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Alvar Loria, Pedro Arroyo, Victoria Fernandez, Jeanette Pardio, Hugo Laviada
BACKGROUND: The Mayas of the State of Yucatan in Mexico are the only aboriginal group with obesity and diabetes data before 1997. OBJECTIVE: To analyze socioeconomic trends associated with the increase in obesity and diabetes seen in rural Yucatan from 1962 to 2000. METHODS: Body weight, height and venous Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) were measured in 263 rural Maya adults participating in a 2000 nutrition survey. RESULTS: Diabetes (FBG > 125 mg/dL) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) were 10...
February 20, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Youichi Ogawa, Manao Kinoshita, Shinji Shimada, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura
The skin is the third most zinc (Zn)-abundant tissue in the body. The skin consists of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, and each fraction is composed of various types of cells. Firstly, we review the physiological functions of Zn and Zn transporters in these cells. Several human disorders accompanied with skin manifestations are caused by mutations or dysregulation in Zn transporters; acrodermatitis enteropathica (Zrt-, Irt-like protein (ZIP)4 in the intestinal epithelium and possibly epidermal basal keratinocytes), the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (ZIP13 in the dermal fibroblasts), transient neonatal Zn deficiency (Zn transporter (ZnT)2 in the secretory vesicles of mammary glands), and epidermodysplasia verruciformis (ZnT1 in the epidermal keratinocytes)...
February 11, 2018: Nutrients
Shi Hui, Lu Heng, Wang Shaodong, Wang Fangyu, Wang Zhenkai
Pellagra is a nutritional disease caused by a deficiency of niacin. It may lead to death if not identified and treated timely. We review the literature and report a female patient presented with clinical features of pellagra as a complication of Crohn's disease.
November 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Kishore L Jayakumar, Robert G Micheletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Haagen D Klaus
Diverse pathological processes can produce overlapping or even indistinguishable patterns of abnormal bone formation or destruction, representing a fundamental challenge in the understanding of ancient diseases. This paper discusses increasing rigor in differential diagnosis through the paleopathological study of scurvy. First, paleopathology's use of descriptive terminology can strive to more thoroughly incorporate international standards of anatomical terminology. Second, improved observation and description of abnormal skeletal features can help distinguish between anemia or vitamin C deficiency...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Nicola Milanesi, Massimo Gola, Stefano Francalanci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Andreia de Oliveira Alves, Thaissa Bortolato, Fred Bernardes Filho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sarah Kyuragi Luthe, Ryota Sato
BACKGROUND: Pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan, the precursor of niacin, is a rare disease in developed countries where alcoholism is a major risk factor due to malnutrition and lack of B vitamins. Although pellagra involves treatable dementia and psychosis, it is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries. CASE REPORT: In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Elizabeth A Wang, Jason Kao, Michelle Y Cheng, Chelsea Ma, Soneet Dhillon, Thomas Konia, Emanual Maverakis, Cindy J Chambers
Despite characteristic features, psoriasis can mimic other dermatologic conditions, such as seborrheic dermatitis, lichen simplex chronicus, and certain nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra. We present a patient with a longstanding history of severe plaque psoriasis who presented with disfiguring scaly plaques involving greater than 80% body surface area. The patient's disease was minimally responsive to multiple therapies. Repeat punch biopsies demonstrated parakeratosis, psoriasiform hyperplasia, and dilated blood vessels consistent with psoriasis...
May 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Egidio Priani
The debate on the causes and the nature of pellagra in Italy during the nineteenth century resembles and evokes the similar debate on General Paralysis of the Insane (GPI) that was growing at the same time in the United Kingdom. Pellagra and GPI had a massive and virulent impact on the populations of Italy and the UK, respectively, and contributed to a great extent to the increase and overcrowding of the asylum populations in these countries. This article compares the two illnesses by examining the features of their nosographic positioning, aetiology and pathogenesis...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
Sayaka Yamaguchi, Takuya Miyagi, Yoko Sogabe, Masahito Yasuda, Nobuo Kanazawa, Atsushi Utani, Seiichi Izaki, Hiroshi Uezato, Kenzo Takahashi
Pellagra is a nutrient deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin levels. Recent studies have shown that numbers of epidermal Langerhans cells decreased in other diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, including necrolytic migratory erythema and acrodermatitis enteropathica. Epidermal Langerhans cells are capable of modulating or even halting the inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the number of Langerhans cells and other dendritic cells, and maturation of epidermal Langerhans cells in the lesional and adjacent non-lesional skin in pellagra patients...
