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Gaurav Sharma, Rebecca Parales, Mitchell Singer
BACKGROUND: An efficient signal transduction system allows a bacterium to sense environmental cues and then to respond positively or negatively to those signals; this process is referred to as taxis. In addition to external cues, the internal metabolic state of any bacterium plays a major role in determining its ability to reside and thrive in its current environment. Similar to external signaling molecules, cytoplasmic signals are also sensed by methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) via diverse ligand binding domains...
October 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Alexander Mahnert, Rocel Amor Ortega, Christian Berg, Martin Grube, Gabriele Berg
Leaf-inhabiting fungi are an important, but often overlooked component of molecular biodiversity studies. To understand their diversity and function in relation to plant species and climate, the phyllospheres of 14 phylogenetically diverse ornamental plant species were analyzed under different controlled greenhouse conditions. We found unexpectedly high fungal diversity (H' = 2.8-6.5), OTU numbers (449-1050) and abundances (103 -106 CFU cm-2 leaf surface) associated with all plants studied indoors. Despite experimental limitations, the composition of fungal communities were inclined toward a plant species-dependent pattern compared to the ambient climatic variables...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Agathe Maupetit, Romain Larbat, Michaël Pernaci, Axelle Andrieux, Cécile Guinet, Anne-Laure Boutigny, Bénédicte Fabre, Pascal Frey, Fabien Halkett
Foliar pathogens face heterogeneous environments depending on the maturity of leaves they interact with. In particular, nutrient availability as well as defense levels may vary significantly, with opposing effects on the success of infection. The present study tested which of these factors have a dominant effect on the pathogen's development. Poplar leaf disks of eight maturity levels were inoculated with the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina using an innovative single-spore inoculation procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gareth Trubl, Ho Bin Jang, Simon Roux, Joanne B Emerson, Natalie Solonenko, Dean R Vik, Lindsey Solden, Jared Ellenbogen, Alexander T Runyon, Benjamin Bolduc, Ben J Woodcroft, Scott R Saleska, Gene W Tyson, Kelly C Wrighton, Matthew B Sullivan, Virginia I Rich
Rapidly thawing permafrost harbors ∼30 to 50% of global soil carbon, and the fate of this carbon remains unknown. Microorganisms will play a central role in its fate, and their viruses could modulate that impact via induced mortality and metabolic controls. Because of the challenges of recovering viruses from soils, little is known about soil viruses or their role(s) in microbial biogeochemical cycling. Here, we describe 53 viral populations (viral operational taxonomic units [vOTUs]) recovered from seven quantitatively derived (i...
September 2018: MSystems
Daniela Sateriale, Elisa Scioscia, Roberta Colicchio, Chiara Pagliuca, Paola Salvatore, Ettore Varricchio, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci, Caterina Pagliarulo
This study purpose was to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory properties of Italian acacia honey extracts against pathogenic aquatic oomycete/fungal isolates that cause different diseases in crayfish, resulting in an elevated mortality rate. The antimycotic activity of acacia honey aqueous extracts were evaluated against the strain UEF88662 of Aphanomyces astaci (oomycete) and the strain SMM2 of Fusarium avenaceum (fungus). The extracts preparation was carried out with water by a cheap, not complex and organic solvent-free procedure, with low environmental impact and the higher possibility of large-scale reproducibility...
October 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Michael John Aldape, Savannah Nicole Rice, Kevin Patrick Field, Amy Evelyn Bryant, Dennis Leroy Stevens
PURPOSE: Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterial pathogen that causes a spectrum of illness severity ranging from mild diarrhoea to severe life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) is antibiotic-associated and primarily mediated by two exotoxins, Toxins A and B. We and others have shown that some antibiotics stimulate Toxin A and B production by C. difficile in a strain-specific manner. Still, the effects of newer anti-C. difficile antibiotics on this process and spore formation remain to be investigated...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Chi-Ching Tsang, James Y M Tang, Jordan Y H Fong, Jörg Kinne, Hwei Huih Lee, Marina Joseph, Shanty Jose, Rolf K Schuster, Ying Tang, Saritha Sivakumar, Jonathan H K Chen, Jade L L Teng, Susanna K P Lau, Ulrich Wernery, Patrick C Y Woo
Five bacterial strains, UAE-HKU57T , UAE-HKU58, UAE-HKU59, UAE-HKU60 and UAE-HKU61, were isolated in Dubai, UAE, from necrotic foot tissue samples of four dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) and associated maggots (Wohrlfartia species). They were non-sporulating, Gram-negative, non-motile bacilli. They grew well under aerobic conditions at 37 °C, but not anaerobically. The pH range for growth was pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and the strains could tolerate NaCl concentrations (w/v) up to 2 % (optimum, 0...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Brindar K Sandhu, Shonna M McBride
Clostridioides difficile is a spore-forming, anaerobic, intestinal pathogen that causes severe diarrhea that can lead to death. In 2011, C. difficile infected ∼500000 people in the USA and killed ∼29000 people. C. difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-related infection in the USA, leading to increased healthcare costs of $4.8 billion. This pathogen transmits via the oral-fecal route as a highly contagious and resilient spore. Upon exposure to primary bile acids in the intestine, C. difficile germinates, and in the absence of colonization resistance from the normal microbiota, the bacterium colonizes the colon and produces toxins...
