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M Marwa Abdel-Kareem, Abdel-Hamied M Rasmey, A A Zohri
Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and its aflatoxins production using the biocontrol agent S. cerevisiae as well as to explore its mode of action was studied. Eight strains of S. cerevisiae strains were able to supress the growth of Aspergillus flavus Z103. The maximum growth inhibition of A. flavus Z103 was obtained by living cells of S. cerevisiae EBF101 and S. cerevisiae 117 with 85 and 83%, respectively. The sporulation inhibition and hyphae deteroration of A. flavus Z103 by S. cerevisiae cells adhesion were observed under SEM...
December 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Samad Lotfollahzadeh, Masoumeh Heydari, Mohammad Reza Mohebbi, Maryam Hashemian
Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, infectious neuromuscular disease in all farmed mammals caused by Clostridium tetani. The disease is sporadic but outbreaks of tetanus have been described, as a result of wound contaminated with spores of C. tetani, which sporulates to the vegetative form and produce toxins. The present study reports an outbreak of tetanus in a sheep flock, shortly after ear tagging. Three sheep from a large flock (with a population of 1000 sheep) were presented with signs of: convulsion, limb stiffness, incoordination and trismus ("lock jaw")...
December 13, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Chunhui Li, Céline Harmanus, Duolong Zhu, Xiujuan Meng, Shaohui Wang, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Chenchao Fu, Pengcheng Zhou, Ruisi Liu, Anhua Wu, Ed J Kuijper, Wiep Klaas Smits, Lei Fu, Xingmin Sun
The expression of the Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT is generally observed in the RT027 (ST1) and RT078 (ST11) C. difficile isolates, which are associated with severe C. difficile infection (CDI). However, we recently reported that the non-RT027 and non-RT078 C. difficile strain LC693 (TcdA+ TcdB+ CDT+ , ST201) caused severe diarrhea in a patient in Xiangya Hospital in China. C.difficile LC693 is a member of Clade 3, and in this study, we identified LC693 as RT871 and compared its virulence and pathogenicity to those of C...
December 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Abiodun Joseph Fatoba, Matthew Adekunle Adeleke
Coccidiosis is a deadly disease that hampers chicken's productivity and welfare. Thus, the disease is a major menace to the global poultry industry. Coccidiosis which is caused by the apicomplexan parasite of the genus Eimeria has seven known species which affect the different parts of the intestinal tract of chickens. The disease which occurs by ingestion of sporulated oocyst has been associated with poor poultry management system. Mixed infection among the species of this parasite contributes to both pathogenicity and misdiagnosis of the disease...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Aline Rosa Trevizan, Larissa Carla Lauer Schneider, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, João Luis Garcia, Nilza C Buttow, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira-Melo, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection can occur through the ingestion of raw meat that contains tissue cysts or food that contains oocysts. Through the ingestion of oocysts, the parasite crosses the intestinal barrier, where the enteric nervous system is located. The objective was to investigate the kinetics of neuronal and glial responses during acute T. gondii infection. METHODS: We used 45 Wistar rats that were divided into a control group and infected groups that were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours, 7 days, 10 days, and 15 days after infection...
December 10, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Rocio Medina, Mario Emilio Ernesto Franco, Gustavo Lucentini, Mario Carlos Nazareno Saparrat, Pedro Alberto Balatti
Stemphylium lycopersici (Pleosporales) is a pathogenic fungus found on a broad range of plant hosts. It is one of the causal agents of gray leaf spot disease in tomato that causes severe yield reductions and economic losses worldwide. Here, we present the draft genome sequences and the gene annotations of two strains of S. lycopersici, nonsporulating strain CIDEFI-212 and sporulating strain CIDEFI-213.
