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immunodeficiency diseases

Menglin Fan, Yanan Li, Chunhua Yao, Xiufeng Liu, Xuming Liu, Jihua Liu
Imbalance of Treg/Th17 and chronic synovitis characterized by the recruitment and infiltration of inflammatory cells are the typical features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-6 promotes the differentiation and function of Th17 cells, which contributes to the imbalance of Treg/Th17 and aggravates lymphocytic infiltration in joints. DC32, a dihydroartemisinin derivative, was found to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities in previous study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of DC32 in immunodeficiency and inflammatory infiltration of RA...
October 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Virginia Mirra, Nicola Ullmann, Claudio Cherchi, Alessandro Onofri, Maria G Paglietti, Renato Cutrera
Bronchiolitis is the most frequent airway infection in the first 2 years of life, and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the virus more frequent responsible. In selected high-risk groups, RSV may cause severe respiratory disease leading to hospitalisation, need for mechanical ventilation, and even death. These high-risk groups include children with congenital heart disease, infants with neuromuscular impairment, cystic fibrosis, down syndrome, immunodeficiency syndromes and others specific conditions...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Marina Garcia-Prat, Daniel Álvarez-Sierra, Aina Aguiló-Cucurull, Sandra Salgado-Perandrés, Sara Briongos-Sebastian, Clara Franco-Jarava, Andrea Martin-Nalda, Roger Colobran, Isabel Montserrat, Manuel Hernández-González, Ricardo Pujol-Borrell, Pere Soler-Palacin, Mónica Martínez-Gallo
BACKGROUND: For the accurate diagnosis of immunodeficiencies is crucial to compare patients' immunology laboratory values with age-sex matched controls, yet there is a paucity of normal values for most populations. OBJECTIVES: To define appropriate reference values of extended lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell receptor excision circle (TRECs) levels in healthy pediatric donors between 1 month and 18 years of age. METHODS: Extended immunophenotyping values were obtained by analysis of multiparameter flow cytometry panels for the following subpopulations: CD4+ and CD8+ Naive, Effector, Effector Memory and Central Memory, T helper subpopulations and their degrees of activation, T Regulatory cells, Recent Thymic Emigrants (RTE), B Lymphocyte subpopulations (Transitional, Naive, Preswitch-Memory, Switch-Memory, Plasmablasts, CD21low, and Exhausted), and subpopulations for Monocytes, NK cells and Dendritic Cells...
October 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Marcela Lopes Santos, Cláudia Medina Coeli, Joanna d'Arc Lyra Batista, Maria Cynthia Braga, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's major public health problems. Epidemiological surveillance has proved to be an important tool to assist in the control and prevention of communicable diseases such as TB and AIDS. This study aimed to estimate the rate and factors associated with the underreporting of TB among cases of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in the state of Pernambuco, based on data from the TB and Aids Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sinan TB and Sinan AIDS)...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Sana Khochtali, Salma Gargouri, Sourour Zina, Imen Ksiaa, Nesrine Abroug, Sonia Zaouali, Bechir Jelliti, Sonia Attia, Moncef Khairallah
BACKGROUND: Acute multifocal retinitis is a rare condition that has been considered to be often idiopathic. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical features and causes of acute multifocal retinitis. RESULTS: This study is a retrospective review of the charts of 35 patients with acute multifocal retinitis. Patients with three or more retinal lesions in at least one eye, with at least one lesion of less than 500 μm in size were included. All patients had complete ophthalmological examination, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Ainat Klein, Naomi Fischer, Michaella Goldstein, Shiri Shulman, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: Ocular manifestations of syphilis have been reported in 2-10% of systemic infection. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of ocular syphilis and various ocular manifestations, particularly optic nerve involvement, in newly diagnosed cases. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Medical records of newly diagnosed syphilis patients between January 2009 and January 2017 in a tertiary medical centre were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 123 new systemic syphilis cases out of 569,222 (0...
October 17, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Patrick Cherin, Abir Tadmouri, Christophe de Jaeger, Taylor Pindi Sala, Jean-Charles Crave
Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy is used to treat a wide range of immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases; While, its clinical benefit has been demonstrated in several studies, Ig therapy is associated with a risk of systemic adverse effects. As such, Onset of renal impairment, including acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis and renal insufficiency, after immunoglobulin administration is rare, but is one of the most significant concerns related to intravenous Ig use at immunomodulatory doses. However, only few studies have investigated the safety of subcutaneous Ig (SCIg) in relation to these rare conditions...
