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Rongrong Li, Kang Yu, Qiang Wang, Lilin Wang, Jiangfeng Mao, Jiaming Qian
Pellagra usually results from niacin deficiency and presents with the classic triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. It is most commonly associated with malnutrition and poverty and is extremely rare in industrialized societies. Furthermore, pellagra can be induced by special clinical conditions that interfere with the intake, absorption, and metabolism of niacin. Because of its detrimental effects on health and its favorable prognosis after supplementation of nicotinamide, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized...
August 4, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Frank A Post
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Kelvin Mponda, John Masenga
BACKGROUND: As global population of the elderly continues to rise, a critical need to provide it with health services, including dermatology, will be significant, especially in developing countries like Tanzania. To adequately meet their dermatologic needs, knowledge of local patterns of skin conditions is vital. This study was aimed to describe the spectrum of skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Northern Tanzania...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Norihiko Terada, Kensuke Kinoshita, Shijima Taguchi, Yasuharu Tokuda
Deficiency of multiple vitamins can be identified in alcoholic and malnourished patients. We report a patient with Wernicke encephalopathy, a B1 deficiency and pellagra, a niacin deficiency. A 61-year-old Japanese man presented with generalised weakness. He had drunk alcohol heavily for more than a year without eating adequate meals. Physical examination showed disorientation, eye movement impairment, muscle wasting and a rash over the limbs. Multivitamin supplementations improved all the symptoms. Pellagra causes dementia, diarrhoea, or dermatitis, and can mimic non-specific erythaema in alcoholics...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Alexandra Barsell, Scott A Norton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: JAMA Dermatology
Grietje Bouma, Martijn van Faassen, Gursah Kats-Ugurlu, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Ido P Kema, Annemiek M E Walenkamp
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin and niacin (vitamin B3). The latter is critical for normal cellular metabolism. Tryptophan and niacin can be deficient in patients with serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Niacin deficiency may lead to severe symptoms including pellagra. In patients with serotonin-producing NET, data on niacin status are scarce and niacin supplementation hardly receives attention. We aimed to assess the niacin status before and after supplementation in these patients...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
Jared Martínez-Coronado, Bertha Torres-Alvarez, Juan Pablo Castanedo-Cázares
Pellagra is a nutritional disorder secondary to niacin deficiency. The classical triad is dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. We report the case of a young girl with hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who exhibited the classical pellagra symptoms, despite apparent adequate nutritional intake. Her condition resolved after oral niacin supplements were administered. Although this association has not previously been recognized, an inherited connective tissue disorder may be related to the appearance of pellagra...
2015: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Charles S Bryan, Shane R Mull
The conquest of pellagra is commonly associated with one name: Joseph Goldberger of the US Public Health Service, who in 1914 went south, concluded within 4 months that the cause was inadequate diet, spent the rest of his life researching the disease, and--before his death from cancer in 1929--found that brewer's yeast could prevent and treat it at nominal cost. It does Goldberger no discredit to emphasize that between 1907 and 1914 a patchwork coalition of asylum superintendents, practicing physicians, local health officials, and others established for the first time an English-language competence in pellagra, sifted through competing hypotheses, and narrowed the choices down to two: an insect-borne infection hypothesis, championed by the flamboyant European Louis Westerna Sambon, and the new "vitamine hypothesis," proffered by Casimir Funk in early 1912 and articulated later that year by two members of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Fleming Mant Sandwith and Rupert Blue...
2015: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tuzz-Ying Song, Shu-Lan Yeh, Miao-Lin Hu, Mei-Yau Chen, Nae-Cherng Yang
Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells...
