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immunodeficiency diseases

Shirdi E Schmiel, Lokesh A Kalekar, Na Zhang, Thomas W Blankespoor, Londyn J Robinson, Daniel L Mueller
OBJECTIVE: CD4 germinal center (GC)-T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Previous studies have shown that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR, Adora2a) signaling can divert CD4 T cells away from the GC-Tfh cell lineage during the primary response to foreign antigens. Therefore, we examined the effects of A2aR signaling on CD4 T cells during the recognition of a self-antigen using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis. METHODS: Wild type and Adora2a-deficient KRN TCR-transgenic CD4 T cells specific for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)/I-Ag7 were transferred into immunodeficient Tcra-/- I-Ag7 -expressing mice to induce arthritis...
December 5, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
C K Indumathi, Aruna Sethuraman, Saurav Jain, Savita Krishnamurthy
OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of anti tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) with those on old vs. revised WHO doses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative children. The secondary objective was to determine the overall incidence of hepatitis in children on Anti tubercular treatment (ATT) and isoniazid prophylactic therapy (IPT). METHODS: Children attending pediatric outpatient / admitted in wards, on ATT/ IPT between January 2007 and December 2017 (11 y) were included...
December 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Manisha Agarwal, Richa Ranjan, Lagan Paul, Deepa Sharma
BACKGROUND: Syphilitic uveitis is an infective uveitis and a great mimicker. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in the specific treatment resulting in deterioration of uveitis and loss of vision. FINDINGS: A 38-year-old unmarried female presented with pain, redness, and blurring of vision in the left eye for the last 5 days. She denied history of any sexual exposure in the past. Anterior segment examination of the right eye was normal and the left eye showed keratic precipitates with anterior chamber cells and iris pigments on anterior lens capsule...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Diana Carranza, Sara Torres-Rusillo, Gloria Ceballos-Pérez, Eva Blanco-Jimenez, Martin Muñoz-López, José L García-Pérez, Ignacio J Molina
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a complex disease arising from mutations in the ATM gene (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated), which plays crucial roles in repairing double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Heterogeneous immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, frequent appearance of tumors and neurological degeneration are hallmarks of the disease, which carries high morbidity and mortality because only palliative treatments are currently available. Gene therapy was effective in animal models of the disease, but the large size of the ATM cDNA required the use of HSV-1 or HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors, whose characteristics make them unlikely tools for treating A-T patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Liyana Ahmad, Serge Mostowy, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu
Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation process that targets protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Autophagy is also implicated in numerous viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza A (IAV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Depending on the virus, autophagy can restrict or promote viral replication, and play key roles in modulating inflammation and cell survival. In this review, we consider examples of autophagy-virus interplay, highlighting the protective role of autophagy in human infections...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Farzaneh Ghassabi, Yalda Malekzadegan, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hamid Heidari, Mozhgan Sabet, Abdollatif Bagheri, Narges Bagheri, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Alireza Hasanabadi, Mohammad Motamedifar
Background: Neisseria gonorrhea and Treponema pallidum as an obligate human pathogen are two common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae and T. pallidum among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in the southwest Iran. Methods: This retrospective study was performed from 2004 to 2013, on HIV patients who were tested for detection of gonorrhea and syphilis infection at Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Mariana Lima, António P Matos, Miguel Ramalho
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of severe opportunistic viral disease among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and colitis is the most frequent manifestation of CMV infection. Nevertheless, the development of a colonic pseudotumor is a rare benign entity that can be easily misdiagnosed as a colonic neoplasm if the radiologist is not aware of this condition. We present a case of a 42-year-old male with a CMV pseudotumor of the colon. Imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are illustrated...
February 2019: Radiology Case Reports
M P Kawa, B Baumert, Z Litwińska, M Gniot, E Pius-Sadowska, D Rogińska, K Lewandowski, B Zdziarska, B Machaliński
BACKGROUND: Donor-related neoplasms are a potential complication of treatment strategies involving stem cell transplantation. Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after these procedures are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), have been difficult to assess. Consequently, we studied the potential of human CML cells to engraft hematopoietic tissues after intravenous implantation in mice...
April 18, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Aneliya Dimitrova, Michael Dam Jensen, Kirse Bock, Ole Hilberg
Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in adults, and multiple organs may be involved. This is a case report of a 49-year-old female patient with granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and rectal cancer. Examinations showed non-necrotic granulomas in her lungs, mediastinal glands and liver, and she was seen in six different specialities. The multifaceted manifestation of CVID calls for multidisciplinary collaboration...
