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Pellagra

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468544/-shrouded-in-a-dark-fog-comparison-of-the-diagnosis-of-pellagra-in-venice-and-general-paralysis-of-the-insane-in-the-united-kingdom-1840-1900
#1
Egidio Priani
The debate on the causes and the nature of pellagra in Italy during the nineteenth century resembles and evokes the similar debate on General Paralysis of the Insane (GPI) that was growing at the same time in the United Kingdom. Pellagra and GPI had a massive and virulent impact on the populations of Italy and the UK, respectively, and contributed to a great extent to the increase and overcrowding of the asylum populations in these countries. This article compares the two illnesses by examining the features of their nosographic positioning, aetiology and pathogenesis...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291135/depletion-of-epidermal-langerhans-cells-in-the-skin-lesions-of-pellagra-patients
#2
Sayaka Yamaguchi, Takuya Miyagi, Yoko Sogabe, Masahito Yasuda, Nobuo Kanazawa, Atsushi Utani, Seiichi Izaki, Hiroshi Uezato, Kenzo Takahashi
Pellagra is a nutrient deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin levels. Recent studies have shown that numbers of epidermal Langerhans cells decreased in other diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, including necrolytic migratory erythema and acrodermatitis enteropathica. Epidermal Langerhans cells are capable of modulating or even halting the inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the number of Langerhans cells and other dendritic cells, and maturation of epidermal Langerhans cells in the lesional and adjacent non-lesional skin in pellagra patients...
June 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219990/an-outbreak-of-pellagra-in-the-kasese-catchment-area-dowa-malawi
#3
George Matapandeu, Samuel H Dunn, Patti Pagels
AbstractPellagra is a deficiency of niacin or its amino acid precursor, tryptophan, which presents with the classic four Ds: the characteristic dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if left untreated. The incidence of pellagra is quite rare presently because of increased awareness and strategies such as vitamin fortification. However, the deficiency is still present in cultures that rely on maize as their primary source of sustenance. We report a recent outbreak in a catchment area in Kasese, Malawi, of 691 cases of pellagra which were successfully treated with niacin supplementation...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100816/diets-derived-from-maize-monoculture-cause-maternal-infanticides-in-the-endangered-european-hamster-due-to-a-vitamin-b3-deficiency
#4
Mathilde L Tissier, Yves Handrich, Odeline Dallongeville, Jean-Patrice Robin, Caroline Habold
From 1735 to 1940, maize-based diets led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people from pellagra, a complex disease caused by tryptophan and vitamin B3 deficiencies. The current cereal monoculture trend restricts farmland animals to similarly monotonous diets. However, few studies have distinguished the effects of crop nutritional properties on the reproduction of these species from those of other detrimental factors such as pesticide toxicity or agricultural ploughing. This study shows that maize-based diets cause high rates of maternal infanticides in the European hamster, a farmland species on the verge of extinction in Western Europe...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491713/pellagra-secondary-to-medication-and-alcoholism-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Rongrong Li, Kang Yu, Qiang Wang, Lilin Wang, Jiangfeng Mao, Jiaming Qian
Pellagra usually results from niacin deficiency and presents with the classic triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. It is most commonly associated with malnutrition and poverty and is extremely rare in industrialized societies. Furthermore, pellagra can be induced by special clinical conditions that interfere with the intake, absorption, and metabolism of niacin. Because of its detrimental effects on health and its favorable prognosis after supplementation of nicotinamide, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized...
August 4, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393553/pellagra-a-rare-complication-of-isoniazid-therapy
#6
Frank A Post
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905256/skin-diseases-among-elderly-patients-attending-skin-clinic-at-the-regional-dermatology-training-centre-northern-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Kelvin Mponda, John Masenga
BACKGROUND: As global population of the elderly continues to rise, a critical need to provide it with health services, including dermatology, will be significant, especially in developing countries like Tanzania. To adequately meet their dermatologic needs, knowledge of local patterns of skin conditions is vital. This study was aimed to describe the spectrum of skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Northern Tanzania...
February 22, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26490997/wernicke-encephalopathy-and-pellagra-in-an-alcoholic-and-malnourished-patient
#8
Norihiko Terada, Kensuke Kinoshita, Shijima Taguchi, Yasuharu Tokuda
Deficiency of multiple vitamins can be identified in alcoholic and malnourished patients. We report a patient with Wernicke encephalopathy, a B1 deficiency and pellagra, a niacin deficiency. A 61-year-old Japanese man presented with generalised weakness. He had drunk alcohol heavily for more than a year without eating adequate meals. Physical examination showed disorientation, eye movement impairment, muscle wasting and a rash over the limbs. Multivitamin supplementations improved all the symptoms. Pellagra causes dementia, diarrhoea, or dermatitis, and can mimic non-specific erythaema in alcoholics...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352123/pellagra-s-three-ds-dermatology-death-and-dracula
#9
REVIEW
Alexandra Barsell, Scott A Norton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26335390/niacin-vitamin-b3-supplementation-in-patients-with-serotonin-producing-neuroendocrine-tumor
#10
Grietje Bouma, Martijn van Faassen, Gursah Kats-Ugurlu, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Ido P Kema, Annemiek M E Walenkamp
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin and niacin (vitamin B3). The latter is critical for normal cellular metabolism. Tryptophan and niacin can be deficient in patients with serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Niacin deficiency may lead to severe symptoms including pellagra. In patients with serotonin-producing NET, data on niacin status are scarce and niacin supplementation hardly receives attention. We aimed to assess the niacin status before and after supplementation in these patients...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333860/goose-skin-in-a-girl-with-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#11
Jared Martínez-Coronado, Bertha Torres-Alvarez, Juan Pablo Castanedo-Cázares
Pellagra is a nutritional disorder secondary to niacin deficiency. The classical triad is dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. We report the case of a young girl with hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who exhibited the classical pellagra symptoms, despite apparent adequate nutritional intake. Her condition resolved after oral niacin supplements were administered. Although this association has not previously been recognized, an inherited connective tissue disorder may be related to the appearance of pellagra...
