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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017798/frailty-and-the-endocrine-system
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Clegg, Zaki Hassan-Smith
Frailty is a condition characterised by loss of biological reserves, failure of homoeostatic mechanisms, and vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The endocrine system is considered particularly important in frailty, because of its complex inter-relationships with the brain, immune system, and skeletal muscle. This Review summarises evidence indicating a key role for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the pathogenesis of frailty through aberrant regulation of glucocorticoid secretion, insulin-like growth factor signalling, and androgen production...
July 12, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648348/hypercalcemia-of-malignancy
#2
REVIEW
Steve Malangone, Christopher J Campen
A 60-year-old man initially presented with pain in the right upper quadrant in October 2010. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen pelvis completed at that time showed a mass at the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and multiple large liver lesions. A CT-guided liver biopsy revealed low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient was initially started on systemic treatment with sunitinib (Sutent) and octreotide. He developed intolerable side effects, including nausea and migraine. Therapy was discontinued in October 2011, when a CT scan revealed evidence of disease progression...
November 2015: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26057071/can-subclinical-rickets-cause-scfe-a-prospective-pilot-study
#3
Alexandre Arkader, Regina P Woon, Vicente Gilsanz
BACKGROUND: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common disorder of the growing hip; however, its etiology remains unknown. Vitamin D (25-OH) is a major regulator of bone homeostasis and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the major causes of rickets, and rickets has been associated with SCFE. Increased body mass index (BMI) has been linked to SCFE and obese children are known to have lower vitamin D levels. Therefore, we hypothesize that children who develop SCFE may have subclinical rickets predisposing them to the development of physeal disease...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25894639/progressive-osseous-heteroplasia-as-an-isolated-entity-or-overlapping-with-albright-hereditary-osteodystrophy
#4
Maria H Lin, Nawaporn Numbenjapon, Emily L Germain-Lee, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
INTRODUCTION: Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a condition of invasive heterotopic ossification. Reports of patients with mild POH with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), specifically pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) with hormonal resistance, suggest the possibility of a common molecular basis. GNAS has been implicated to account for overlapping features of POH and PHP Ia. Case 1: A 4-year-old boy with obesity, speech delay, and expanding subcutaneous masses on buttock/forearm...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25221399/myopathies-of-endocrine-disorders-a-prospective-clinical-and-biochemical-study
#5
Vikas Sharma, Papori Borah, Lakshya J Basumatary, Marami Das, Munindra Goswami, Ashok K Kayal
INTRODUCTION: MAJOR CATEGORIES OF ENDOCRINE MYOPATHY INCLUDE THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing's disease or steroid myopathy); thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy); vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies...
July 2014: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25187748/effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-untreated-graves-disease-with-vitamin-d-deficiency
#6
Omar N Alhuzaim, Naji Aljohani
OBJECTIVE: Besides its classical role in calcium and bone homeostasis, vitamin D is considered a potent immunomodulator that can affect the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of vitamin D correction to a patient with new onset Graves' disease (GD) with an underlying vitamin D deficiency. METHOD: We describe the effect of vitamin D3 on untreated Graves' disease with vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS: A healthy Saudi woman in her 40s sought consultation with a three-month history of palpitation...
2014: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24934596/myasthenia-gravis-paradox-versus-paradigm-in-autoimmunity
#7
REVIEW
Sonia Berrih-Aknin
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a paradigm of organ-specific autoimmune disease (AID). It is mediated by antibodies that target the neuromuscular junction. The purpose of this review is to place MG in the general context of autoimmunity, to summarize the common mechanisms between MG and other AIDs, and to describe the specific mechanisms of MG. We have chosen the most common organ-specific AIDs to compare with MG: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), multiple sclerosis (MS), some systemic AIDs (systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS)), as well as inflammatory diseases of the gut and liver (celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC))...
August 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24524669/interaction-of-the-endocrine-system-with-inflammation-a-function-of-energy-and-volume-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub
During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases...