October 5, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Lindsay A Matthews, Lyle A Simmons
DNA replication is a fundamental biological process that is tightly regulated in all cells. In bacteria, DnaA controls when and where replication begins by building a step-wise complex that loads the replicative helicase onto chromosomal DNA. In many low-GC Gram-positive species, DnaA recruits the DnaD and DnaB proteins to function as adaptors to assist in helicase loading. How DnaA, its adaptors, and the helicase form a complex at the origin is unclear. We addressed this question by using the bacterial two-hybrid assay to determine how the initiation proteins from Bacillus subtilis interact with each other...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Anna-Liisa Laine, Hannu Mäkinen
The ability of a parasite strain to establish and grow on its host may be drastically altered by simultaneous infection by other parasite strains. However, we still lack an understanding of how life-history allocations may change under coinfection, although life-history correlations are a critical mechanism restricting the evolutionary potential and epidemiological dynamics of pathogens. Here, we study how life-history stages and their correlations change in the obligate fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis under single infection and coinfection scenarios...
April 2018: Evolution Letters
Linxia Liu, Guang-Jun He, Lei Chen, Jiao Zheng, Yingying Chen, Lan Shen, Xiuyun Tian, Erwei Li, Ence Yang, Guojian Liao, Linqi Wang
In the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , sex can benefit its pathogenicity through production of meiospores, which are believed to offer both physical and meiosis-created lineage advantages for its infections. Cryptococcus sporulation occurs following two parallel events, meiosis and differentiation of the basidium, the characteristic sexual structure of the basidiomycetes. However, the circuit integrating these events to ensure subsequent sporulation is unclear. Here, we show the spatiotemporal coordination of meiosis and basidial maturation by visualizing event-specific molecules in developing basidia defined by a quantitative approach...
October 3, 2018: ELife
Imane El Meouche, Johann Peltier
Clostridium difficile , also known as Clostriodioides difficile , is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium and a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in nosocomial environments. The key virulence factors of this pathogen are two toxins, toxin A and toxin B, released from the cells to the gut and causing colonic injury and inflammation. Although their mechanism of action is well known, the toxins A and B have no peptide signals and their secretion mechanisms involving the holin-like protein TcdE and autolysis are still under active investigation...
August 10, 2018: Microbial Cell
Mahjoub A Ejmal, David J Holland, Robin M MacDiarmid, Michael N Pearson
This study determined the effects of Aspergillus thermomutatus chrysovirus 1 (AthCV1), isolated from Aspergillus thermomutatus, on A. fumigatus , A. nidulans and A. niger. Protoplasts of virus-free isolates of A. fumigatus , A. nidulans and A. niger were transfected with purified AthCV1 particles and the phenotype, growth and sporulation of the isogenic AthCV1-free and AthCV1-infected lines assessed at 20 °C and 37 °C and gene expression data collected at 37 °C. AthCV1-free and AthCV1-infected A. fumigatus produced only conidia at both temperatures but more than ten-fold reduced compared to the AthCV1-infected line...