2015: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330657/pellagra-pre-goldberger-rupert-blue-fleming-sandwith-and-the-vitamine-hypothesis
#12
Charles S Bryan, Shane R Mull
The conquest of pellagra is commonly associated with one name: Joseph Goldberger of the US Public Health Service, who in 1914 went south, concluded within 4 months that the cause was inadequate diet, spent the rest of his life researching the disease, and--before his death from cancer in 1929--found that brewer's yeast could prevent and treat it at nominal cost. It does Goldberger no discredit to emphasize that between 1907 and 1914 a patchwork coalition of asylum superintendents, practicing physicians, local health officials, and others established for the first time an English-language competence in pellagra, sifted through competing hypotheses, and narrowed the choices down to two: an insect-borne infection hypothesis, championed by the flamboyant European Louis Westerna Sambon, and the new "vitamine hypothesis," proffered by Casimir Funk in early 1912 and articulated later that year by two members of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Fleming Mant Sandwith and Rupert Blue...
2015: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330291/a-nampt-inhibitor-fk866-mimics-vitamin-b3-deficiency-by-causing-senescence-of-human-fibroblastic-hs68-cells-via-attenuation-of-nad-sirt1-signaling
#13
Tuzz-Ying Song, Shu-Lan Yeh, Miao-Lin Hu, Mei-Yau Chen, Nae-Cherng Yang
Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells...
December 2015: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26323963/challenges-for-treatment-of-alcoholic-neuropathic-symptoms-aggravated-by-niacin-treatment-of-alcoholic-pellagra
#14
Anping Wang, Ravi Prakash, Anitha Chakravarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25933499/niacin-metabolism-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activation-in-malnourished-patients-with-flaky-paint-dermatosis
#15
André Luiz Maltos, Guilherme Vannucchi Portari, Giselle Vanessa Moraes, Marina Casteli Rodrigues Monteiro, Helio Vannucchi, Daniel Ferreira da Cunha
Flaky paint dermatosis, characterized by extensive, often bilateral areas of flaking and pigmentation, mostly in sun unexposed areas is considered a feature of kwashiorkor in both children and adults, and must be differentiated from other dermatosis, including chapped and xerotica skin, and pellagra. In this case series we provide evidence that malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis and infection/inflammation shown laboratory data suggestive of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation, besides decreased urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1 MN), a marker of pellagra...
June 2015: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25856944/generalised-hyperpigmentation-in-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#16
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Sumit Kr Ghosh, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Shubhabrata Das, Sourav Pradhan, Abhishek Das
In developing countries like India, nutritional deficiencies are prevalent and hyperpigmentation due to protein energy malnutrition, zinc deficiency and pellagra are common. Indian women, especially vegetarian are prone to vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present as anaemia, neurological defect, gastrointestinal symptoms or dementia. Hyperpigmentation as the first presentation of Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare. Our patient, a 45 year-old Hindu vegetarian female presented to us with generalized hyperpigmentation...
August 2014: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828829/ethionamide-induced-pellagra
#17
Yashashree Gupta, Ira Shah
Pellagra is a disorder characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death, resulting from a deficiency of niacin or its precursor tryptophan. Ethionamide (a second-line antituberculosis agent)-induced pellagra is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with nicotinamide can prevent life-threatening complications. To date, only three cases have been reported. We report a 13-year-old girl presenting with ethionamide-induced pellagra that resolved after the administration of niacin...
August 2015: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25817450/-pellagra
#18
Joaquín Bernardo Cofiño, María José Menéndez Calderón, Andrés Quevedo de Quevedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2015: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25765687/-niacin-deficiency-and-cutaneous-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Atsuko Ikenouchi-Sugita, Kazunari Sugita
Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches...
2015: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25740951/louis-sambon-and-the-clash-of-pellagra-etiologies-in-italy-and-the-united-states-1905-14
#20
David Gentilcore
This article explores the extent to which the bacterial concept of disease acted as an obstacle to the understanding of deficiency diseases, by focusing on explorations into the cause of pellagra in the early twentieth century. In 1900, pellagra had been epidemic in Italy for 150 years and was soon to become so in the United States, yet the responses of medical investigators differed substantially. To account for these, the article reconstructs the sharply contrasting reactions to a provocative theory proposed by Louis Sambon...
January 2016: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
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