August 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Yifan Zhang, Ralf Moeller, Sophia Tran, Barbora Dubovcova, Georgios Akepsimaidis, Nicolas Meneses, David Drissner, Alexander Mathys
Low energy electron beam (LEEB) treatment is an emerging non-thermal technology that performs surface decontamination with a minimal influence on food quality. Bacterial spore resistance toward LEEB treatment and its influencing factors were investigated in this study. Spores from Geobacillus and Bacillus species were treated with a lab-scale LEEB at energy levels of 80 and 200 keV. The spore resistances were expressed as D -values (the radiation dose required for one log10 reduction at a given energy level) calculated from the linear regression of log10 reduction against absorbed dose of the sample...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
John A Hnida
Eimeria ammospermophili n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from 2 of 29 (7%) Harris's antelope squirrels Ammospermophilus harrisii Audubon & Bachman in Arizona, USA. Sporulated oöcysts of this new species are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 24-32 × 20-25 (29.0 × 22.7) µm, with a pitted, bi-layered wall, an oöcyst residuum and, occasionally, a polar granule. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10-12 × 7-9 (11.0 × 7.9) µm, with a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum; sporozoites are elongate with a spheroidal anterior refractile body and an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body...
December 6, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Joanna Jeżewska-Frąckowiak, Krystyna Seroczyńska, Justyna Banaszczyk, Daniel Woźniak, Agnieszka Żylicz-Stachula, Piotr Mariusz Skowron
Supplementing the human microbiome with probiotic microorganisms is a proposed solution for civilization syndromes such as dysbiosis and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Bimodal probiotic strains of the Bacillus genus constitute the microbiota of the human environment, and are typically found in soil, water, a number of non-dairy fermented foods, as well as in human and animal GIT. Probiotic Bacillus sp. are Gram positive rods, with the ability of sporulation to survive environmental stress and preparation conditions...
December 6, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Eva G Barreales, Tamara D Payero, Antonio de Pedro, Jesús F Aparicio
The biosynthesis of the antifungal filipin in Streptomyces filipinensis is very sensitive to phosphate regulation. Concentrations as low as 2.5 mM block filipin production. This effect is, at least in part, produced by repression of the transcription of most filipin biosynthetic genes. The role of the two-component PhoRP system in this process was investigated. The phoRP system of S. filipinensis was cloned and transcriptionally characterised. PhoP binds to two PHO boxes present in one of its two promoters...
2018: PloS One
Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Adriana Carvalho, Felix Bärlocher, Cristina Canhoto
Anthropogenic salinization of freshwater is a global problem with largely unknown consequences for stream functions. We compared the effects of salt addition (6 g l-1 NaCl) in microcosms on leaf mass loss and microbial parameters in single- and multispecies assemblages of fungal strains ( Heliscus lugdunensis , HELU; Tetracladium marchalianum , TEMA; Flagellospora curta , FLCU) isolated from a reference (R) or salinized (S) stream. Fungal growth and interactions were also assessed. Salinization inhibited leaf decomposition and fungal biomass, but no differences were observed between species, strains or species combinations...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Marjon H J Wells-Bennik, Patrick W M Janssen, Verena Klaus, Chi Yang, Marcel H Zwietering, Heidy M W Den Besten
In this study, different methods were evaluated for enumeration of spores of G. stearothermophilus, different sporulation methods were assessed for yields and wet heat resistances of obtained spores, and subsequently, the variation in heat resistances of spores was determined. Overall, tryptone soya agar (TSA) was the most suitable medium for enumeration of spores of this thermophilic bacterium. Sporulation on different media both at 55 and at 61 °C led to considerable variation in spore heat resistance...
