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Capillary rarefaction

Dennis Kannenkeril, Agnes Bosch, Joanna Harazny, Marina Karg, Susanne Jung, Christian Ott, Roland E Schmieder
BACKGROUND: Diabetes converts from a metabolic disorder into a predominantly vascular disease, once its duration extends over several years or/and when additional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension coexist. In a cross-sectional analysis we analyzed various vascular parameters in the renal, retinal and systemic circulation, with the goal to identify which vascular parameter of early organ damage is the earliest that can be clinically detected. METHODS: In 111 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (off any anti-diabetic medication for at least 4 weeks) and 54 subjects without T2DM we compared various parameters of early vascular remodeling in the same patient: urinary albumin creatinine ratio ([UACR], early morning spot urine) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), retinal capillary flow (RCF) and intercapillary distance (ICD) as parameters of capillary rarefaction, wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the retinal arterioles [all assessed by Scanning Laser Doppler Flowmetry], and central systolic pressure (cSBP) and central pulse pressure (cPP) [measured by pulse wave analysis, Syphygmocor] both reflecting vascular stiffness of large arteries...
September 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Amaal E Abdulle, Gilles F H Diercks, Martin Feelisch, Douwe J Mulder, Harry van Goor
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and progressive fibrosis typically affecting multiple organs including the skin. SSc often is a lethal disorder, because effective disease-modifying treatment still remains unavailable. Vasculopathy with endothelial dysfunction, perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells, vascular wall remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries is the hallmark of the disease. Most patients present with vasospastic attacks of the digital arteries referred to as 'Raynaud's phenomenon,' which is often an indication of an underlying widespread vasculopathy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vanessa Estato, Joice Stipursky, Fabiana Gomes, Tally C Mergener, Edwards Frazão-Teixeira, Silvana Allodi, Eduardo Tibiriçá, Helene S Barbosa, Daniel Adesse
Toxoplasmosis is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide. Some data suggest that chronic acquired toxoplasmosis could be linked to behavioral alterations in humans. The parasite infects neurons, forming immunologically silent cysts. Cerebral microcirculation homeostasis is determinant to brain functions, and pathologic states can alter capillarity or blood perfusion, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Albino mice were infected with Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 strain) and analyzed after 10, 40, and 180 days...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Jacqueline Chua, Calvin Woon Loong Chin, Jimmy Hong, Miao Li Chee, Thu-Thao Le, Daniel Shu Wei Ting, Tien Yin Wong, Leopold Schmetterer
OBJECTIVE: Reduction in capillary density or rarefaction is a hallmark of essential hypertension. We measured the retinal capillary density using noninvasive optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) in adults with treated systemic hypertension and determined possible correlations with ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and renal parameters. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study consisted of 153 normal eyes from 77 nondiabetic hypertensive adults [mean (SD) age, 58 (9) years; 49% women; 23% poorly controlled BP]...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Alessandro Arrigo, Emanuela Aragona, Luigi Capone, Luisa Pierro, Francesco Romano, Francesco Bandello, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
PURPOSE: To analyze optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) quantitative features in patients affected by new-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in one eye and early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTINGS: Clinical Practice. STUDY POPULATION: Thirty patients and thirty age-matched controls. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Both cohorts underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) examination (Spectralis HRA; Heidelberg Engineering, Germany), OCT and OCTA scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corporation, Japan)...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Lei Ye, Liping Su, Chenxu Wang, Szejie Loo, Guizhen Tee, Shihua Tan, Sandar Win Khin, Shijie Ko, Boyang Su, Stuart A Cook
Titin (TTN) Truncating variants (TTNtv) in the A-band of TTN predispose the mouse heart to systolic dysfunction when subjected to pressure-loading. However, the effects of TTNtv of the Z-disc are largely unexplored. A rat model of pressure-loaded heart is developed by trans-aortic constriction (TAC). Rats with TTNtv of the Z-disc were randomly assigned to TAC (Z-TAC) or sham-surgery (Z-Sham) and wildtype (WT) littermates served as controls (WT-TAC or WT-Sham). Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography...
2018: PloS One
Yifan Zhang, Daisuke Nakano, Yu Guan, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akiyoshi Uemura, Tsutomu Masaki, Hideki Kobara, Takeshi Sugaya, Akira Nishiyama
Multiple large clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of renal events. However, the mechanism responsible for this outcome remains unknown. Here we investigated the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin on the development of renal fibrosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in non-diabetic mice. Luseogliflozin significantly suppressed development of renal fibrosis, prevented peritubular capillary congestion/hemorrhage, attenuated CD31-positive cell loss, suppressed hypoxia, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in the kidney after ischemia/reperfusion injury...
