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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823085/chromaffin-cells-as-a-model-to-evaluate-mechanisms-of-cell-death-and-neuroprotective-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Cristobal de Los Rios, Maria F Cano-Abad, Mercedes Villarroya, Manuela G López
In this review, we show how chromaffin cells have contributed to evaluate neuroprotective compounds with diverse mechanisms of action. Chromaffin cells are considered paraneurons, as they share many common features with neurons: (i) they synthesize, store, and release neurotransmitters upon stimulation and (ii) they express voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, in addition to a wide variety of receptors. All these characteristics, together with the fact that primary cultures from bovine adrenal glands or chromaffin cells from the tumor pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 are easy to culture, make them an ideal model to study neurotoxic mechanisms and neuroprotective drugs...
August 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821302/participation-of-adults-with-disorders-differences-of-sex-development-dsd-in-the-clinical-study-dsd-life-design-methodology-recruitment-data-quality-and-study-population
#2
Robert Röhle, Katharina Gehrmann, Maria Szarras-Czapnik, Hedi Claahsen-van der Grinten, Catherine Pienkowski, Claire Bouvattier, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Anna Nordenström, Ute Thyen, Birgit Köhler
BACKGROUND: dsd-LIFE is a comprehensive cross-sectional clinical outcome study of individuals with disorders/differences of sex development (DSD). This study focuses on various rare genetic conditions characterized by impaired gonadal or adrenal functionality. METHODS/DESIGN: The study aims to assess quality of life (QoL) as a measure of psychosocial adaptation, psychosexual and mental health aspects as major outcomes. Health status and functioning, medical and surgical therapies, participants' views on health care, psychological and social support, sociodemographic factors and their interrelations will be investigated as factors associated with the outcomes...
August 18, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820304/predictors-of-quality-of-life-and-survival-following-gamma-knife-surgery-for-lung-cancer-brain-metastases-a-prospective-study
#3
Sidsel Bragstad, Marianne Flatebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, Geir Egil Eide, Geir Olve Skeie, Maziar Behbahani, Paal-Henning Pedersen, Per Øyvind Enger, Bente Sandvei Skeie
OBJECTIVE Lung cancer (LC) patients who develop brain metastases (BMs) have a poor prognosis. Estimations of survival and risk of treatment-related deterioration in quality of life (QOL) are important when deciding on treatment. Although we know of several prognostic factors for LC patients with BMs, the role of QOL has not been established. Authors of this study set out to evaluate changes in QOL following Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for BMs in LC patients and QOL as a prognostic factor for survival. METHODS Forty-four of 48 consecutive LC patients with BMs underwent GKS in the period from May 2010 to September 2011, and their QOL was prospectively assessed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after GKS by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-BR) questionnaire...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820232/recognizing-and-managing-adrenal-disorders-in-the-emergency-department
#4
Amy Cutright, Stephen Ducey, Claudia L. Barthold
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement...
September 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819949/addison-s-disease-concomitant-with-corticotropin-deficiency-and-pituitary-crh-resistance-a-case-report
#5
Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Katarzyna Malicka, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Andrzej Lewiński
A 36-year-old woman was found to have a low morning ACTH concentration despite a history of Addison's disease. Past medical history: At the age of 23 years the subject developed Graves's disease, which was treated with radioiodine. At about the same time, she claimed to have two episodes of pancreatitis treated with cholecystectomy. About seven months later she was euthyroid on L-thyroxine (TSH 1.51 mIU/mL) but was admitted with hypotension, hyponatraemia (sodium 109 mmol/L), and low morning cortisol (119 nmol/L)...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819906/correlation-between-adrenal-function-growth-hormone-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-children-with-idiopathic-growth-hormone-deficiency
#6
A Ciresi, S Radellini, E Vigneri, V Guarnotta, J Bianco, M G Mineo, C Giordano
PURPOSE: Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) demonstrate an increased cortisol/cortisone ratio which could potentially explain the metabolic features of GHD, while GH treatment (GHT) could increase the cortisol metabolism. METHODS: In 35 children (27 M, mean age 10.1 years) with idiopathic GHD at baseline and after 12 months of GHT and in 25 controls, in addition to metabolic parameters, we assessed adrenal function by morning serum cortisol, its peak, and its area under the curve (AUCCOR) during insulin tolerance test (ITT)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819757/development-of-cyp21a2-genotyping-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#7