June 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
George Matapandeu, Samuel H Dunn, Patti Pagels
AbstractPellagra is a deficiency of niacin or its amino acid precursor, tryptophan, which presents with the classic four Ds: the characteristic dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if left untreated. The incidence of pellagra is quite rare presently because of increased awareness and strategies such as vitamin fortification. However, the deficiency is still present in cultures that rely on maize as their primary source of sustenance. We report a recent outbreak in a catchment area in Kasese, Malawi, of 691 cases of pellagra which were successfully treated with niacin supplementation...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mathilde L Tissier, Yves Handrich, Odeline Dallongeville, Jean-Patrice Robin, Caroline Habold
From 1735 to 1940, maize-based diets led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people from pellagra, a complex disease caused by tryptophan and vitamin B3 deficiencies. The current cereal monoculture trend restricts farmland animals to similarly monotonous diets. However, few studies have distinguished the effects of crop nutritional properties on the reproduction of these species from those of other detrimental factors such as pesticide toxicity or agricultural ploughing. This study shows that maize-based diets cause high rates of maternal infanticides in the European hamster, a farmland species on the verge of extinction in Western Europe...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Rongrong Li, Kang Yu, Qiang Wang, Lilin Wang, Jiangfeng Mao, Jiaming Qian
Pellagra usually results from niacin deficiency and presents with the classic triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. It is most commonly associated with malnutrition and poverty and is extremely rare in industrialized societies. Furthermore, pellagra can be induced by special clinical conditions that interfere with the intake, absorption, and metabolism of niacin. Because of its detrimental effects on health and its favorable prognosis after supplementation of nicotinamide, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized...
August 4, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Frank A Post
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Kelvin Mponda, John Masenga
BACKGROUND: As global population of the elderly continues to rise, a critical need to provide it with health services, including dermatology, will be significant, especially in developing countries like Tanzania. To adequately meet their dermatologic needs, knowledge of local patterns of skin conditions is vital. This study was aimed to describe the spectrum of skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Northern Tanzania...
February 22, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Norihiko Terada, Kensuke Kinoshita, Shijima Taguchi, Yasuharu Tokuda
Deficiency of multiple vitamins can be identified in alcoholic and malnourished patients. We report a patient with Wernicke encephalopathy, a B1 deficiency and pellagra, a niacin deficiency. A 61-year-old Japanese man presented with generalised weakness. He had drunk alcohol heavily for more than a year without eating adequate meals. Physical examination showed disorientation, eye movement impairment, muscle wasting and a rash over the limbs. Multivitamin supplementations improved all the symptoms. Pellagra causes dementia, diarrhoea, or dermatitis, and can mimic non-specific erythaema in alcoholics...
October 21, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
Alexandra Barsell, Scott A Norton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: JAMA Dermatology
Grietje Bouma, Martijn van Faassen, Gursah Kats-Ugurlu, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Ido P Kema, Annemiek M E Walenkamp
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin and niacin (vitamin B3). The latter is critical for normal cellular metabolism. Tryptophan and niacin can be deficient in patients with serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Niacin deficiency may lead to severe symptoms including pellagra. In patients with serotonin-producing NET, data on niacin status are scarce and niacin supplementation hardly receives attention. We aimed to assess the niacin status before and after supplementation in these patients...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
Jared Martínez-Coronado, Bertha Torres-Alvarez, Juan Pablo Castanedo-Cázares
Pellagra is a nutritional disorder secondary to niacin deficiency. The classical triad is dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. We report the case of a young girl with hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who exhibited the classical pellagra symptoms, despite apparent adequate nutritional intake. Her condition resolved after oral niacin supplements were administered. Although this association has not previously been recognized, an inherited connective tissue disorder may be related to the appearance of pellagra...
2015: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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