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Ana-María Fernández-Romero, Francesca Maestrelli, Paola Angela Mura, Antonio María Rabasco, María Luisa González-Rodríguez
In this study, the encapsulation of curcumin (Cur) in "drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes (DCL)" by following the double-loading technique (DL) was proposed, giving rise to DCL⁻DL. The aim was to analyze the effect of cyclodextrin (CD) on the physicochemical, stability, and drug-release properties of liposomes. After selecting didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as the cationic lipid, DCL⁻DL was formulated by adding 2-hydroxypropyl-α/β/γ-CD (HPβCD)⁻Cur complexes into the aqueous phase...
December 3, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Andrew H Stephen, Meghal Shah, Jacob T Sim, Ayorinde Soipe, Stephanie N Lueckel, Tareq Kheirbek, Daithi S Heffernan, Sean F Monaghan, Charles A Adams
BACKGROUND: The population of older adults is rapidly growing and more older patients are presenting with abdominal trauma. Outcomes have not been well defined for patients that require a damage control approach(DCL). METHODS: This was a retrospective study at a level one trauma center of patients age 65 years and older with abdominal trauma that required DCL. Outcomes reviewed included mortality, length of stay, discharge disposition. Presenting vital signs and laboratories were reviewed to identify predictors of mortality...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Daniel C Cullinane, Randeep S Jawa, John J Como, Ashlee Moore, David S Morris, Jerry Cheriyan, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Stephanie R Goldberg, Laura Petrey, Gregory Schaefer, Kosar A Khwaja, Susan E Rowell, Ronald R Barbosa, Gary A Bass, George Kasotakis, Bryce Rh Robinson
BACKGROUND: The management of penetrating colon injuries in civilians has evolved over the last four decades. The objectives of this meta-analysis are to evaluate the current treatment regimens available for penetrating colon injuries and assess the role of anastomosis in damage control surgery to develop a practice management guideline for surgeons. METHODS: Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, a subcommittee of the Practice Management Guidelines section of EAST conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE articles from 1980 through 2017...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yu Zhou, Chen Li, Jianzhao Peng, Liangxu Xie, Ling Meng, Qingrong Li, Jianfu Zhang, Xiang David Li, Xin Li, Xuhui Huang, Xiaoyu Li
Dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) has emerged as an efficient tool for ligand discovery and become an important discovery modality in biomedical research. However, the applications of DCLs have been significantly hampered by low library diversity and limited analytical methods capable of processing large libraries. Here, we report a strategy that has addressed this limitation and can select cooperatively binding small-molecule pairs from large-scale dynamic libraries. Our approach is based on DNA-mediated dynamic hybridization, DNA-encoding, and a photo-cross-linking-based decoding scheme...
November 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abdullah Mayati, Amélie Moreau, Marc Le Vée, Arnaud Bruyère, Elodie Jouan, Claire Denizot, Yannick Parmentier, Olivier Fardel
HepaRG is an original human hepatoma cell line, acquiring highly differentiated hepatic features when exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). To search alternatives to DMSO, which may exert some toxicity, we have analyzed the effects of forskolin (FSK), a cAMP-generating agent known to favor differentiation of various cell types. FSK used at 50 µM for 3 days was found to promote polarization of high density-plated HepaRG cells, i.e., it markedly enhanced the formation of functional biliary canaliculi structures...
October 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhanbiao Li, Tong Zhang, Xiuqin Huang, Guohui Zhou
Both Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) belong to the family Reoviridae , and synergistic infection of these two viruses commonly occurs in the field. This study revealed that both SRBSDV and RRSV affect the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and form different virus-derived interfering RNA (vsiRNA) profiles in rice. Co-infection of rice by SRBSDV and RRSV up-regulated the expression of rice DICER-like (DCL) proteins but down-regulated the expression of rice RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs), and the accumulation of vsiRNAs of either RBSDV or RRSV was decreased compared with that in singly infected plants...
October 30, 2018: Viruses
Olivier Thibaut, Bragard Claude
Although viroids are the smallest and simplest plant pathogens known, the molecular mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis remain unclear. To unravel these mechanisms, a dual approach was implemented consisting of in silico identification of potential tomato silencing targets of pospiviroids, and the experimental validation of these targets through the sequencing of small RNAs and RNA ends extracted from tomatoes infected with a severe isolate of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd). The generated RNA ends were also used to monitor the differentially-expressed genes...