September 2018: Kidney International
Diana A Papazova, Merle M Krebber, Nynke R Oosterhuis, Hendrik Gremmels, Arjan D van Zuilen, Jaap A Joles, Marianne C Verhaar
Kidney transplantation (Tx) is considered the only definite treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. The increasing prevalence of ESKD has necessitated the introduction of transplantation with kidneys from suboptimal donors. There is, however, still a lack of fundamental and longitudinal research on suboptimal kidney transplants. Specifically, there is a demand for accurate pre-Tx predictors of donor kidney function and injury to predict post-Tx outcome. In the present study, we combine rat models of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal Tx to dissect the effects of healthy and CKD renal grafts on healthy and CKD recipients...
July 17, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Gunnar Schley, Jutta Jordan, Stephan Ellmann, Seymour Rosen, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Michael Uder, Carsten Willam, Tobias Bäuerle
OBJECTIVES: In human chronic kidney disease (CKD) the extent of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis correlates with progressive loss of renal function. However, fibrosis can so far only be assessed by histology of kidney biopsies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide information about tissue architecture, but its potential to assess fibrosis and inflammation in diseased kidneys remains poorly defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated excised kidneys in a murine adenine-induced nephropathy model for CKD by MRI and correlated quantitative MRI parameters (T1, T2, and T2* relaxation times, apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy) with histological hallmarks of progressive CKD, including renal fibrosis, inflammation, and microvascular rarefaction...
2018: PloS One
Baris Afsar, Rengin E Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Ege Kaya, Suat Erus, Alberto Ortiz, Adrian Covic, Mehmet Kanbay
Capillary rarefaction is broadly defined as a reduction in vascular density. Capillary rarefaction in the kidneys is thought to promote hypoxia, impair hemodynamic responses and predispose to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and hypertension development. Various mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the development of capillary rarefaction, including inflammation, an altered endothelial-tubular epithelial cell crosstalk, a relative deficiency in angiogenic growth factors, loss of pericytes, increased activity of Transforming growth factor -β1 and thrombospondin-1, vitamin D deficiency, a link to lymphatic neoangiogenesis and INK4a/ARF (Cylin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a; CDKN2A)...
June 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Cristian González-Guerrero, José Luis Morgado-Pascual, Pablo Cannata-Ortiz, María Angeles Ramos-Barron, Carlos Gómez-Alamillo, Manuel Arias, Sergio Mezzano, Jesús Egido, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Alberto Ortiz, Adrián M Ramos
The chemokine CCL20 activates the CCR6 receptor and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerular injury. However, it is unknown whether it contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). We identified CCL20 as upregulated in a systems biology strategy combining transcriptomics of kidney tissue from experimental toxic folic acid-induced AKI and from stressed cultured tubular cells and have explored the expression and function of CCL20 in experimental and clinical AKI. CCL20 upregulation was confirmed in three models of kidney injury induced by a folic acid overdose, cisplatin or unilateral ureteral obstruction...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Megha Agarwal, Nidhi Thareja, Melody Benjamin, Andre Akhondi, George D Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to identify commonly used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are associated with hypertension, primarily, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway (VSP) inhibitors. We review the incidence, mechanism, and strategies for management of TKI-induced HTN. We hope to provide clinicians with guidance on how to manage similar clinical scenarios. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the newer VSP inhibitors are reviewed here, including cediranib, axitinib, pazopanib, and ponatinib...
June 21, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Bing Yang, Shanshan Lan, Mélanie Dieudé, Jean-Paul Sabo-Vatasescu, Annie Karakeussian-Rimbaud, Julie Turgeon, Shijie Qi, Lakshman Gunaratnam, Natalie Patey, Marie-Josée Hébert
Background Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major risk factor for chronic renal failure. Here, we characterize the different modes of programmed cell death in the tubular and microvascular compartments during the various stages of IRI-induced AKI, and their relative importance to renal fibrogenesis. Methods We performed unilateral renal artery clamping for 30 minutes and contralateral nephrectomy in wild-type mice (C57BL/6) or caspase-3-/- mice. Results Compared with their wild-type counterparts, caspase-3-/- mice in the early stage of AKI had high urine cystatin C levels, tubular injury scores, and serum creatinine levels...
