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Ultraviolet light C

Lavern T Nyamutswa, Bo Zhu, Dimuth Navaratna, Stephen Collins, Mikel C Duke
Adopting an effective strategy to control fouling is a necessary requirement for all membrane processes used in the water/wastewater treatment industry to operate sustainably. The use of ultraviolet (UV) activated photocatalysis has been shown to be effective in mitigating ceramic membrane fouling by natural organic matter. The widely used configuration in which light is directed through the polluted water to the membrane's active layer suffers from inefficiencies brought about by light absorption by the pollutants and light shielding by the cake layer...
December 2, 2018: Membranes
Charlotte James, Lucy Asher, Katherine Herborn, Julian Wiseman
Qualities of the light environment are important for good welfare in a number of species. In chickens, UVA light is visible and may facilitate flock interactions. UVB wavelengths promote endogenous vitamin D synthesis, which could support the rapid skeletal development of broiler chickens. The aim of the study was to investigate the impacts of Ultraviolet wavelengths (UV) on welfare indicators in broiler chickens. Day-old Ross 308 birds reared under commercially representative conditions were randomly assigned to one of three lighting treatments: A) White Light Emitting Diode (LED) and supplementary UVA LED lighting (18-hour photoperiod); B) White LED with supplementary UVA and UVB fluorescent lighting providing 30 micro watts/cm2 UVB at bird level (on for 8 h of the total photoperiod to avoid over-exposure of UVB); C) White LED control group, representative of farm conditions (18-hour photoperiod)...
December 2018: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Alfredo Siller, Scott C Blaszak, Michelle Lazar, Edit Olasz Harken
As skin cancer prevalence continues to rise, the importance of sun protection, including sunscreen use, has become accepted in the public. Sunscreens are divided into two main categories based on the type of their active ingredient, organic and inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filters. It has been shown that inorganic filters are more effective at blocking forms of UV light, both UVA and UVB, as compared with organic filters because organic sunscreens absorb and convert radiation whereas inorganic sunscreens reflect radiation...
October 2018: Plastic Surgical Nursing
X J Yu, C Z Diao, T Venkatesan, M B H Breese, A Rusydi
A new beamline and a six-circle UHV diffractometer have been constructed at the Singapore Synchrotron Light Source with a broad energy coverage from 3.5 to 1500 eV. The beamline is optimized for ultraviolet-vacuum-ultraviolet optical reflectivity and resonant soft X-ray scattering with medium energy resolution over a broad energy range, achieved by using a self-focusing monochromator consisting of a plane mirror and three variable line spacing gratings. The unique character of the diffractometer comprises 4-circles in the vertical plane and 2-circles in the horizontal plane...
November 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jay C Amicangelo, Yuan-Pern Lee
The reaction of hydrogen atoms (H) with isoprene (C5 H8 ) in solid para -hydrogen ( p -H2 ) matrices at 3.2 K has been studied using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Mixtures of C5 H8 and Cl2 were co-deposited in p -H2 at 3.2 K, followed by irradiation with ultraviolet light at 365 nm to produce Cl atoms from the Cl2 , and subsequent irradiation with IR light to produce H atoms from the reaction of the Cl atoms with p -H2 . The H atoms then react with the C5 H8 to form H atom addition radicals (C5 H9 •). Upon 365-nm/IR photolysis, a multitude of new lines appeared in the IR spectrum and, based on the secondary photolysis behavior, it was determined that the majority of the new lines belong to two distinct chemical species, denoted as set X (an intense line at 776...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Triparna Lahari, Janelle Lazaro, Jeffrey M Marcus, Dana F Schroeder
Frequent exposure of plants to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) results in damaged DNA. One mechanism of DNA repair is the light independent pathway Global Genomic Nucleotide Excision Repair (GG-NER), which repairs UV damaged DNA throughout the genome. In mammals, GG-NER DNA damage recognition is performed by the Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 and 2 (DDB1/2) complex which recruits the Xeroderma Pigmentosa group C (XPC) / RAD23D complex. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, distinct proteins, Radiation sensitive 7 and 16 (Rad7p and Rad16p), recognize the damaged DNA strand and then recruit the XPC homologue, Rad4p, and Rad23p...
December 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Melinda J Waterman, Jessica Bramley-Alves, Rebecca E Miller, Paul A Keller, Sharon A Robinson
BACKGROUND: Antarctic bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) are resilient to physiologically extreme environmental conditions including elevated levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to depletion of stratospheric ozone. Many Antarctic bryophytes synthesise UV-B-absorbing compounds (UVAC) that are localised in their cells and cell walls, a location that is rarely investigated for UVAC in plants. This study compares the concentrations and localisation of intracellular and cell wall UVAC in Antarctic Ceratodon purpureus, Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Schistidium antarctici from the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica...