November 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Diana Machado, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros
Tuberculosis, disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is currently the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent worldwide. Early, rapid and accurate identification of M. tuberculosis and the determination of drug susceptibility is essential for the treatment and management of this disease. Tuberculosis diagnosis is mainly based on chest radiography, smear microscopy and bacteriological culture. Smear microscopy has variable sensitivity, mainly in patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
November 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Necil Kutukculer, Ayca Aykut, Neslihan E Karaca, Asude Durmaz, Guzide Aksu, Ferah Genel, Erhan Pariltay, Özgür Cogulu, Elif Azarsız
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections resulting from the inadequacy of phagocytic leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen radicals. CGD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with an X-linked recessive (XR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBB (OMIM #300481) gene encoding the gp91(phox) protein, and an autosomal recessive (AR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBA (OMIM #608508), NCF1 (OMIM #608512), NCF2 (OMIM #608515) and NCF4 (OMIM #601488) genes encoding p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox), respectively...
December 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Anna Krasnova, William W Eaton, Jack F Samuels
PURPOSE: Little is known about the effect of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the risks of cause-specific mortality in the community. This study aimed to close this gap by evaluating if ASPD increases risks of cause-specific mortality in population-based residential and institutionalized samples with 27 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were collected in four metropolitan sites as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study during 1979-1983. Records were linked to the National Death Index through the end of 2007...
December 1, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Barnali Mitra, Ajay Chopra, Krishna Talukdar, Neerja Saraswat, Debdeep Mitra, Joyjit Das
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection believed to be caused by the re activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus type 3 (HHV 3) that persists in the posterior nerve root ganglion. HZ is rarely reported in the pediatric age group with an intact immunity. Past infection with VZV and immunization with chickenpox vaccine are key markers in the onset of varicella zoster in children. Our aim was to study the clinicoepidemiological pattern of HZ infection in children aged less than 12 years and to start an early management to prevent long term complications...
November 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Francine Teixeira, Sonia M Raboni, Clea El Ribeiro, João Cb França, Anne C Broska, Nathalia Ls Souza
Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. This cross-sectional study involved a retrospective analysis of data for patients with TB/HIV coinfection who attended from 2006 to 2015 through a review of medical records...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Minkee Park, Myeong Jin Park, Mi Soo Choi, Chan Hee Nam, Byung Cheol Park, Seung Phil Hong, Myung Hwa Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may present with severe and atypical cutaneous diseases. Psoriasis also can develop in HIV patients associated with immune dysfunction and be presented as more severe and atypical manifestation. Furthermore, treatment of psoriasis in HIV patients can be complex and challenging. Herein, we report the case of a 50-year-old male with a 9-year history of HIV infection who developed an uncommon clinical variant of psoriasis with psoriatic arthritis and we discuss a possible pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease and possible treatment...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Rani Mathew, Bangalath Najeem, Kunjumani Sobhanakumary, Beena Sunny, Carol Pinheiro, Balakrishnan Anukumar
Background: Herpes genitalis is an ulcerating sexually transmitted infection, the clinical importance of which lies in its ability to produce painful and recurrent disease in addition to its potential role as a cofactor in acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. In recent years, there are increasing reports of genital herpes due to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 from various parts of the world. Molecular diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have got both diagnostic and prognostic significance in genital herpes...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
David Novikov, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Kevin K Chen, Theodore S Wolfson, Nimrod Snir, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Advancements in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) now permit HIV-positive patients to have longer life spans, increasing their cumulative risk of developing an advanced degenerative joint disease, necessitating total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to provide an extended follow-up on a previously published study on a cohort of HIV-positive THA recipients in an effort to confirm the safety and longevity of THA in this population. METHODS: This study is a follow-up on a previous study comprised of 41 hips in 31 HIV-positive THA recipients...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Ali N Kamali, Seyedeh Masoomeh Noorbakhsh, Haleh Hamedifar, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Reza Yazdani, José M Bautista, Gholamreza Azizi
The T helper 17 (Th17) cells contain a dynamic subset of CD4+ T-cells that are able to develop into other different lineage subsets, including the Th1-like Th17 cells. These cells co-express retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) and transcription factor T-box-expressed-in-T-cells (T-bet) and produce both interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Recent reports have shown that Th1-like Th17 cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as, some primary immunodeficiency with autoimmune features...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Frédéric Pouzoulet, Agusti Alentorn, Louis Royer-Perron, Franck Assayag, Karima Mokhtari, Dalila Labiod, Magali Le Garff-Tavernier, Mailys Daniau, Emmanuelle Menet, Matthieu Peyre, Anne Schnitzler, Justine Guegan, Frédéric Davi, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Carole Soussain
Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) are rare and poor prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Because of the brain tumor environment and the restricted distribution of drugs in the CNS, specific PCNSL patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models are needed for preclinical research to improve the prognosis of PCNSL patients. PCNSL patient specimens (n = 6) were grafted in the caudate nucleus of immunodeficient nude mice with a 83% rate of success, while subcutaneous implantation in nude mice of human PCNSL sample did not generate lymphoma, supporting the role of the brain microenvironment in the PCNSL physiopathology...
November 16, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
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