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Wei Wei, Meng-Yuan Cui, Yang Hu, Kuan Gao, Yin-Ge Xie, Ying Jiang, Jia-Yue Feng
WRKY transcription factors play a critical role in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants, but very few WRKYs have been reported in strawberry plants. Here, a multiple stress-inducible gene, FvWRKY42, was isolated from the wild diploid woodland strawberry (accession Heilongjiang-3). FvWRKY42 expression was induced by treatment with powdery mildew, salt, drought, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene. The protein interaction network analysis showed that the FvWRKY42 protein interacts with various stress-related proteins...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Panagiotis Sakkas, Idiegberanoise Oikeh, Damer P Blake, Matthew J Nolan, Richard A Bailey, Anthony Oxley, Ivan Rychlik, Georg Lietz, Ilias Kyriazakis
Chickens exhibit varied responses to infection with Eimeria parasites. We hypothesise that broilers selected for increased growth rate will show lower resistance and tolerance to a coccidian challenge. 288 chickens of fast (F) or slow (S) growing lines were inoculated with 0 (control), 2500 (low-dose), or 7000 (high-dose) sporulated E. maxima oocysts at 13 days of age in two consecutive rounds. Gain and Intake were measured daily and their values relative to BW at the point of infection were calculated over the pre-patent (days 1-4 post-infection), acute (d5-8 pi), and recovery (d9-12 pi) phases of infection to assess the impact of infection...
July 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Amin Dorost, Yayha Safari, Maliheh Akhlaghi, Marzieh Soleimani, Nasrin Yoosefpour
Microorganisms live almost everywhere, they are even present on inanimate objects such as Mobile phones, as a result contaminates our body. The main purpose of this study was tantamount to compare microbial contamination of keypad and touch screen mobile cell phones between hospital and non-hospital staffs. Samples were collected from 456 cell phones of hospital and non-hospital. Microbial swab samples were taken from 1 cm2 of surface from each cell phone, and incubated on Brain Heart Infusion agar media at 37...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Ari M Hietala, Isabella Børja, Halvor Solheim, Nina E Nagy, Volkmar Timmermann
Dieback of European ash, caused by the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus originating from Asia, has rapidly spread across Europe, and is threatening this keystone tree at a continental scale. High propagule pressure is characteristic to invasive species. Consistently, the enormous production of windborne ascospores by H. fraxineus in an ash forest with epidemic level of disease obviously facilitates its invasiveness and long distance spread. To understand the rate of build-up of propagule pressure by this pathogen following its local introduction, during 2011-2017 we monitored its sporulation at a newly infested ash stand in south-western Norway characterized with mild winters and cool summers...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nicole Heini, Roger Stephan, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Sophia Johler
Mashed potato powder as well as powdered infant formula (PIF) are frequently contaminated with Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l.), mainly with its spores. These products have also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. Here, we characterized B. cereus s.l. isolates originating from powdered products based on sporulation assays, toxin gene profiling, and panC typing combined with a SplitsTree analysis. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assays with B. cytotoxicus isolates were performed. 78% of PIF tested positive for B...
October 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-Ul-Haq
Current study reveals the likelihood to use pathogen and toxin mutually as an effective and eco-friendly strategy for Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) management, which could reduce toxicant dose and host killing time. Therefore, phytol and Beauveria bassiana in different proportions were evaluated to determine their effectiveness. Prior to ascertaining host mortality and defense mechanisms, we have recorded in vitro action of phytol using different concentrations (0.70, 1.40, 2.10, 2.80, and 3.50 mg/mL) against B...
August 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Adriana G Patlán, Saúl U Corona, Víctor M Ayala-García, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
It has been shown that mutation frequency decline (Mfd) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficiencies promote UV-induced mutagenesis in B. subtilis sporangia. As replication is halted in sporulating B. subtilis cells, in this report, we investigated if this response may result from an error-prone repair event involving the UV-endonuclease YwjD and low fidelity (LF) DNA synthesis. Accordingly, disruption of YwjD generated B. subtilis sporangia that were more susceptible to UV-C radiation than sporangia of the WT strain and such susceptibility increased even more after the single or simultaneous inactivation of the LF DNA polymerases YqjH and YqjW...
July 27, 2018: DNA Repair
Shunxian Wang, Haiqin Chen, Yuzhuo Wang, Xin Tang, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method is commonly applied in the oleaginous filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina. During the ATMT process, the spores of M. alpina have traditionally been used as a co-cultivation material, but their long spore-producing cycle and low sporulation rate make the transformation process tedious. This study explores the use of germinating spores, mycelium and single solid colonies of uracil auxotrophic M. alpina CCFM501 as a co-cultivation material with A...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Toshihiro Tokiwa, Ai Ohnuki, Rie Kubota, Kenichi Tamukai, Kazunori Ike
In this study, we provide the first description of Cystoisospora infection in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus ). In July 2017, three juvenile otters recently imported from the Republic of Indonesia showed severe diarrhea and were diagnosed with coccidial infection; two of them eventually died. Fecal examination revealed the presence of numerous oocysts. Sporulated oocysts showed typical Cystoisospora features, measuring 24.6 ± 1.6 (22.0-27.0) × 21.8 ± 1.4 (19.0-25.0) μm, with an oocyst length/width ratio of 1...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Imrich Barák, Katarína Muchová
Probably one of the most controversial questions about the cell division of Bacillus subtilis, a rod-shaped bacterium, concerns the mechanism that ensures correct division septum placement-at mid-cell during vegetative growth but closer to one end during sporulation. In general, bacteria multiply by binary fission, in which the division septum forms almost exactly at the cell centre. How the division machinery achieves such accuracy is a question of continuing interest. We understand in some detail how this is achieved during vegetative growth in Escherichia coli and B...