July 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Francesco Romano, Alessandro Arrigo, Soon Wai Chʼng, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Maria Pia Manitto, Elisabetta Martina, Francesco Bandello, Paulo E Stanga
PURPOSE: To assess foveal and parafoveal vasculature at the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and choriocapillaris of patients with X-linked retinoschisis by means of optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: Six patients with X-linked retinoschisis (12 eyes) and seven healthy controls (14 eyes) were recruited and underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity, dilated fundoscopy, and 3 × 3-mm optical coherence tomography angiography macular scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corp)...
June 5, 2018: Retina
Yuan Li, Quan Li, Chun-Shui Pan, Li Yan, Bai-He Hu, Yu-Ying Liu, Lei Yang, Ping Huang, Shao-Yang Zhao, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Xue-Mei Wang, Jing-Yan Han
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely correlated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disease. Bushen Huoxue (BSHX) is a compound Chinese medicine used clinically to treat diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, KKAy mice, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes with obesity and insulin resistant hyperglycemia, received a daily administration of BSHX for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, BSHX treatment significantly ameliorated the T2DM related insults, including the increased blood glucose, the impaired spatial memory, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), occurrence of albumin leakage, leukocyte adhesion and opening capillary rarefaction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fangyao Tang, Zihan Sun, Raymond Wong, Jerry Lok, Alexander Lam, Clement C Tham, Carmen Km Chan, Shaheeda Mohamed, Thomas Ch Lam, Simon Kh Szeto, Danny S Ng, Carol Y Cheung
AIM: To examine the correlation of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with intercapillary area (ICA) measured from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with diabetes, and to compare the strength of associations between BCVA with ICA and other OCT-A metrics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 447 eyes from 299 patients with diabetes. All participants underwent OCT-A with a swept-source OCT (Triton DRI-OCT, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan). An automated customised MATLAB programme was used to quantify ICA (the mean of the 10 largest areas including foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area (ICA10_FAZ) and excluding FAZ area (ICA10_excFAZ)) and other OCT-A metrics (FAZ area, FAZ circularity and vessel density) from the macular OCT-A images...
June 4, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Brian B Graham, Rahul Kumar, Claudia Mickael, Biruk Kassa, Dan Koyanagi, Linda Sanders, Li Zhang, Mario Perez, Daniel Hernandez-Saavedra, Carolyn Valencia, Kandice Dixon, Julie Harral, Zoe Loomis, David Irwin, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kurt R Stenmark, Rubin M Tuder
Optimal right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires structural and functional coupling between the RV cardiomyocyte and its adjacent capillary network. Prior investigations have indicated that RV vascular rarefaction occurs in PH, which could contribute to RV failure by reduced delivery of oxygen or other metabolic substrates. However, it has not been determined if rarefaction results from relative underproliferation in the setting of tissue hypertrophy or from actual loss of vessels...
October 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Francesco Romano, Chiara Giuffrè, Alessandro Arrigo, Eleonora Corbelli, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Francesco Bandello
SIGNIFICANCE: Morning glory disc anomaly is a congenital abnormality of the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography angiography shows vascular rarefaction of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses and increased vascularity of the radial peripapillary capillary plexus. We hypothesize that this congestion represents a compensatory mechanism to an abnormal vasculogenesis. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the optic disc vascular alterations occurring at choriocapillaris and retinal vascular plexuses in a patient affected by bilateral morning glory disc anomaly with optical coherence tomography angiography...
June 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Douglas L Miller, Zhihong Dong, Chunyan Dou, Krishnan Raghavendran
Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) can be induced by diagnostic ultrasound-a potential safety issue. Anesthetized rats were intubated for intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) with 0 end-expiratory pressure, +4 cm H2 O end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and -4 cm H2 O end-expiratory pressure (NEEP). Rats were imaged at 7.6 MHz with a Philips HDI 5000 ultrasound machine. The output was low (mechanical index [MI] = 0.22) for aiming and then was raised for 5 min in 20 different exposure groups with n = 8...
August 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Mark B Plotnikov, Oleg I Aliev, Anastasia V Sidekhmenova, Alexander Y Shamanaev, Anna M Anishchenko, Tatiana I Fomina, Tatiana M Plotnikova, Alexander M Arkhipov
BACKGROUND: Many pathological mechanisms are involved in the development of arterial hypertension; disturbance of the rheological properties of blood and microvascular rarefaction are among those mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: The effect of p-tyrosol (Tyr) on hemorheological parameters and microvascularization in the cerebral cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at the stage of blood pressure rising (5-11 weeks) was studied. METHODS: Blood viscosity (BV), plasma viscosity (PV), hematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability, the oxygen transport capacity index (OTCI), and the capillary network in the cerebral cortex after the course of treatment of Tyr (50 mg/kg daily i...
September 2018: Microvascular Research
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