2014: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24137267/hypophosphatemic-vitamin-d-resistant-osteomalacia-a-case-report
#9
Min Wang, Xia Cao, Bingzhen Cao
This study concerns the case of a 59-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital after experiencing systemic bone pain and muscle weakness for more than 2 years. The patient was diagnosed with numerous fractures via bone imaging emission computed tomography (ECT) and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory results showed a high alkaline phosphatase concentration. Thyroid nodules were visible on the thyroid and parathyroid glands during ultrasound examinations. However, no symptomatic or biochemical improvement was observed following a thyroid nodulectomy...
September 2013: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24050169/multiple-hormonal-dysregulation-as-determinant-of-low-physical-performance-and-mobility-in-older-persons
#10
REVIEW
Marcello Maggio, Fulvio Lauretani, Francesca De Vita, Shehzad Basaria, Giuseppe Lippi, Valeria Butto, Michele Luci, Chiara Cattabiani, Graziano Ceresini, Ignazio Verzicco, Luigi Ferrucci, Gian Paolo Ceda
Mobility-disability is a common condition in older individuals. Many factors, including the age-related hormonal dysregulation, may concur to the development of disability in the elderly. In fact, during the aging process it is observed an imbalance between anabolic hormones that decrease (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Vitamin D) and catabolic hormones (cortisol, thyroid hormones) that increase. We start this review focusing on the mechanisms by which anabolic and catabolic hormones may affect physical performance and mobility...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23596213/proximal-myopathy-diagnostic-approach-and-initial-management
#11
REVIEW
Ernest Suresh, Sunil Wimalaratna
Proximal myopathy presents as symmetrical weakness of proximal upper and/or lower limbs. There is a broad range of underlying causes including drugs, alcohol, thyroid disease, osteomalacia, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), hereditary myopathies, malignancy, infections and sarcoidosis. Clinical assessment should aim to distinguish proximal myopathy from other conditions that can present similarly, identify patients who need prompt attention, like those with cardiac, respiratory or pharyngeal muscle involvement, and determine underlying cause of myopathy...
August 2013: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23085014/vitamin-d-health-panacea-or-false-prophet
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Glade
Vitamin D deficiency, diagnosed when the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD(3)) concentration is less than 20 ng/mL, has joined vitamin A deficiency as two of the most common nutrition-responsive medical conditions worldwide. There have been more scientific articles published about vitamin D in the 21st century than about any other vitamin, reflecting the massive expansion of the field of vitamin D research. Adequate vitamin D status has been linked to decreased risks of developing specific cancers, including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, urinary bladder, kidney, skin, thyroid, and hematopoietic system (e...
January 2013: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23067161/-end-stage-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-metabolic-acidosis
#13
REVIEW
J Klaboch, S Opatrná, K Matoušovic, O Schück
Renal function disorder is inevitably associated with metabolic acidosis. An adult produces approximately 1 mmol of acids/kg of body weight every day (3 mmol/kg in children), derived from metabolization of proteins from food. Development of metabolic acidosis in patients with kidney disease is based on accumulation of acids and insufficient production of bicarbonates; alkaline loss represents a marginal issue here limited to patients with type II renal tubular acidosis only. The prevalence of this disorder increases with declining glomerular filtration (GFR) from 2% in patients with GFR 1...
July 2012: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22251708/hypoparathyroidism-in-an-egyptian-child-with-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Kotb Abbass Metwalley Kalil, Hekma Saad Fargalley
INTRODUCTION: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is reported to be present in one in eight million and is characterized by severe growth failure, early loss of hair, lipodystrophy, scleroderma, decreased joint mobility, osteolysis, early atherosclerosis and facial features that resemble those of an aged person. Apart from diabetes mellitus, there are no reported abnormalities of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary or adrenal function. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and hypoparathyroidism...