2018: PloS One
Patrick H Bradley, Stephen Nayfach, Katherine S Pollard
The mechanisms by which different microbes colonize the healthy human gut versus other body sites, the gut in disease states, or other environments remain largely unknown. Identifying microbial genes influencing fitness in the gut could lead to new ways to engineer probiotics or disrupt pathogenesis. We approach this problem by measuring the statistical association between a species having a gene and the probability that the species is present in the gut microbiome. The challenge is that closely related species tend to be jointly present or absent in the microbiome and also share many genes, only a subset of which are involved in gut adaptation...
August 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Sabina Horvat, Maja Rupnik
Disturbance in gut microbiota is crucial for the development of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Different mechanisms through which gut microbiota influences C. difficile colonization are known. However, C. difficile could also affect gut microbiota balance as previously demonstrated by cultivation of fecal microbiota in C. difficile conditioned medium. In current study, the interactions of C. difficile cells with gut microbiota were addressed. Three different strains (ribotypes 027, 014/020, and 010) were co-cultivated with two types of fecal microbiota (healthy and dysbiotic) using in vitro batch model...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Baoya Wang, Wenwen Peng, Pingping Zhang, Jianrong Su
Antibiotic exposure, Clostridium difficile toxins, and spore formation are key factors involved in the pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A high incidence of CDI due to toxin A- B + strains, which were classified in to two genotypes (ST81 and ST37) by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), was identified in Beijing friendship hospital in 2016-2017. ST81 was the most prevalent type, accounting for 81.25% of toxin A- B + strains. ST81 corresponded to a novel PCR ribotype PKI-017 with one less band than ST37/ribotype 017 in PCR ribotyping...
July 30, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Eric Mi, Jihong Li, Bruce A McClane
Clostridium perfringens type F strains, which produce C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), are a major cause of gastrointestinal infections, including the second most prevalent bacterial foodborne illness and 5-10% cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Virulence of type F strains is primarily ascribable to CPE, which is synthesized only during sporulation. Many type F strains also produce NanI sialidase and carry a nan operon that facilitates uptake and metabolism of sialic acid liberated from glycoconjugates by NanI...
August 6, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Marcin Dembek, Abigail Kelly, Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Emma Tarrant, Will A Stanley, Daniela Vollmer, Jacob Biboy, Joe Gray, Waldemar Vollmer, Paula S Salgado
Clostridium difficile remains the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals worldwide, linked to significant morbidity and mortality. As a strict anaerobe, it produces dormant cell forms - spores - which allow it to survive in the aerobic environment. Importantly, spores are the transmission agent of C. difficile infections. A key aspect of sporulation is the engulfment of the future spore by the mother cell and several proteins have been proposed to be involved. Here, we investigated the role of the SpoIID, SpoIIM and SpoIIP (DMP) machinery and its interplay with the SpoIIQ:SpoIIIAH (Q:AH) complex in C...
July 31, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
John W Ribis, Kelly A Fimlaid, Aimee Shen
Spore formation is essential for the bacterial pathogen and obligate anaerobe, Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile, to transmit disease. Completion of this process depends on the mother cell engulfing the developing forespore, but little is known about how engulfment occurs in C. difficile. In Bacillus subtilis, engulfment is mediated by a peptidoglycan degradation complex consisting of SpoIID, SpoIIP, and SpoIIM, which are all individually required for spore formation. Using genetic analyses, we determined the functions of these engulfment-related proteins along with the putative endopeptidase, SpoIIQ, during C...
July 31, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Baojun Wu, Alicia Knudson
De novo genes are very important for evolutionary innovation. However, how these genes originate and spread remains largely unknown. To better understand this, we rigorously searched for de novo genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and examined their spread and fixation in the population. Here, we identified 84 de novo genes in S. cerevisiae S288C since the divergence with their sister groups. Transcriptome and ribosome profiling data revealed at least 8 (10%) and 28 (33%) de novo genes being expressed and translated only under specific conditions, respectively...
July 31, 2018: MBio
Takehiko Yoko-O, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Erina Yoshihara, Mariko Umemura, Yasunori Chiba
Ogataea minuta is a methylotrophic yeast that is closely related to Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha. Like other methylotrophic yeasts, O. minuta also possesses strongly methanol-inducible genes, such as AOX1. We have focused on O. minuta as a host for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. However, genetic methods, which are required for the construction of strains by breeding, have not yet been established in this organism. In this study, we investigated the O. minuta mechanisms of mating and sporulation, which would facilitate genetic analysis in this species...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Lizah T van der Aart, Gerwin K Spijksma, Amy Harms, Waldemar Vollmer, Thomas Hankemeier, Gilles P van Wezel
The bacterial cell wall maintains cell shape and protects against bursting by the turgor. A major constituent of the cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), which is continuously modified to allow cell growth and differentiation through the concerted activity of biosynthetic and hydrolytic enzymes. Streptomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria with a complex multicellular life style alternating between mycelial growth and the formation of reproductive spores. This involves cell-wall remodeling at apical sites of the hyphae during cell elongation and autolytic degradation of the vegetative mycelium during the onset of development and antibiotic production...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Susanna M Badalyan
This article presents data from morphological observations of mycelia of 40 monokaryotic and 11 dikaryotic collections of 3 medicinal Coprinellus species (C. disseminatus, C. micaceus, and C. xanthothrix). The growth rate, colony morphology, and micromorphological characteristics of mycelia and anamorphs on 1.5% malt-extract agar (MEA) and potato-dextrose agar (PDA) are described. Well-developed white, cottony-felt colonies, which later show creamy, yellowish to rusty brown pigmentation on mycelia and agar, were typical for the studied Coprinellus collections...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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