November 21, 2018: Biological Research
Mari Carmen García-Domene, Caridad Pérez-Vives, Cristina Peris-Martínez, José María Artigas
SIGNIFICANCE: We have analyzed the ultraviolet transmittance of some commercial intraocular lenses (IOLs). The results show differences of wavelength cutoff among them. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the ultraviolet light transmittance of different IOLs made out of acrylic hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and hydrophilic with hydrophobic surface materials from different manufacturers. METHODS: The spectral transmission curves of eight monofocal IOLs with the same dioptric power of +20...
November 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Florian C Maier, Anna-Maria Wild, Niklas Kirchen, Felix Holm, Kerstin Fuchs, Johannes Schwenck, Andreas Maurer, Stefan Wiehr
Here, we describe immuno-Cerenkov luminescence imaging (immuno-CLI) with a specific monoclonal antibody-based tracer for the detection of prostate tumors, which is used in preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. As PET isotopes generate a continuous spectrum of light in the ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) wavelength range (Cerenkov luminescence, CL) in dielectric materials and consequently inside living tissues, these isotopes can also be detected by luminescence imaging performed with optical imaging (OI) systems...
September 8, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Olga V Morozova, Elizaveta R Pavlova, Dmitry V Bagrov, Nikolay A Barinov, Kirill A Prusakov, Elena I Isaeva, Victor V Podgorsky, Dmitry V Basmanov, Dmitry V Klinov
Purpose: To develop a general method for NP fabrication from various proteins with maintenance of biological activity. Methods: A novel general approach for producing protein nanoparticles (NP) by nanoprecipitation of the protein solutions in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol is described. Protein NP sizes and shapes were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM). Chemical composition of the NP was confirmed using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and circular dichroism (CD)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xing-Liang Yin, Lei-Lei Li, Da-Cheng Li, Deng-Hu Wei, Cheng-Chao Hu, Jian-Min Dou
Spontaneous solar-driven water splitting to generate H2 with no pollution discharge is an ideal H2 generation approach. However, its efficiency remains far from real application owing to the poor light-harvesting and ultrafast charge recombination of photocatalysts. To address these issues, herein, we employed a novel but simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method to construct CdS/SrTiO3 nanodots-on-nanocubes at room temperature (ca. 25 °C). The as-synthesized nanohybrids not only expand light absorption from ultraviolet (UV) to visible light but also significantly retard charge recombination owing to the well-defined heterostructure formation...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
M Ilchen, G Hartmann, E V Gryzlova, A Achner, E Allaria, A Beckmann, M Braune, J Buck, C Callegari, R N Coffee, R Cucini, M Danailov, A De Fanis, A Demidovich, E Ferrari, P Finetti, L Glaser, A Knie, A O Lindahl, O Plekan, N Mahne, T Mazza, L Raimondi, E Roussel, F Scholz, J Seltmann, I Shevchuk, C Svetina, P Walter, M Zangrando, J Viefhaus, A N Grum-Grzhimailo, M Meyer
Short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs), providing pulses of ultrahigh photon intensity, have revolutionized spectroscopy on ionic targets. Their exceptional photon flux enables multiple photon absorptions within a single femtosecond pulse, which in turn allows for deep insights into the photoionization process itself as well as into evolving ionic states of a target. Here we employ ultraintense pulses from the FEL FERMI to spectroscopically investigate the sequential emission of electrons from gaseous, atomic argon in the neutral as well as the ionic ground state...
November 7, 2018: Nature Communications
M Nations, D Gupta, N Bolte, M C Thompson
In C-2W, an elevated impurity concentration can lead to significant degradation of plasma performance and energy losses through radiation. To gauge plasma contamination from impurities, the effective ion charge ( Z eff ) can be determined from measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum radiation over a small spectral range free from line radiation. To this end, a diagnostic system including visible and near-infrared bremsstrahlung detectors was deployed in C-2W to measure time-dependent radial distributions of Z eff ...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zhiqi Li, Xinyuan Zhang, Chunyu Liu, Jiaxin Guo, Houxiao Cui, Liang Shen, Wenbin Guo
To overcome the low conductivity and parasitic inherent drawback of polyelectrolyte electron transfer layer (ETL), the polymer-functionalized carbon nanodots (C-dots) are used as ETL in the inverted organic solar cells. The prepared C-dots with high luminescent property can absorb the ultraviolet light and convert them into low-energy photons, which may be harvested by the active layer. Moreover, the light-induced filling and release of local states can suppress the leakage current and facilitate electron extraction of the cathode...
