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immunodeficiency diseases

Átila V V Nobre, Tábata L S Pólvora, Letícia R M Silva, Vanessa de O Teles, Kelly Vargas Villafuerte, Raphael J G da Motta, João H P Fortes, Gilberto A Silva, Ana Laura P Ranieri, Leandro D de Macedo, Karen M L Morejon, Benedito A L da Fonseca, Camila Tirapelli, Maria C P Saraiva, Mário Taba, Alan G Lourenço, Ana Carolina F Motta
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic controllable disease. For this reason, chronic conditions related to both HIV infection and senescence, such as chronic periodontitis (CP) need to be studied. This study investigated the impact of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on clinical and immunological features of CP, and on oral colonization by Candida spp. in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Vanessa D'Urbano, Elisa De Crignis, Maria Carla Re
Mammalian cells have evolved several mechanisms to prevent or block lentiviral infection and spread. Among the innate immune mechanisms, the signaling cascade triggered by type I interferon (IFN) plays a pivotal role in limiting the burden of HIV-1. In presence of IFN, human cells upregulate the expression of a number of genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of them acting as antiviral restriction factors (RFs). RFs are dominant proteins that target different essential steps of the viral cycle, thereby providing an early line of defense against the virus...
August 16, 2018: Current HIV Research
Paula Río, Susana Navarro, Juan Bueren
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited disease associated with bone marrow failure (BMF) and cancer predisposition. Previous clinical trials have shown the difficulties of treating BMF of FA patients by gene therapy. Nevertheless, the discovery of new drugs capable of efficiently mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and the development of optimized procedures for transducing HSCs with safe integrative vectors, have markedly improved the efficiency for correcting the phenotype of hematopoietic repopulating cells from FA patients...
August 17, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Gabriel Ndipagbornchi Teku, Mauno Vihinen
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of over 300 hereditary, heterogeneous, and mainly rare disorders that affect the immune system. Various aspects of immune system and PID proteins and genes have been investigated and facilitate systems biological studies of effects of PIDs on B cell physiology and response. We reconstructed a B cell network model based on data for the core B cell receptor activation and response processes and performed semi-quantitative dynamic simulations for normal and B cell PID failure modes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Connie Leeper, Andrew Lutzkanin
Several infections have unique consequences or considerations in pregnancy. Some common infections such as urinary tract infections, influenza, sexually transmitted diseases, and vaginitis affect pregnant women differently than the general population, can cause pregnancy complications, and require treatments that are safe in pregnancy. Infections such as hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus can be transmitted vertically and therefore management focuses on decreasing perinatal transmission. Certain infections can be transmitted in utero and cause congenital infections...
September 2018: Primary Care
Abdalsamih M Taeb, Joshua M Sill, Catherine J Derber, Michael H Hooper
Although Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the granulomatous form is uncommon. Here, we present an unusual case of granulomatous PCP consequent to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after highly active antiretroviral therapy. A 36-year-old woman with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with cough and dyspnea that were attributed to typical PCP associated with AIDS. She was successfully treated with antibiotic, steroid, and antiretroviral therapies...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Tchin Darre, Bathokédeou Amana, Essobozou Pegbessou, Foma Winga, Dolou Warou, Gado Napo-Koura
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a real public health concern in Africa; thyroid localisation of the disease is a very rare form of extrapulmonary TB. We conducted a descriptive and cross-sectional study on all histologically proved cases of thyroid TB diagnosed in Togo over the last 20 years. Eleven cases of TB of the thyroid were identified, of which nine were in women, with an average age of 29.4 ± 0.2 years. The clinical signs were the presence of a nodule in seven, an abscess in three and a swelling with cutaneous fistulisation in one...
August 16, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
August 16, 2018: Intervirology
M Eckstein, R S Lacruz
Enamel mineralization relies on Ca2+ availability provided by Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. CRAC channels are modulated by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1 which gates the pore subunit of the channel known as ORAI1, found the in plasma membrane, to enable sustained Ca2+ influx. Mutations in the STIM1 and ORAI1 genes result in CRAC channelopathy, an ensemble of diseases including immunodeficiency, muscular hypotonia, ectodermal dysplasia with defects in sweat gland function and abnormal enamel mineralization similar to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)...
August 9, 2018: Cell Calcium
Rita Martins, Carlos Casimiro, Ana Valverde, Jose Campillo
We herein report a rare case of a 25-year-old immunocompetent male patient with disseminated tuberculosis of central nervous system (CNS), first presenting as multiple cerebral lesions with no meningeal involvement. Subsequent diagnostic workup disclosed extensive peritoneal involvement. A broad differential diagnosis was considered, including neoplastic and infectious diseases. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive PCR result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the biopsied mesenteric tissue. The patient was started on tuberculostatic regimen with favorable outcome...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Brinda Emu, Jeffrey Fessel, Shannon Schrader, Princy Kumar, Gary Richmond, Sandra Win, Steven Weinheimer, Christian Marsolais, Stanley Lewis
BACKGROUND: Ibalizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody, blocks the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by noncompetitive binding to CD4. METHODS: In this single-group, open-label, phase 3 study, we enrolled 40 adults with multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 infection in whom multiple antiretroviral therapies had failed. All the patients had a viral load of more than 1000 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter. After a 7-day control period in which patients continued to receive their current therapy, a loading dose of 2000 mg of ibalizumab was infused; the viral load was quantified 7 days later...