2012: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21964001/preliminary-report-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-advanced-cancer-patients-with-symptoms-of-fatigue-or-anorexia
#15
Rony Dev, Egidio Del Fabbro, Gary G Schwartz, David Hui, Shana L Palla, Noah Gutierrez, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in noncancer patients is associated with symptoms of fatigue, muscle weakness, and depression. These symptoms are common among advanced cancer patients. We investigated the prevalence of low serum vitamin D levels in cancer patients with fatigue or poor appetite and their association with symptom burden and other correctable endocrine abnormalities. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 100 consecutive cancer patients with appetite or fatigue scores of ≥4 of 10 referred to a supportive care clinic...
2011: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21923202/genetic-influences-in-sport-and-physical-performance
#16
REVIEW
Zudin Puthucheary, James R A Skipworth, Jai Rawal, Mike Loosemore, Ken Van Someren, Hugh E Montgomery
The common inheritance of approximately 20 000 genes defines each of us as human. However, substantial variation exists between individual human genomes, including 'replication' of gene sequences (copy number variation, tandem repeats), or changes in individual base pairs (mutations if <1% frequency and single nucleotide polymorphisms if >1% frequency). A vast array of human phenotypes (e.g. muscle strength, skeletal structure, tendon elasticity, and heart and lung size) influences sports performance, each itself the result of a complex interaction between a myriad of anatomical, biochemical and physiological systems...
October 1, 2011: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21699761/idiopathic-infantile-hypercalcaemia-in-5-month-old-girl
#17
J Gut, Š Kutílek
Idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia (IIH) is a mineral metabolism disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by high levels of serum calcium resulting in parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppression, muscle hypotonia, thirst, anorexia, failure to thrive, psychomotor retardation, constipation, nephrocalcinosis. Treatment consists of low calcium diet, glucocorticoids, furosemide. We present a case of 5-month old girl with IIH, where total calcaemia peaked to 4.25 mmol/l. The leading symptoms were failure to thrive, constipation, muscle hypotonia, dehydration...
2011: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20485898/evidence-based-non-skeletal-actions-of-vitamin-d
#18
REVIEW
Patricia Muszkat, Marilia Brasilio Rodrigues Camargo, Luiz Henrique Maciel Griz, Marise Lazaretti-Castro
Vitamin D is a major regulator of mineral homeostasis through its action in the kidney, intestine, bone and parathyroid glands. On these tissues, its active form, calcitriol, acts by binding to a specific nuclear receptor that belongs to the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family. This receptor, however, has also been identified in several additional human tissues. So, apart from its traditional actions related to calcium, vitamin D and its synthetic analogs are being increasingly recognized for their anti-proliferative, pro-differentiative and immunomodulatory activities...
March 2010: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20182414/vitamin-d-a-pleiotropic-hormone
#19
Annemieke Verstuyf, Geert Carmeliet, Roger Bouillon, Chantal Mathieu
The secosteroid hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is the natural ligand for the vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon binding of the ligand, the vitamin D receptor heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and binds to vitamin D response elements in the promoter region of target genes to induce/repress their expression. The target genes that have been identified so far are heterogeneous in nature and reflect the great spectrum of biological activities of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)...
July 2010: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19421241/endocrine-and-musculoskeletal-abnormalities-in-patients-with-down-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Yousra Hawli, Mona Nasrallah, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan
Down syndrome has a prevalence of one in 500 to one in 1,000 live births and is the most common cause of mental retardation. Most patients are treated in childhood and adolescence for mental or growth retardation. Studies that evaluate bone mass in Down syndrome are limited, and many are small case series in pediatric and adult populations who live either in the community or in residential institutions. Several environmental and hormonal factors contribute to low bone mineral density in such patients. Muscle hypotonia, low amounts of physical activity, poor calcium and vitamin D intakes, hypogonadism, growth retardation and thyroid dysfunction contribute to substantial impairments in skeletal maturation and bone-mass accrual that predispose these patients to fragility fractures...
June 2009: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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