October 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Miaomiao Zhang, Zhuotao Fu, Jiantao Chen, Boqiang Zhu, Ye Cheng, Linchun Fu
BACKGROUND: Abnormally increased immune activation is one of the main pathological features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to determine whether long-term nonprogression (LTNP) suppresses the upregulation of immune activation and to elucidate the mechanisms whereby the LTNP state is maintained. METHODS: For this study we selected 4 rhesus macaques(RMs) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that were long-term nonprogressors (LTNP); for comparison we chose 4 healthy RMs that were seronegative for SIV (hereafter referred to as the Control group), and 4 progressing infection (Progressive group) SIV RMs...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Ludivine Coudière Morrison, Nazanin Tatari, Tamra E Werbowetski-Ogilvie
Utilization of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model system to study highly malignant pediatric cancers has led to significant insight into the molecular mechanisms governing tumor progression and has revealed novel therapeutic targets for these devastating diseases. Here, we describe a method for generating heterogeneous populations of neural precursors from both normal and neoplastic hESCs and the subsequent injection of neoplastic human embryonic neural cells (hENs) into intracerebellar or intracranial xenograft models...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ewelina Tuchendler, Paweł K Tuchendler, Grzegorz Madej
The syndrome of decreased immunity caused by cirrhosis is a combination of different immunological mechanisms and reactions which result from an advanced stage of the liver disease. The synthesis of proteins of the acute phase becomes impaired, there develop different deficiencies of the complement system, and there ensues a decrease of receptors that are meant to recognize antigens. The negative changes become apparent in the field of cell responses, e.g. there are changes in the amounts of generated monocytes and macrophages, and their phagocytic capabilities and chemotaxic reactions are impacted as well...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Muniba Fayyaz, Syeda S Jaffery
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a fatal demyelinating disease caused by the John Cunningham virus. It causes white matter inflammation in multiple areas of the brain. Although rare, it has been known to occur in patients with immunodeficiency states and those taking chronic immunosuppressive medications for diseases such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. In this article, we will discuss about the drug-induced progressive multifocal encephalopathy and its diagnosis and management in patients taking natalizumab and other disease-modifying therapies among patients with multiple sclerosis...
August 3, 2018: Curēus
Rohan Ameratunga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Yi-Fong Wang, Hung-Jung Lin, Jhi-Joung Wang, How-Ran Guo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on reducing neurological sequelae (NS) in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). Using a nationwide database of insurance claims in Taiwan, we conducted a population-based cohort study to identify 24,046 patients with COP diagnosed between 1999 and 2012, including 6793 (28.2%) patients who received HBOT and 17,253 (71.8%) patients who did not. We followed the two cohorts of patients and compared the occurrence of NS...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Naoki Yanagisawa, Takashi Muramatsu, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Akihiro Inui, Yusuke Ainoda, Toshio Naito, Kosaku Nitta, Atsushi Ajisawa, Katsuyuki Fukutake, Aikichi Iwamoto, Minoru Ando
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become one of the common comorbid conditions affecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals are at increased risk of developing CKD, and they are likely to experience faster progression of renal dysfunction compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Albuminuria represents not only kidney damage but also manifests metabolic syndrome and vascular dysfunction. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving 2135 HIV-infected individuals in Japan to test the prevalence of CKD and proteinuria/albuminuria...
October 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Antigoni Poultsidi, Yiannis Dimopoulos, Ting-Fang He, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Emmanouil Saloustros, Peter P Lee, Constantinos Petrovas
Lymph nodes (LNs) are central in the generation of adaptive immune responses. Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells, a highly differentiated CD4 population, provide critical help for the development of antigen-specific B cell responses within the germinal center. Throughout the past decade, numerous studies have revealed the important role of Tfh cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pathogenesis as well as in the development of neutralizing antibodies post-infection and post-vaccination. It has also been established that tumors influence various immune cell subsets not only in their proximity, but also in draining lymph nodes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rekha D Jhamnani, Cristiane J Nunes-Santos, Jenna Bergerson, Sergio D Rosenzweig
Antibody production and function represent an essential part of the immune response, particularly in fighting bacterial and viral infections. Multiple immunological phenotypes can result in dysregulation of the immune system humoral compartment, including class-switch recombination (CSR) defects associated with hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndromes. The CSR/HIGM syndromes are defined by the presence of normal or elevated plasma IgM levels in the context of low levels of switched IgG, IgA, and IgE isotypes. Recently described autosomal dominant gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1 cause combined immunodeficiencies that can also present as CSR/HIGM defects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aurélie Baldolli, Claire Daurel, Renaud Verdon, Arnaud de La Blanchardière
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is often disseminated and mainly involves lymph nodes, spleen, liver or bone marrow. Peritonitis due to MAC infection (PMAC) is a very uncommon manifestation. METHODS: In this report, after describing the case of the only PMAC infection in our 10-year retrospective study, which occurred in an AIDS patient who was non-adherent to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed a systematic literature review of documented bacteriological PMAC...
October 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Riccardo Bartoletti, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen, Bela Köves, Tommaso Cai, Zafer Tandogdu, Gernot Bonkat
CONTEXT: Urethritis prevalence in Europe changed in the last years due to both the increase of migratory streams from North Africa and the more frequent exposition of males to relevant risk factors. Owing to these reasons, urethritis treatment should be optimized by accurate microbiological investigations to avoid the risk of persistence, recurrence, or reinfection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to optimize the treatments for urethritis and investigate the applicability of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) as the primary microbiological investigation...
October 11, 2018: European Urology Focus
P L Guo, W P Cai, X J Chen, H L He, F Y Hu, X P Tang, L H Li
Objective: To investigate the combined effects of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) infection on the cause of death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The causes of death of 111 cases of AIDS with HBV/HCV (combined infection group) and 210 AIDS patients (single infection group) admitted to our hospital from 2012 to 2016 data were compared using chi-square test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in gender composition and age in the combined infection groups ( P > 0...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Muhammad Khalid, Syed Asad Ali
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency in children. It is caused by single gene defect resulting in dysfunctional nicotinamide adenine dineucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex causing recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Here we present the case of a 9 year old boy who was a known case of CGD since three years of age. He presented with recent history of fever, left sided pain in the scapular region and difficulty in breathing. Chest imaging revealed developing left upper lobe consolidation and erosion of the 3rd posterior rib...
September 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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