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Ultraviolet light C

Thomas Sydney, Jo-Ann Marshall-Thompson, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan, Jagroop Pandhal, J Patrick A Fairclough
Currently, the energy required to produce biofuel from algae is 1.38 times the energy available from the fuel. Current methods do not deliver scalable, commercially viable cell wall disruption, which creates a bottleneck on downstream processing. This is primarily due to the methods depositing energy within the water as opposed to within the algae. This study investigates ultraviolet B (UVB) as a disruption method for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Dunaliella salina and Micractinium inermum to enhance solvent lipid extraction...
October 15, 2018: Metabolites
Aida Khayyami, Maarit Karppinen
We report new types of reversibly photoresponsive ZnO:azobenzene superlattice thin films fabricated through atomic/molecular-layer deposition (ALD/MLD) from diethylzinc, water, and 4,4'-azobenzene dicarboxylic acid precursors. In these ultrathin films, crystalline ZnO layers are interspersed with monomolecular photoactive azobenzene dicarboxylate layers. The thickness of the individual ZnO layers is precisely controlled by the number ( m ) of ALD cycles applied between two subsequent MLD cycles for the azobenzene layers; in our {[(Zn-O) m +(Zn-O2 -C-C6 H4 -N=N-C6 H4 -C-O2 )] n +(Zn-O) m } samples, m ranges from 0 to 240...
September 11, 2018: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Noriko Nakamura, Vikrant Vijay, Varsha G Desai, Deborah K Hansen, Tao Han, Ching-Wei Chang, Yu-Chuan Chen, Wafa Harrouk, Barry McIntyre, Paul M Foster, James C Fuscoe, Amy L Inselman
2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB) is an ultraviolet light-absorbing compound that is used in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastics. HMB has been reported to have weak estrogenic activity by in vivo and in vitro studies, making it a chemical with potential reproductive concern. To explore if prenatal and lactational HMB exposure alters the gene expression profile of the developing reproductive organs, we performed microarray analysis using the prostate and testis of postnatal day (PND) 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats offspring exposed to 0, 3000, or 30000 ppm of HMB from gestational day 6 through PND 21...
October 11, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Fei Wu, Changhui Xu, Claudio J Margulis
In a set of recent publications [C. J. Margulis et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 , 20186 (2011); C. H. Xu et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 , 17528 (2013); C. H. Xu and C. J. Margulis, J. Phys. Chem. B 119 , 532 (2015); and K. B. Dhungana et al. , J. Phys. Chem. B 121 , 8809 (2017)], we explored for selected ionic liquids the early stages of excess charge localization and reactivity relevant both to electrochemical and radiation chemistry processes. In particular, Xu and Margulis [J. Phys. Chem. B 119 , 532 (2015)] explored the dynamics of an excess electron in 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium dicyanamide...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Marco J Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Víctor J Hinojosa-López, Francisco J Peralta-Cornejo, Presentación Carrillo
Mixotrophy is a dominant metabolic strategy in ecosystems worldwide. Shifts in temperature (T) and light (i.e. the ultraviolet portion of spectrum (UVR)) are key abiotic factors that modulate the conditions under which an organism is able to live. However, whether the interaction between both drivers alters mixotrophy in a global-change context remains unassessed. To determine the T × UVR effects on relative electron transport rates, nonphotochemical quenching, bacterivory, and bacterial production, we conducted an experiment with Isochrysis galbana populations grown mixotrophically, which were exposed to 5°C of cooling and warming with respect to the control (19°C) with (or without) UVR over light-dark cycles and different timescales...
October 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Jingying Duan, Guohui Qin, Luofu Min, Yuchen Yang, Chengyang Wang
The photochemistry and sodium storage process have been generally considered as two separated approaches without strong connection. Here, we dedicate to improve the electrochemical performance of MoS2 based composite via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. C@MoS2@CN nanospheres consist of double protective structures, including inner hollow carbon spheres with thin wall (C) and outer N-doping carbon nanosheets (CN) derived from polydopamine. The special nanostructure possesses the virtues such as wide-interlayer spacing, flexible feature with great structure integrity and rich active sites, which endow the fast electron transfer and shorten the ion diffusion pathways...
