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Eleonora Iob, Clemens Kirschbaum, Andrew Steptoe
INTRODUCTION: While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health...
June 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Joanna Huszno, Ewa Grzybowska
Tumor protein 53 ( TP53 ) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes tumor protein p53. Tumor protein p53 regulates the expression of target genes in response to cellular stress. Additionally, p53 participates in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and apoptosis. Mutations in the TP53 gene are associated with numerous types of human cancer, including breast cancer, sarcomas, brain tumors and adrenal cortical carcinomas. In breast cancer, TP53 mutations are a negative prognostic factor. Tumors with TP53 mutations are more likely to be aggressive (triple-negative or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer), and resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Josué Pereira, Sandra Belo, Daniela Magalhães, Joana Queirós, Davide Carvalho
Introduction: The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma is very rare, requires the evidence of metastatic disease, and has a poor overall survival. Malignant prolactinoma frequently requires dopamine agonist therapy, pituitary surgery, radiotherapy, and even chemotherapy. Case description: A 19-year-old female presented with galactorrhea, primary amenorrhea, and left hemianopsia. Complementary study detected hyperprolactinemia and a pituitary macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion and suprasellar growth...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Eugenia B Manukhina, Vadim E Tseilikman, Olga B Tseilikman, Maria V Komelkova, Marina V Kondashevskaya, Anna V Goryacheva, Maxim S Lapshin, Pavel O Platkovskii, Anatoly V Alliluev, H Fred Downey
Non-pharmacological treatments of stress-induced disorders are promising, since they enhance endogenous stress defense systems and have few contraindications and side effects. This study tested a hypothesis that intermittent hypoxia conditioning (IHC) ameliorates behavioral, biochemical, and morphological signs of experimental PTSD induced in rats using a model of predator stress (10-day exposure to cat urine scent, 15 min daily followed by 14 days of stress-free rest). After the last day of stress exposure, rats were conditioned in an altitude chamber for 14 days at a 1,000 m simulated altitude for 30 min on day 1 with progressively increasing the altitude and duration to 4,000 m for 4 hours on day 5...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Kate Ryan Kuhlman, Rena L Repetti, Bridget M Reynolds, Theodore F Robles
Interparental conflict is a common source of psychosocial stress in the lives of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between recent interparental conflict and one component of the physiological stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Parents of 42 children (ages 8-13 years) completed daily diaries of interparental conflict for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, youth participated in the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) while providing 2 pre- and 4 poststress salivary cortisol samples...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Mie Yamanaka, Kiyoto Shiga, Sho Fujiwara, Yasuhiko Mizuguchi, Sari Yasuda, Kota Ishizawa, Yuriko Saiki, Kenjiro Higashi, Takenori Ogawa, Noriko Kimura, Akira Horii
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors which arise from adrenal medulla, and sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves, respectively. Hereditary cases afflicted by both or either pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have been reported: these are called hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (HPPS). Many cases of HPPS are caused by mutations of one of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes; mainly SDHB and SDHD that encode subunits for the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Massimo Salvi, Filippo Molinari
BACKGROUND: Accurate nuclei detection and segmentation in histological images is essential for many clinical purposes. While manual annotations are time-consuming and operator-dependent, full automated segmentation remains a challenging task due to the high variability of cells intensity, size and morphology. Most of the proposed algorithms for the automated segmentation of nuclei were designed for specific organ or tissues. RESULTS: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fully multiscale method, named MANA (Multiscale Adaptive Nuclei Analysis), for nuclei segmentation in different tissues and magnifications...