August 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Marlène Guillon
This article studies the epidemiological and economic impacts of a universal testing and treatment policy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in South Africa. A model of disease transmission is built to simulate several implementation scenarios of the policy. Different behavioral responses in the general population are considered. The results show that the success of a large-scale HIV testing and treatment program in South Africa depends on its implementation conditions. The policy can lead to a reduction of the HIV epidemic, even in the case of a large relapse in preventive behaviors in the general population, if implementation conditions are favorable...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Yitayih Wondimeneh, Teklay Gebrecherkos, Dagnachew Muluye, Demekech Damtie, Getachew Ferede
OBJECTIVE: Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are the major medical challenges of priority faced by the sub-Saharan African countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV and malaria infections among febrile illness patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1, 2014 to May 30, 2015 at Kolla-Diba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia...
August 15, 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Gabriella Leung, Aleixo M Muise
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, most notably in young children. The development of disease is a combination of several factors, including genetics, environment, the microbiota, and immune system. Recently, next-generation sequencing has allowed for the identification of novel genetic causes for intestinal disease, including pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These IBD genes can generally be grouped into genes causing either primary immunodeficiency or intestinal epithelial defects (the focus of this review)...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
Tuğba Özaydın, Yasemin Öznurlu, Emrah Sur, İlhami Çelik, Deniz Uluışık
The effects of bisphenol A on the some plasma cytokine levels and distribution of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleen, ilealPeyer's patch and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in rats were investigated. A total of fourty male Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups including 8 rats in each one: control, vehicle, BPA 5, BPA 50 and BPA 500 groups. Doses of 5, 50 and 500 μg/kg BPA were dissolved in ethanol, then mixed with corn oil. The control group received no treatment. The vehicle group was given the ethanol-corn oil mixture...
August 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Simone K Visser, Peter Bye, Lucy Morgan
Once neglected in research and underappreciated in practice, there is renewed interest in bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterised by chronic cough, sputum production and recurrent pulmonary exacerbations. It is diagnosed radiologically on high resolution computed tomography chest scan by bronchial dilatation (wider than the accompanying artery). The causes of bronchiectasis are diverse and include previous respiratory tract infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, immunodeficiency and connective tissue diseases...
August 20, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Jose Gutierrez, Desiree Byrd, Michael T Yin, Susan Morgello
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals have higher rates of cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease compared with uninfected populations. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular disease, specifically brain large artery disease, may play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: Participants (N = 94) in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank study were followed on average 32 ± 33 months with repeated neuropsychological examinations until death...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Gholamreza Azizi, Reza Yazdani, Wiliam Rae, Hassan Abolhassani, Manuel Rojas, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) consist of a large group of genetic disorders that affect distinct components of the immune system. PID patients are susceptible to infection and non-infectious complications, particularly autoimmunity. A specific group of monogenic PIDs are due to mutations in genes that are critical for the regulation of immunological tolerance and immune responses. This group of monogenic PIDs is at high risk of developing polyautoimmunity (i.e., the presence of more than one autoimmune disease in a single patient) because of their impaired immunity...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Damien Costa, Romy Razakandrainibe, Marc Sautour, Stéphane Valot, Louise Basmaciyan, Gilles Gargala, Denis Lemeteil
Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease in children and immunodeficient individuals. In 2006, a national network was set up on the surveillance of human cryptosporidiosis in France. Since January 2015, the 41 tertiary care hospitals and the 3 private laboratories of the French National Network on the surveillance of human cryptosporidiosis have been able to declare confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis online. Between 2015 and 2017, 210 cases of cryptosporidiosis were declared in immunodeficient patients in France; Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis represented 66% and 22% of cases, respectively...
August 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Elizabeth Mannino Avila, Erin Stucky Fisher, Kyung Rhee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine patient history as well as clinical and laboratory features associated with true bacteremia versus false bacteremia in previously healthy febrile children ages 0 to 36 months in the era of polyvalent conjugate pneumococcal immunization. METHODS: Using retrospective chart review, we examined history, physical examination, and laboratory characteristics associated with true and false bacteremia. We included subjects under 3 years old, with a positive blood culture obtained in the emergency department or clinic from July 2011 to July 2013, and fever defined as a temperature of greater than or equal to 100...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
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