December 2015: Biogerontology
Anping Wang, Ravi Prakash, Anitha Chakravarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: General Hospital Psychiatry
André Luiz Maltos, Guilherme Vannucchi Portari, Giselle Vanessa Moraes, Marina Casteli Rodrigues Monteiro, Helio Vannucchi, Daniel Ferreira da Cunha
Flaky paint dermatosis, characterized by extensive, often bilateral areas of flaking and pigmentation, mostly in sun unexposed areas is considered a feature of kwashiorkor in both children and adults, and must be differentiated from other dermatosis, including chapped and xerotica skin, and pellagra. In this case series we provide evidence that malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis and infection/inflammation shown laboratory data suggestive of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation, besides decreased urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1 MN), a marker of pellagra...
June 2015: Nutrition
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Sumit Kr Ghosh, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Shubhabrata Das, Sourav Pradhan, Abhishek Das
In developing countries like India, nutritional deficiencies are prevalent and hyperpigmentation due to protein energy malnutrition, zinc deficiency and pellagra are common. Indian women, especially vegetarian are prone to vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present as anaemia, neurological defect, gastrointestinal symptoms or dementia. Hyperpigmentation as the first presentation of Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare. Our patient, a 45 year-old Hindu vegetarian female presented to us with generalized hyperpigmentation...
August 2014: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yashashree Gupta, Ira Shah
Pellagra is a disorder characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death, resulting from a deficiency of niacin or its precursor tryptophan. Ethionamide (a second-line antituberculosis agent)-induced pellagra is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with nicotinamide can prevent life-threatening complications. To date, only three cases have been reported. We report a 13-year-old girl presenting with ethionamide-induced pellagra that resolved after the administration of niacin...
August 2015: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Joaquín Bernardo Cofiño, María José Menéndez Calderón, Andrés Quevedo de Quevedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2015: Medicina Clínica
Atsuko Ikenouchi-Sugita, Kazunari Sugita
Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches...
2015: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
David Gentilcore
This article explores the extent to which the bacterial concept of disease acted as an obstacle to the understanding of deficiency diseases, by focusing on explorations into the cause of pellagra in the early twentieth century. In 1900, pellagra had been epidemic in Italy for 150 years and was soon to become so in the United States, yet the responses of medical investigators differed substantially. To account for these, the article reconstructs the sharply contrasting reactions to a provocative theory proposed by Louis Sambon...
January 2016: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Johanna T Dwyer, Kathryn L Wiemer, Omar Dary, Carl L Keen, Janet C King, Kevin B Miller, Martin A Philbert, Valerie Tarasuk, Christine L Taylor, P Courtney Gaine, Ashley B Jarvis, Regan L Bailey
Fortification is the process of adding nutrients or non-nutrient bioactive components to edible products (e.g., food, food constituents, or supplements). Fortification can be used to correct or prevent widespread nutrient intake shortfalls and associated deficiencies, to balance the total nutrient profile of a diet, to restore nutrients lost in processing, or to appeal to consumers looking to supplement their diet. Food fortification could be considered as a public health strategy to enhance nutrient intakes of a population...
January 2015: Advances in Nutrition
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Sarah L Lake, Donald M Dougherty
The pellagragenic effect of leucine (Leu) has been proposed to involve modulation of L-tryptophan (Trp) metabolism along the hepatic kynurenine pathway. Here, we discuss some of the mechanisms suggested and report the effects in healthy volunteers of single doses of Leu (4.05-6.75 g) administered in a 16-amino acid mixture on concentrations of plasma Trp and its kynurenine metabolites. Flux of Trp through Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is dose-dependently enhanced most probably by Leu and can be attributed to TDO activation...
2014: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Yiping Ma, Zhi Xiang, Lin Lin, Jiechen Zhang, Hongsheng Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Wei Wang, Bo Liang
The 45-year-old male patient described in this case report had a classic case of pellagra. The patient was initially brought to a psychiatric hospital because of disorderly behavior. On admission the patient was unable to provide a history so he was given a provisional diagnosis of Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Despite having the cardinal symptoms of dermatitis, dementia and (three days after admission) diarrhea it took 20 days to confirm the diagnosis of pellagra. After initiation of appropriate treatment it took about six months for the patient to make a complete recovery...
December 2012: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
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