October 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jessica L Barnes, Maria Zubair, Kaarthik John, Miriam C Poirier, Francis L Martin
Humans are variously and continuously exposed to a wide range of different DNA-damaging agents, some of which are classed as carcinogens. DNA damage can arise from exposure to exogenous agents, but damage from endogenous processes is probably far more prevalent. That said, epidemiological studies of migrant populations from regions of low cancer risk to high cancer risk countries point to a role for environmental and/or lifestyle factors playing a pivotal part in cancer aetiology. One might reasonably surmise from this that carcinogens found in our environment or diet are culpable...
October 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Joanne Dyer, Diego Tamburini, Elisabeth R O'Connell, Anna Harrison
This work explores the use of multispectral imaging (MSI) techniques applied to the investigation of Late Antique (c. 250-800 AD) textiles found in Egypt. Although the use of these techniques is well-established in the study of polychrome surfaces, they have only been sparingly and often unsystematically applied to the investigation of textiles. The aim of this work is therefore to bridge this gap by showing how this non-invasive, relatively inexpensive and portable methodology can be used to map the photoluminescence and reflective characteristics of textiles under different wavelengths of light, and to provide qualitative and holistic insights into the chemical nature of the materials that compose them...
2018: PloS One
Stephan Meinke, Agneta Wikman, Gunilla Gryfelt, Kjell Hultenby, Michael Uhlin, Petter Höglund, Per Sandgren
BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved platelets (CPPs) are considered a promising approach for extended platelet storage, bridging inventory shortages of conventionally stored platelets. It is unknown if platelet concentrates exposed to photochemical treatment (PCT) with amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) light, to inactivate pathogens, are suitable for freezing. The objective of this study was to analyze potential effects of PCT on CPPs as compared with untreated CPPs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 12 PCT-treated and 12 untreated platelet units from buffy coats were cryopreserved at -80°C in 5% dimethyl sulfoxide...
October 3, 2018: Transfusion
Ute Gravemann, Wiebke Handke, Bernd Lambrecht, Jörg-Peter Schmidt, Thomas H Müller, Axel Seltsam
BACKGROUND: Nonenveloped transfusion-transmissible viruses such as hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are resistant to many of the common virus inactivation procedures for blood products. This study investigated the pathogen inactivation (PI) efficacy of the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system against two nonenveloped viruses: HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV), in platelet concentrates (PCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PCs in additive solution were spiked with high titers of cell culture-derived HAV and FCV, and treated with ultraviolet C at various doses...
September 28, 2018: Transfusion
Pinkuan Zhu, Alexander Idnurm
The White Collar complex is responsible for sensing light and transmitting that signal in many fungal species. In Cryptococcus neoformans and C. deneoformans the complex is involved in protection against damage from ultraviolet (UV) light, repression of mating in response to light, and is also required for virulence. The mechanism by which the Bwc1 photoreceptor contributes to virulence is unknown. In this study, a bwc1 deletion mutant of C. neoformans was transformed with three versions of the BWC1 gene, the wild type, BWC1C605A or BWC1C605S , in which the latter two have the conserved cysteine residue replaced with either alanine or serine within the light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain that interacts with the flavin chromophore...
September 25, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Pretty Ponnachan, Vivek Vinod, Unnimaya Pullanhi, Parvathy Varma, Sanjeev Singh, Raja Biswas, Anil Kumar
Outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant Candida auris have emerged as a large threat to modern medicine. Since skin colonization and environmental contamination have been identified as a precursor for outbreaks, we evaluated the antifungal activity of ultraviolet-C light using mercury vapor lamp with a peak emission of 254±2 nm and octenidine dihydrochloride against C. auris clinical isolates. Octenidine dihydrochloride was found effective at significantly lower concentrations (0.00005-0.0004%) than those currently used in the clinical setting (0...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Jejenija Osuntokun, Damian C Onwudiwe, Eno E Ebenso
CaO nanoparticles have been prepared using CaCl2 and aqueous extract of broccoli as a precursor and reducing agent, respectively. Different volumes of the aqueous broccoli extract were utilised to obtain Ca(OH)2 and subsequent calcination gave CaO nanoparticles. The synthesised CaO was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology was studied using transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), and the surface composition of Ca(OH)2 was explored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The major functional groups present in the capping material responsible for the reduction of the metal salt and the surface passivation of Ca(OH)2 were identified...