October 26, 2018: Viruses
Konstantina Katsarou, Eleni Mitta, Eirini Bardani, Anastasis Oulas, Elena Dadami, Kriton Kalantidis
RNA silencing is a universal mechanism involved in development, epigenetic modifications and responses against biotic (viruses-viroids) and abiotic stresses. The major components of this mechanism are Dicer-like (DCL), Argonaute (AGO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. Understanding the role of each component is of great scientific and agronomic importance. Plants including Nicotiana benthamiana, an important plant model, have usually four DCL proteins, each of which has a specific role namely, being responsible for the production of an exclusive small RNA population...
October 21, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ilya Yakavets, Henri-Pierre Lassalle, Dietrich Scheglmann, Arno Wiehe, Vladimir Zorin, Lina Bezdetnaya
The main goal of this study was to use hybrid delivery system for effective transportation of temoporfin ( meta -tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin, mTHPC) to target tissue. We suggested to couple two independent delivery systems (liposomes and inclusion complexes) to achieve drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome (DCL) nanoconstructs. We further optimized the composition of DCLs, aiming to alter in a more favorable way a distribution of temoporfin in tumor tissue. We have prepared DCLs with different compositions varying the concentration of mTHPC and the type of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives (Hydroxypropyl-, Methyl- and Trimethyl-β-CD)...
October 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Alexander G Ekström, Jue Theresa Wang, Juraj Bella, Dominic J Campopiano
Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) is a powerful tool to identify ligands for biological targets. We used 19F NMR as an in situ, non-invasive technique for measuring the composition of a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of N-acylhydrazones (NAHs). An NAH DCL, constructed from a fluoro-aromatic aldehyde and a small set of hydrazides, was targetted at ecFabH, an essential enzyme in bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. Our NMR analysis identified a tert-butyl NAH as the best binder which was confirmed by enzymatic assay...
October 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jaime Nivala, Stefanie Kahl, Johannes Boog, Manfred van Afferden, Thorsten Reemtsma, Roland A Müller
Six pilot-scale treatment wetlands treating municipal wastewater were monitored for classical wastewater parameters and selected Emerging Organic Compounds (EOCs): caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), naproxen (NPX), benzotriazole (BTZ), diclofenac (DCL), acesulfame (ACE) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on a weekly basis over the course of one year. Treatment efficacy of the wetland systems was compared to that of a municipal wastewater treatment plant adjacent to the research site (activated sludge technology). The aerated wetlands VAp and HAp, and the two-stage vertical flow system VGp + VSp showed the highest treatment efficacy (>70% removal on a mass basis) and comparable treatment efficacy to the conventional WWTP for removal of CAF, IBU, NPX, BTZ, and DCL...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Mei Wu, Hongbin Ma, Xinghong Zhang
Robot localization, particularly multirobot localization, is an important task for multirobot teams. In this paper, a decentralized cooperative localization (DCL) algorithm with fault detection and isolation is proposed to estimate the positions of robots in mobile robot teams. To calculate the interestimate correlations in a distributed manner, the split covariance intersection filter (SCIF) is applied in the algorithm. Based on the split covariance intersection filter cooperative localization (SCIFCL) algorithm, we adopt fault detection and isolation (FDI) to improve the robustness and accuracy of the DCL results...
October 8, 2018: Sensors
Monica R Lininger, Theresa E Leahy, Elise C Haug, Thomas G Bowman
Background: A reliable measure of dynamic postural control is needed for inclusion in the sports-related concussion assessment battery. Currently, there is not a clinical gold standard. The Limits of Stability (LOS) test has potential to be a useful tool to collect objective data on important dynamic postural stability variables. Psychometric properties of the LOS test with healthy young adults are yet to be established. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-session and test-retest reliability for the LOS on the NeuroCom® VSR Sport when performed by young adults...
