Slow periodic activity in the longitudinal hippocampal slice can propagate without chemical synaptic transmission or gap junctions, but can generate electric fields which in turn activate neighboring cells. Applying local extracellular electric fields with amplitude in the range of endogenous fields is sufficient to modulate or block the propagation of this activity both in the in-silico and in-vitro models...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Ryan K Tisdale, John A Lesku, Gabriel J L Beckers, Alexei L Vyssotski, Niels C Rattenborg
Sleep in birds is composed of two distinct sub-states, remarkably similar to mammalian slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, it is unclear whether all aspects of mammalian sleep are present in birds. We examined whether birds suppress REM sleep in response to changes in sleeping conditions that presumably evoke an increase in perceived predation risk, as observed previously in rodents. Although pigeons sometimes sleep on the ground, they prefer to sleep on elevated perches at night, probably to avoid nocturnal mammalian ground predators...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yohko Takata, Yo Oishi, Xu-Zhao Zhou, Emi Hasegawa, Koji Takahashi, Yoan Cherasse, Takeshi Sakurai, Michael Lazarus
Sleep/wake behavior is controlled by a wide range of neuronal populations in the mammalian brain. Although the ventral midbrain/pons area is suggested to participate in sleep--wake regulation, the neuronal mechanisms have remained unclear. Here we found that non-specific cell ablation or selective ablation of GABAergic neurons by expressing diphtheria toxin fragment A in the ventral medial midbrain/pons area (VMP) in male mice induced a large increase in wakefulness that lasted at least 4 weeks. In contrast, selective ablation of dopaminergic neurons in the VMP had little effect on wakefulness...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sachi Tokunaga, Minako Ide, Takehiro Ishihara, Takako Matsumoto, Toshiro Maihara, Takeo Kato
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a type of immune-mediated encephalitis, which is a new category of treatment-responsive paraneoplastic encephalitis. In patients with this disease, electroencephalography (EEG) shows non-specific findings, but recently, a unique EEG pattern, named the extreme delta brush, was detected in 40% of adult patients and was suggested to be specific to this type of encephalitis. Here, we describe a two-year-old boy with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, who presented with speech arrest and disturbances of gait and cognition several weeks after developing febrile convulsions...
September 29, 2018: Brain & Development
Vaclav Kremen, Benjamin Henry Brinkmann, Jamie J Van Gompel, Squire Matt M Stead, Erik K St Louis, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Automated behavioral state classification in intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings may be beneficial for iEEG interpretation and quantifying sleep patterns to enable behavioral state dependent neuromodulation therapy in next generation implantable brain stimulation devices. Here, we introduce a fully automated unsupervised framework to differentiate between awake (AW), sleep (N2), and slow wave sleep (N3) using intracranial EEG (iEEG) only and validated with expert scored polysomnography...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Alessandro Amaddeo, Livio De Sanctis, Jorge Olmo Arroyo, Sonia Khirani, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Brigitte Fauroux
INTRODUCTION: Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe neurodevelopment disorder associated with abnormal breathing during wakefulness and disturbed nocturnal behaviour. Breathing abnormalities during daytime have been extensively reported but polysomnographic (PSG) findings have been poorly studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with RS carrying distinct mutations in MECP2 gene, who underwent a PSG between October 2014 and January 2018, were included in the study...
September 12, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Vladimir Miskovic, Kevin J MacDonald, L Jack Rhodes, Kimberly A Cote
We explored changes in multiscale brain signal complexity and power-law scaling exponents of electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency spectra across several distinct global states of consciousness induced in the natural physiological context of the human sleep cycle. We specifically aimed to link EEG complexity to a statistically unified representation of the neural power spectrum. Further, by utilizing surrogate-based tests of nonlinearity we also examined whether any of the sleep stage-dependent changes in entropy were separable from the linear stochastic effects contained in the power spectrum...