Mayara Jorgens Prado, Simone Martins de Castro, Cristiane Kopacek, Maricilda Palandi de Mello, Thaiane Rispoli, Tarciana Grandi, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da Silva, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to CYP21A2 gene mutations represents more than 90% of all congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases. This deficiency is screened by measuring levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, which may vary, causing false positive or false negative results. In order to assist the diagnosis, molecular methodologies have been employed. This work aimed to perform genotyping assays to detect mutations in the CYP21A2 gene and compare the findings with other population studies...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819133/combined-transcriptome-and-metabolome-analyses-of-metformin-effects-reveal-novel-links-between-metabolic-networks-in-steroidogenic-systems
#8
Sameer S Udhane, Balazs Legeza, Nesa Marti, Damian Hertig, Gaëlle Diserens, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Peter Vermathen, Christa E Flück
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug, which inhibits mitochondrial respiratory-chain-complex I and thereby seems to affect the cellular metabolism in many ways. It is also used for the treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women. In addition, metformin possesses antineoplastic properties. Although metformin promotes insulin-sensitivity and ameliorates reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, its exact mechanisms of action remain elusive. Therefore, we studied the transcriptome and the metabolome of metformin in human adrenal H295R cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819017/adrenocortical-carcinoma-and-succinate-dehydrogenase-gene-mutations
#9
Tobias Else, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Jessica Everett, Lori Haymon, Deborah Wham, Michael Mullane, Tremika LeShan Wilson, Irene Rainville, Huma Rana, Andrew J Worth, Nathaniel W Snyder, Ian A Blair, Rana McKay, Kerry Kilbridge, Gary D Hammer, Justine Barletta, Anand Vaiyda
OBJECTIVE: Germline loss-of-function mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) genes results in rare tumor syndromes that include pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, and others. Here we report a case series of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that harbor SDHx germline mutations. PATIENTS AND RESULTS: We report four unrelated patients with ACC and SDHx mutations. All cases presented with Cushing syndrome and large adrenal masses that were confirmed to be ACC on pathology...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819015/adrenal-cushing-s-syndrome-during-pregnancy
#10
Corina Andreescu, Rehmat Ali Alwani, Johannes Hofland, Leendert Looijenga, Wouter de Herder, Leo Hofland, Richard A Feelders
Cushing syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis of CS is common because of overlapping features like fatigue, weight gain, striae and emotional changes that can occur during normal pregnancy. Changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of glucocorticoid hormone levels during gestation. CS during pregnancy is most frequently due to an adrenal adenoma and to a lesser degree to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818773/adversity-driven-changes-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-functioning-during-adolescence-the-trails-study
#11
Odilia M Laceulle, Esther Nederhof, Marcel A G van Aken, Johan Ormel
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed to be a key mechanism underlying the link between adversity and mental health, but longitudinal studies on adversity and HPA-axis functioning are scarce. Here, we studied adversity-driven changes in HPA-axis functioning during adolescence (N=141). HPA-axis functioning (basal cortisol, cortisol awakening response, anticipation of, reaction to and recovery after a stress task) was measured twice, at age 16 and 19. Adversity (i.e., social defeat and loss/illness) since age 16 was measured extensively with the Life Stress Interview at age 19...
August 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818733/effects-of-childhood-trauma-exposure-and-cortisol-levels-on-cognitive-functioning-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#12
Charles Kamen, Caroline Scheiber, Michelle Janelsins, Booil Jo, Hanyang Shen, Oxana Palesh
Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive)...
August 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818702/the-effects-of-cannabinoid-receptors-activation-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-deactivation-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus-on-the-consolidation-of-a-traumatic-event
#13
Noa Shoshan, Irit Akirav
Ample evidence demonstrates that fear learning contributes significantly to many anxiety pathologies including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system may offer therapeutic benefits for PTSD and it is a modulator of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we compared the separated and combined effects of blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) using the GR antagonist RU486 and enhancing CB1r signaling using the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the consolidation of traumatic memory...