October 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Nama A Hammed, Azlan Abdul Aziz, Adamu Ibrahim Usman, M A Qaeed
Vertically aligned Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were successfully synthesized in this study using the sonochemical method to improve the intrinsic properties of UV photodetector (PD). Three different thin films: Ti/Zn, Ti/ZnO, and Ti/ZnO/Zn, with the thicknesses of 10 nm/55 nm, 10 nm/85 nm, and 10 nm/85 nm/55 nm respectively, were deposited on glass substrates using the RF-sputtering technique. The synthesized ZnO NRs were investigated using XRD, FESEM and Raman spectroscopy to determine the effect of Zn and ZnO as seed layers, and ZnO as a buffer layer on the surface morphology, crystal structure, optical properties of ZnO NRs...
September 17, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ralf R Küsel, Ian K Craig, Anton C Stoltz
A detailed mathematical modeling framework for the risk of airborne infectious disease transmission in indoor spaces was developed to enable mathematical analysis of experiments conducted at the Airborne Infections Research (AIR) facility, eMalahleni, South Africa. A model was built using this framework to explore possible causes of why an experiment at the AIR facility did not produce expected results. The experiment was conducted at the AIR facility from August 31, 2015 to December 4, 2015, in which the efficacy of upper room germicidal ultraviolet (GUV) irradiation as an environmental control was tested...
September 19, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Fahad Al-Juhaimi, Kashif Ghafoor, Mehmet Musa Özcan, M H A Jahurul, Elfadil E Babiker, S Jinap, F Sahena, M S Sharifudin, I S M Zaidul
Bioactive compounds from plant sources are generally categorized as natural antioxidants with well-known health benefits. The health-promoting characteristics of natural antioxidants include anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and hepatic effects as well as free radical scavenging. Herein, a comprehensive and comparative review are presented about the effects of conventional (thermal and mechanical) and relatively new (non-thermal) processing methods on phytochemicals and discussed the importance of implementing the use of those methods that could be of very helpful retaining the quality of the bioactive compounds in plant-based foods...
October 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Novi Kusumaningrum, Dong Hun Lee, Hyun-Sun Yoon, Chi-Hyun Park, Jin Ho Chung
Gasdermin (GSDM)‑C is a member of the GSDM gene family and is expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissue types, including skin. GSDMC expression is induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and contributes to UV‑induced matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression in human skin keratinocytes. However, how UV irradiation induces GSDMC expression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and a calcium/calcineurin‑signaling pathway in UV‑induced GSDMC expression in human skin keratinocytes...
November 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
X X Wang, C X Xu, F F Qin, Y J Liu, A G Manohari, D T You, W Liu, F Chen, Z L Shi, Q N Cui
Zinc (Zn) surface plasmons (SPs) have been widely reported for their impressive performance in improving the optical properties of semiconductors. Zn is an effective metal with SPs response in the ultraviolet region, but the disadvantage of strong metal activity limits the application mentioned above. Here, in order to ensure the stability of metal Zn, ZnO/Zn microspheres were synthesized by an one-step laser ablation method to distribute Zn nanoparticles simultaneously on both inner and outer surfaces of ZnO microspheres...
September 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Marcus Schulze, Melanie Rogge, Robert W Stark
Collagen plays a decisive role as a functional substrate in tissue engineering. In particular, the rigidity of the collagen influences the behaviour of the attached cells. Thus, modification and controlled adjustment of collagen's characteristics are essential. To this end, controlled exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is a promising process because it can be temporally and spatially well defined. In this study, we investigated the effect of UV exposure on surface supported single collagen fibrils in situ. This procedure allowed for a direct comparison between the untreated and modified states of type I collagen...
August 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Alvin L Young, Di Cao, Wai Kit Chu, Tsz Kin Ng, Yolanda W Y Yip, Vishal Jhanji, Chi Pui Pang
Pterygium is a fibrovascular subepithelial growth of degenerative tissue over the limbus. It is a common condition worldwide that is especially prevalent in tropical countries within the "pterygium belt." Its exact etiology remains to be elucidated; however, it is strongly associated with exposure to ultraviolet light. The high expression levels of tumor protein p53 (TP53) observed in laboratory studies of pterygium seem to contradict the fast-growing nature of its clinical behavior, and TP53 mutations have been suggested...
November 2018: Cornea
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