August 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Timothy M Brown, Blanton R Gillespie, Caleb A Smith, Matthew J Nestler, George L Heard, D W Setser, Bert E Holmes
The five unimolecular HX and DX (X = F, Cl) elimination pathways of CD2 ClCHFCl* were examined using a chemical activation technique; the molecules were generated with 92 kcal mol-1 of vibrational energy in a room-temperature bath gas by a combination of CD2 Cl and CHFCl radicals. The total unimolecular rate constant was 9.7 × 107 s-1 , and branching fractions for each channel were 0.52 (2,1-DCl), 0.29 (1,1-HCl), 0.10 (2,1-DF), 0.07 (1,1-HF), and 0.02 (1,2-HCl). Comparison of the individual experimental rate constants to calculated statistical rate constants gave threshold energies for each process as 63, 72, 66, 73, and 70 kcal mol-1 , listed in the same order as the branching fractions...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Beatriz Gonçalves Neves, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Daniela da Silva Bezerra, Sarah Florindo de Figueiredo Guedes, Lidiany Karla Azevedo Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: Monitoring selected key species related to health or disease may facilitate caries risk assessment and discovery of novel ecological preventive and therapeutic approaches. This study aimed at quantifying Actinomyces naeslundii, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei group, Streptococcus gordonii, Mitis group and Streptococcus mutans by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in dental biofilm from Brazilian children with different stages of early childhood caries (ECC)...
December 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Muhammad Arif, Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Anwar, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
Noncoding RNAs play essential functions during epigenetic regulation of gene expression and development in numerous organisms. Three type of small noncoding RNAs found in eukaryotes, which are small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) originated from infecting viruses are known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), are responsible for RNA silencing in plants. However, Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi)...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Benjamin R Riegger, Regina Kowalski, Luise Hilfert, Günter E M Tovar, Monika Bach
Glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles (Chi-NPs) were prepared reproducibly via miniemulsion crosslinking for effective adsorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) Diclofenac (DCL). Three different molecular weights (MWs) of highly deacetylated (>90%) chitosans (low, medium and high MW) were used to vary the disperse phase viscosity. Particle formation was evaluated ranging from one to seven homogenization cycles at 40 MPa. Particles were prepared successfully with the low and medium MW chitosan in the range of 125 nm-250 nm (z-average)...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Graciela Carlos, Alvicler Magalhães, Ana Cristina Isler, Eloisa Comiran, Pedro Eduardo Fröehlich
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a long-acting prodrug stimulant indicated for the treatment of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was subjected to forced degradation studies by acid and alkaline hydrolysis and the degradation profile was studied. To obtain between 10-30% of degraded product, acid and alkaline conditions were assessed with solutions of 0.01 M, 0.1 M, 0.5 M, and 1 M of DCl and NaOD. These solutions were analyzed through 1 H NMR spectra. Acid hydrolysis produced no degradation in 0...
November 1, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Amy Yuet Ting Lau, Xuanjin Cheng, Chi Keung Cheng, Wenyan Nong, Man Kit Cheung, Raymond Hon-Fu Chan, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Hoi Shan Kwan
Coprinopsis cinerea is a model mushroom particularly suited for the study of fungal fruiting body development and the evolution of multicellularity in fungi. While microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in animals and plants for their essential roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, miRNAs in fungi are less well characterized and their potential roles in controlling mushroom development remain unknown. To identify miRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) in C. cinerea and explore their expression patterns during the early developmental transition of mushroom development, small RNA libraries of vegetative mycelium and primordium were generated and putative milRNA candidates were identified following the standards of miRNA prediction in animals and plants...
2018: PloS One
Athanasios Dalakouras, Wolfgang Jarausch, Guenther Buchholz, Alexandra Bassler, Mario Braun, Thorsten Manthey, Gabi Krczal, Michael Wassenegger
Since its discovery, RNA interference has been widely used in crop protection. Recently, transgene-free procedures that were based on exogenous application of RNA molecules having the capacity to trigger RNAi in planta have been reported. Yet, efficient delivery of such RNA molecules to plants and particularly to trees poses major technical challenges. Here, we describe simple methods for efficient delivery of hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to Malus domestica , Vitis vinifera , and Nicotiana benthamiana that are based on trunk injection and/or petiole absorption...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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