August 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818585/-vitamin-k-in-the-neonate-recommendations-update
#14
J-M Hascoët, J-C Picaud, A Lapillonne, C Boithias-Guerot, P Bolot, E Saliba
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is not common but may be very serious, with cerebral, hepatic, or adrenal gland bleeding. Its prevention is based upon vitamin K1 administration from birth. Scientific studies to validate appropriate treatment policies are scarce, with recommendations coming from expert opinions, retrospective studies, or controversies on possible side effects. After analysis of recent literature data, we propose an oral administration of three doses of 2mg of vitamin K1 at birth, at discharge from the maternity ward, and at 1 month postnatal age for term infants...
August 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818109/metastatic-colorectal-cancer-responsive-to-regorafenib-for-2-years-a-case-report
#15
Kenji Yoshino, Dai Manaka, Ryo Kudo, Shunpei Kanai, Eisei Mitsuoka, Satoshi Kanto, Shinya Hamasu, Sayuri Konishi, Ryuta Nishitai
BACKGROUND: Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been demonstrated as clinically effective in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in phase III studies. Although disease control was achieved in 40% of the pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in the pivotal studies, radiological response has rarely been reported. Severe adverse events associated with regorafenib are known to occur during the first and second courses of treatment. We present a case of a 62-year-old Japanese patient whose metastatic colorectal cancer has been responding to treatment with regorafenib for 2 years...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817114/trauma-informed-care-in-the-newborn-intensive-care-unit-promoting-safety-security-and-connectedness
#16
M R Sanders, S L Hall
Both babies and their parents may experience a stay in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) as a traumatic or a 'toxic stress,' which can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and ultimately to poorly controlled cortisol secretion. Toxic stresses in childhood or adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are strongly linked to poor health outcomes across the lifespan and trauma-informed care is an approach to caregiving based on the recognition of this relationship. Practitioners of trauma-informed care seek to understand clients' or patients' behaviors in light of previous traumas they have experienced, including ACEs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816283/-surgery-treatment-of-ectopic-adrenocorticotrophic-hormone-syndrome
#17
H Fan, H Z Li, W F Xu, Z G Ji, Y S Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigation the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. METHODS: The clinical characters of 57 cases of ecotopic ACTH syndrome from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 2016 were collected and analyzed. The 57 cases included 32 males and 25 females. The age ranged from 11 to 68 years (average 32 years). ACTH levels significantly increased from 16.5 to 365.6 pmol/L, with average 77.6 pmol/L (normal range <10.1 pmol/L). The pituitary MRI did not found lesions...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815741/prospective-evaluation-of-a-week-one-overnight-metyrapone-test-with-subsequent-dynamic-assessments-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-after-pituitary-surgery
#18
Katherine English, Warrick J Inder, Zara Weedon, Goce Dimeski, Jane Sorbello, Anthony W Russell, Emma L Duncan, Ross Cuneo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815737/retroperitoneal-gastric-duplication-mimicking-a-prenatal-adrenal-cyst
#19
Aurora Lucía Castillo-Fernández, Fernando Vázquez-Rueda, Mª Dolores Cañete, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Duplications of the gastric tract are made up of a wide variety of masses throughout the gastrointestinal tract. They may have tubular or cystic morphology. Some duplications are associated with malformations, especially those located in the thorax, which can be associated with intestinal atresia, and malformations of the urinary tract or vetebras (Lund. 2012).
August 16, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815667/diagnostic-performance-of-unenhanced-computed-tomography-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-indeterminate-adrenal-tumors
#20
Danae A Delivanis, Irina Bancos, Thomas D Atwell, Grant D Schmit, Patrick W Eiken, Neena Natt, Dana Erickson, Spyridoula Maraka, William F Young, Mark A Nathan
OBJECTIVE: Evidence on the diagnostic performance of adrenal imaging is limited. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and(18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose((18) FDG) positron emission tomography(PET)/CT imaging in a high risk population for adrenal malignancy using an optimal reference standard. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Imaging studies of patients with adrenal nodules who underwent adrenal biopsy and/or adrenalectomy between 1994 and 2014 were reviewed and compared to the reference standard of histology...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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