September 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Takato Honda, Tomoyuki Fujiyama, Chika Miyoshi, Aya Ikkyu, Noriko Hotta-Hirashima, Satomi Kanno, Seiya Mizuno, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa
Sleep is an evolutionally conserved behavior from vertebrates to invertebrates. The molecular mechanisms that determine daily sleep amounts and the neuronal substrates for homeostatic sleep need remain unknown. Through a large-scale forward genetic screen of sleep behaviors in mice, we previously demonstrated that the Sleepy mutant allele of the Sik3 protein kinase gene markedly increases daily nonrapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) amounts and sleep need. The Sleepy mutation deletes the in-frame exon 13 encoding a peptide stretch encompassing S551, a known PKA recognition site in SIK3...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
T Rusterholz, C Hamann, A Markovic, S J Schmidt, P Achermann, L Tarokh
Sleep specific oscillations of spindles and slow waves are generated through thalamocortical and cortico-cortical loops respectively, and provide a unique opportunity to measure the integrity of neuronal systems. Understanding the relative contribution of genetic factors to sleep oscillations is important for determining whether they constitute useful endophenotypes that mark vulnerability to psychiatric illness. Using high-density sleep EEG recordings in human adolescent twin pairs (n=60; 28 females), we find that over posterior regions 80 to 90% of the variance in slow oscillations, slow wave and spindle activity is due to genes...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Thomas M Moehlman, Jacco A de Zwart, Miranda G Chappel-Farley, Xiao Liu, Irene B McClain, Catie Chang, Hendrik Mandelkow, Pinar S Özbay, Nicholas L Johnson, Rebecca E Bieber, Katharine A Fernandez, Kelly A King, Christopher K Zalewski, Carmen C Brewer, Peter van Gelderen, Jeff H Duyn, Dante Picchioni
BACKGROUND: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sleep studies have been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining extended amounts of sleep in the sleep-adverse environment of the scanner and often have resorted to manipulations such as sleep depriving subjects before scanning. These manipulations limit the generalizability of the results. NEW METHOD: The current study is a methodological validation of procedures aimed at obtaining all-night fMRI data in sleeping subjects with minimal exposure to experimentally induced sleep deprivation...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Chris Gonzalez, Rachel Mak-McCully, Burke Rosen, Sydney S Cash, Patrick Chauvel, Hélène Bastuji, Marc Rey, Eric Halgren
Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12Hz), and followed by fast spindles (12-16Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy (n=10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort (n=3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TB) centered at 5-8Hz...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Soumen Majhi, Bidesh K Bera, Dibakar Ghosh, Matjaž Perc
Neuronal networks, similar to many other complex systems, self-organize into fascinating emergent states that are not only visually compelling, but also vital for the proper functioning of the brain. Synchronous spatiotemporal patterns, for example, play an important role in neuronal communication and plasticity, and in various cognitive processes. Recent research has shown that the coexistence of coherent and incoherent states, known as chimera states or simply chimeras, is particularly important and characteristic for neuronal systems...
September 12, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Youssouf Cissé, Hanieh Toossi, Masaru Ishibashi, Lynda Mainville, Christopher S Leonard, Antoine Adamantidis, Barbara E Jones
Acetylcholine (ACh) neurons in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum (PMT) are thought to play an important role in promoting cortical activation with waking (W) and paradoxical sleep [PS; or rapid eye movement (REM)], but have yet to be proven to do so by selective stimulation and simultaneous recording of identified ACh neurons. Here, we employed optogenetics combined with juxtacellular recording and labeling of neurons in transgenic (TG) mice expressing ChR2 in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-synthesizing neurons...
July 2018: ENeuro
Kensuke Yoshida, Shoi Shi, Maki Ukai-Tadenuma, Hiroshi Fujishima, Rei-Ichiro Ohno, Hiroki R Ueda
A primary goal of sleep research is to understand the molecular basis of sleep. Although some sleep/wake-promoting circuits and secreted substances have been identified, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep duration have been elusive. Here, to address these mechanisms, we developed a simple computational model of a cortical neuron with five channels and a pump, which recapitulates the cortical electrophysiological characteristics of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and wakefulness. Comprehensive bifurcation and detailed mathematical analyses predicted that leak K+ channels play a role in generating the electrophysiological characteristics of SWS, leading to a hypothesis that leak K+ channels play a role in the regulation of sleep duration...
October 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gary Garcia Molina, Tsvetomira Kirova Tsoneva, Jeff Jasko, Brenda Steele, Antonio Aquino, Keith Baehr, Sander Pastoor, Stefan Pfundtner, Lynn Ostrowski, Barbara Miller, Noah Papas, Brady Riedner, Giulio Tononi, David P White
Recent evidence reports cognitive, metabolic, and sleep restoration benefits resulting from the enhancement of sleep slow-waves using auditory stimulation. To make this concept practical for a consumer user, we have developed an integrated wearable closed-loop electroencephalogram (EEG) based system to deliver auditory stimulation during sleep. The stimulation is in the form of 50-millisecond-long tones separated by a constant one-second inter-tone interval at a volume that is dynamically modulated such that louder tones are delivered when sleep is deeper...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Niels Niethard, Hong-Viet V Ngo, Ingrid Ehrlich, Jan Born
Slow oscillations and sleep spindles are hallmarks of the EEG during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Both oscillatory events, especially when co-occurring in the constellation of spindles nesting in the slow oscillation upstate, are considered to support memory formation and underlying synaptic plasticity. The regulatory mechanisms of this function at the circuit level are poorly understood. Here, using two-photon imaging in mice, we relate EEG-recorded slow oscillations and spindles to calcium signals recorded from the soma of cortical putative pyramidal-like (Pyr) cells and neighboring parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV-Ins) or somatostatin-positive interneurons (SOM-Ins)...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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