November 10, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mona Shaaban, Abdelaziz Elgaml, El-Sayed E Habib
High incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial clinical isolates necessitates the discovery of new targets for inhibition of microbial pathogenicity, without stimulation of microbial resistance. This could be achieved by targeting virulence determinants, which cause host damage and disease. Many pathogenic bacteria elaborate signaling molecules for cellular communication. This signaling system is named quorum sensing system (QS), and it is contingent on the bacterial population density and mediated by signal molecules called pheromones or autoinducers (AIs)...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yuki Wakabayashi, Hirofumi Nariya, Mayo Yasugi, Tomomi Kuwahara, Mahfuzur R Sarker, Masami Miyake
Clostridium perfringens type F is a spore-forming anaerobe that causes bacterial food-borne illness in humans. The disease develops when ingested vegetative cells reach the intestinal tract and begin to form spores that produce the diarrheagenic C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). Given that CPE production is regulated by the master regulator of sporulation (transcription factor Spo0A), the identification of sporulation-inducing factors in the intestine is relevant to better understanding of the disease. To examine these factors, we established assays to quantify C...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Sawai Boukaew, Poonsuk Prasertsan
The antifungal activity of acetophenone and phenylethyl alcohol prevents seed contamination by Aspergillus flavus TISTR 3041 and A. parasiticus TISTR 3276. Their effects on seed germination were investigated. In vitro results showed that 100 µL L-1 acetophenone completely inhibited (by 100%) growth, conidial germination, and sporulation of the two aflatoxin-producing fungi, while phenylethyl alcohol showed only weak inhibitory activity even at 1000 µL L-1 . Exposure to acetophenone at 100 µL L-1 for 6 h could completely kill (100% death) both fungal strains, while phenylethyl alcohol showed much lower efficacy (53...
December 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Lada Hofmannová, Jana Kvičerová, Kristýna Bízková, David Modrý
Intranuclear coccidiosis of testudines (known as TINC) is an emerging disease in chelonians. Although endogenous stages were repeatedly detected in various tissues, attempts to find the oocysts in faeces failed, leaving the question of the transmission and classification of the causative agent of TINC unresolved. We recorded small spherical oocysts (∼6-7 μm in diameter) of an eimeriid coccidium in faeces of a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis). Sporulated oocysts were used for the experimental oral inoculation of juvenile coccidia-free tortoises representing 5 species (S...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
H Leung, A Yitbarek, R Snyder, R Patterson, J R Barta, N Karrow, E Kiarie
Nucleotide-rich yeast extract (YN) was investigated for effects on growth performance, jejunal physiology, and cecal microbial activity in Eimeria-challenged broiler chickens. A total of 360-day-old male chicks (Ross × Ross 708) were placed on floor pens and provided a corn-soybean meal-based diet without or with YN (500 g/MT; n = 12). On d 10, 6 replicates per diet were orally administered with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima sporulated oocysts and the rest (non-challenged control) were administered with 1 mL of distilled water...
November 27, 2018: Poultry Science
William Fry, Sean P Patev, Kevin Meyers, Kan Bao, Zhangjun Fei
Sporangia of Phytophthora infestans from pure cultures on agar plates are typically used in lab studies, whereas sporangia from leaflet lesions drive natural infections and epidemics. Multiple assays were performed to determine if sporangia from these two sources are equivalent. Sporangia from plate cultures showed much lower rates of indirect germination and produced much less disease in field and moist-chamber tests. This difference in aggressiveness was observed whether the sporangia had been previously incubated at 4 C (to induce indirect germination) or at 21 C (to prevent indirect germination)...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Dong Liu, Zhengjiao Yang, Yong Chen, Wei Zhuang, Huanqing Niu, Jinglan Wu, Hanjie Ying
Background: Biofilms are cell communities wherein cells are embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The biofilm of Clostridium acetobutylicum confers the cells superior phenotypes and has been extensively exploited to produce a variety of liquid biofuels and bulk chemicals. However, little has been known about the physiology of C. acetobutylicum in biofilm as well as the composition and biosynthesis of the EPS. Thus, this study is focused on revealing the cell physiology and EPS composition of C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hironaga Akita, Zen-Ichiro Kimura, Tamotsu Hoshino
An aerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporulating, motile, rod-shaped and lignin-degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp. CCA1, was isolated from leaf soil collected in Japan. This strain grew at 20-45 °C (optimum 20 °C), at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum pH 5.0), and in the presence of 2% NaCl. Its major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c and/or C18:1 ω7c). The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone-9. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. CCA1 was related most closely to P...
November 26, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
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