October 2, 2018: Viruses
Vera Voltersen, Matthew G Blango, Sahra Herrmann, Franziska Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Strassburger, Thomas Krüger, Petra Bacher, Jasmin Lother, Esther Weiss, Kerstin Hünniger, Hong Liu, Peter Hortschansky, Alexander Scheffold, Jürgen Löffler, Sven Krappmann, Sandor Nietzsche, Oliver Kurzai, Hermann Einsele, Olaf Kniemeyer, Scott G Filler, Utz Reichard, Axel A Brakhage
Aspergillus fumigatus is a common airborne fungal pathogen of humans and a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Here, we provide the most extensive cell wall proteome profiling to date of A. fumigatus resting conidia, the fungal morphotype pertinent to first contact with the host. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified proteins within the conidial cell wall by hydrogen-fluoride (HF)-pyridine extraction and proteins exposed on the surface using a trypsin-shaving approach...
October 2, 2018: MBio
Emma Richards, Laura Bouché, Maria Panico, Ana Arbeloa, Evgeny Vinogradov, Howard Morris, Brendan Wren, Susan M Logan, Anne Dell, Neil F Fairweather
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that causes major health challenges worldwide. It has a well-characterized surface (S)-layer, a para-crystalline proteinaceous layer surrounding the cell wall. In many bacterial and archaeal species, the S-layer is glycosylated, but no such modifications have been demonstrated in C. difficile. Here, we show that a C. difficilestrain of S-layer cassette type 11, Ox247, has a complex glycan attached via an O-linkage to Thr-38 of the S-layer low-molecular-weight subunit...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Héloise Coullon, Aline Rifflet, Richard Wheeler, Claire Janoir, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Thomas Candela
Spores are produced by many organisms as a survival mechanism activated in response to several environmental stresses. Bacterial spores are multilayered structures, one of which is a peptidoglycan layer called the cortex, containing muramic-δ-lactams that are synthesized by at least two bacterial enzymes, the muramoyl-L-alanine amidase CwlD and the N-deacetylase PdaA. This study focused on the spore cortex of Clostridium difficile , a Gram-positive, toxin-producing anaerobic bacterial pathogen that can colonize the human intestinal tract and is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jennyfer Trouve, Ahmed Mohamed, Francisco Leisico, Carlos Contreras-Martel, Bowen Liu, Caroline Mas, David Z Rudner, Christopher D A Rodrigues, Cecile Morlot
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis responds to starvation by entering a morphological differentiation process leading to the formation of a highly resistant spore. Early in the sporulation process, the cell asymmetrically divides into a large compartment (the mother cell) and a smaller one (the forespore), which will maturate into a resistant spore. Proper development of the forespore requires the assembly of a multiprotein complex called the SpoIIIA-SpoIIQ complex or "A-Q complex". This complex involves the forespore protein SpoIIQ and eight mother cell proteins (SpoIIIAA to SpoIIIAH), many of which share structural similarities with components of specialized secretion systems and flagella found in Gram-negative bacteria...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Alicyn Reverdy, Yun Chen, Evan Hunter, Kevin Gozzi, Yunrong Chai
Protein lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that alters the charge, conformation, and stability of proteins. A number of genome-wide characterizations of lysine-acetylated proteins, or acetylomes, in bacteria have demonstrated that lysine acetylation occurs on proteins with a wide diversity of functions, including central metabolism, transcription, chemotaxis, and cell size regulation. Bacillus subtilis is a model organism for studies of sporulation, motility, cell signaling, and multicellular development (or biofilm formation)...
2018: PloS One
Anelsy Ramos-Guerrero, Ramsés Ramón González-Estrada, Greta Hanako-Rosas, Silvia Bautista-Baños, Gustavo Acevedo-Hernández, Martin Ernesto Tiznado-Hernández, Porfirio Gutiérrez-Martínez
Soursop ( Annona muricata ) is a tropical fruit that can be infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer . Traditional methods used for postharvest disease control include the application of fungicides, however due to their excessive use, as well as their persistence in the environment, the development of new strategies that control pathogens are required. The application of chitosan (Chi), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an environmentally-friendly alternative with antimicrobial properties and also induces defense mechanisms in plant tissues...
June 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Walaa I Mohamaden, Nahla H Sallam, Eman M Abouelhassan
Coccidiosis is a disease of high economic importance caused by Eimeria species that show ubiquitous distribution among several species including small ruminants. The prevalence of Eimeria infection in sheep and goats in Geneffe village, Suez Governorate, Egypt was determined during the period from March 2015 to February 2016. Total of 277 animals (142 sheep and 135 goats) were clinically examined and fecal samples were collected and tested both microscopically and by PCR. Sera samples of sheep and goats under 1 year were collected for biochemical analysis...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
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