November 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Patrícia S M Santos, Helena B Cardoso, Teresa A P Rocha-Santos, Armando C Duarte
This work evaluates the degradation of benzoic acid, a tracer from biomass burning, by different oxidation agents (Fe (III); H2 O2 ; sunlight; and combinations of the previous ones) in model solutions and in real atmospheric waters. The extent of reactions was assessed by Ultraviolet-Visible and molecular fluorescence spectroscopies. The oxidation of benzoic acid occurred with the chemical oxidants Fe (III), H2 O2 , Fe (III) and H2 O2 simultaneously in the presence of sunlight, and with Fe (III) and H2 O2 simultaneously in the absence of light...
January 2019: Environmental Pollution
Eva González-Haba-Peña, Silvia Manrique-Rodríguez, Ana María Herranz-Alonso, Irene Iglesias-Peinado, María Sanjurjo-Sáez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the environmental contamination generated during the preparation of cytostatic  agents using three different methods through simulations using fluorescein, and  the time required for preparation of each method. METHOD: A comparative study of the processing of fluorescein mixtures using three types of closed systems was conducted at the centralized unit for  hazardous drugs of the Pharmacy Department of a General Teaching Hospital...
November 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Eleonora Maurizi, Davide Schiroli, Sarah D Atkinson, Laura Mairs, David G Courtney, Barry O'Hagan, Victoria E McGilligan, Alastair T Pagnamenta, Jenny C Taylor, Jesus J D Vasquez, Daniel E Illanes-Velarde, Dave Goldsmith, Pieter Gouws, Jonathan E Moore, M Andrew Nesbit, C B Tara Moore
Pterygium is a pathological proliferative condition of the ocular surface, characterised by formation of a highly vascularised, fibrous tissue arising from the limbus that invades the central cornea leading to visual disturbance and, if untreated, blindness. Whilst chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure plays a major role in its pathogenesis, higher susceptibility to pterygium is observed in some families, suggesting a genetic component. In this study, a Northern Irish family affected by pterygium but reporting little direct exposure to UV was identified carrying a missense variant in CRIM1 NM_016441...
October 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jiexia Zhao, Hailong Li, Zequn Yang, Lei Zhu, Mingguang Zhang, Yong Feng, Wenqi Qu, Jianping Yang, Kaimin Shih
Nanostructured zinc sulfide (Nano-ZnS) has been demonstrated to be an efficient adsorbent for removal of elemental mercury (Hg0). However, the Hg0 removal performance deteriorates once the flue gas temperature deviates from the optimal temperature of 180 °C. In this study, ultraviolet (UV) light, which is generally generated through corona discharge in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), was adopted to enhance Hg0 removal by Nano-ZnS. With the UV irradiation, Nano-ZnS exhibited excellent performance in Hg0 removal within a much wide temperature range from room temperature to 240 °C...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Irene Marco-Rius, Tian Cheng, Adam P Gaunt, Saket Patel, Felix Kreis, Andrea Capozzi, Alan J Wright, Kevin M Brindle, Olivier Ouari, Arnaud Comment
Whether for 13 C magnetic resonance studies in chemistry, biochemistry, or biomedicine, hyperpolarization methods based on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have become ubiquitous. DNP requires a source of unpaired electrons, which are commonly added to the sample to be hyperpolarized in the form of stable free radicals. Once polarized, the presence of these radicals is unwanted. These radicals can be replaced by nonpersistent radicals created by the photoirradiation of pyruvic acid (PA), which are annihilated upon dissolution or thermalization in the solid state...
October 31, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Robert M Karl, Giulia F Mancini, Joshua L Knobloch, Travis D Frazer, Jorge N Hernandez-Charpak, Begoña Abad, Dennis F Gardner, Elisabeth R Shanblatt, Michael Tanksalvala, Christina L Porter, Charles S Bevis, Daniel E Adams, Henry C Kapteyn, Margaret M Murnane
Imaging charge, spin, and energy flow in materials is a current grand challenge that is relevant to a host of nanoenhanced systems, including thermoelectric, photovoltaic, electronic, and spin devices. Ultrafast coherent x-ray sources enable functional imaging on nanometer length and femtosecond timescales particularly when combined with advances in coherent imaging techniques. Here, we combine ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic light source to directly visualize the complex thermal and acoustic response of an individual nanoscale antenna after impulsive heating by a femtosecond laser...
October 2018: Science Advances
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