June 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Renhua Wu, Nanwei Tong, Xinlei Chen, Shishi Xu, Fang Zhang, Lizhi Tang, Yuwei Zhang
RATIONALE: Pheochromocytomas are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells, usually causing hypertension, palpitation and headache. However, pheochromocytoma crisis, on the contrary, might present with hypotension, multiple organ dysfunction or even mimicking other diseases, leaving physician with diagnostic difficulties. In this study, we present a case featured hypotension, shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome on admission, which nearly lead us to miss the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Giovanni Foti, Giuseppe Malleo, Niccolò Faccioli, Andrea Guerriero, Lino Furlani, Giovanni Carbognin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of wash-out parameters calculated using multiple intermediate and delayed phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study had institutional review board approval and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between January 2012 and October 2016, 108 consecutive oncologic patients (59 males, 49 females, mean age 52.6 years; 129 diagnosed lesions) underwent multiphasic CT protocol including unenhanced (UE), arterial (AE), portal (PE), 5-min (DE-5) and the 15-min (DE-15) delayed phases of adrenal glands...
June 19, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Anna Maria Ierardi, Pierpaolo Biondetti, Giulia Ferrante, Stefano Carugo, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Paragangliomas (PGLs) are catecholamine-secreting neoplasms of chromaffin cells and represent a rare but curable cause of secondary hypertension. Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic PGLs. A small (7 mm) extra-adrenal PGL was diagnosed in the right retroperitoneal space in a 19-year-old patient affected by symptomatic hypertension unresponsive to medical treatment. Indication to percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was given by a multidisciplinary team on the basis of the size of the nodule, the surgical risks, the young age of the patient, and his wish to reduce as much as possible the post-interventional rehabilitation...
June 19, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Moussa A Chalah, Samar S Ayache
Purpose: Among autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system stands multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by demyelination, synaptopathy, and neurodegeneration. MS fatigue can affect up to 90% of patients and be very disabling, with a drastic impact on their quality of life. To date, the evaluation of MS fatigue has relied mainly on subjective scales, and actual therapeutic interventions are challenged by modest efficacy and numerous undesirable effects. Therefore, finding biomarkers of MS fatigue might help in optimizing evaluation and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Karine Renaudin, Sarra Smati, Matthieu Wargny, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Sébastien Aubert, Emmanuelle Leteurtre, Martine Patey, Mathilde Sibony, Nathalie Sturm, Frédérique Tissier, Laurence Amar, Jérôme Bertherat, Claudine Berthozat, Olivier Chabre, Christine Do Cao, Magalie Haissaguerre, Peggy Pierre, Claire Briet, Delphine Vezzosi, Jean Christophe Lifante, François Pattou, Eric Mirallie, Eric Baudin, Bertrand Cariou, Rossella Libe, Delphine Drui
Oncocytic adrenocortical tumors are a rare subtype of adrenal tumors with challenging diagnosis and histoprognostic assessment. It is usually believed that oncocytic adrenocortical tumors have a more indolent clinical behavior than conventional adrenocortical tumors. As the Weiss score overestimates the malignancy of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors owing to intrinsic parameters, alternative scores have been proposed. The Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia score is currently recommended. We performed a large nationwide multicenter retrospective clinicopathologic study of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors...
June 19, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Bao-Ping Wang, Lei-Lei Yang, Hao Wang, Qing He, Zhong-Shu Ma, Yi Lin, Chang-Xin Jiang, Hao-Ran Sun, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma, especially for noncatecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma, is an extremely rare cause of ectopic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old Chinese woman was administered dexamethasone for a skin allergy, but her general condition rapidly deteriorated over a month. She was subsequently hospitalized for typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome. Endocrinological investigation confirmed severe hypercortisolism along with elevated plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)...
June 19, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Stefan Fischli
CME: Adrenal Insufficiency Abstract. Patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency (AI) often present with unspecific symptoms. Therefore, the diagnosis of AI, a potential life-threatening condition, can be missed. Lab tests, especially the ACTH-stimulation test, play a crucial role in the diagnosis of AI. According to the different etiologies, AI can be grouped into a primary (adrenal) or central (hypothalamic or pituitary, respectively) form. However, the most common cause is the treatment with glucocorticoids, which can lead to central AI...
June 2018: Praxis
Chrisanthi Marakaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George Mastorakos, Ze'ev Hochberg, George Chrousos, Anastasios Papadimitriou
Concerns over anxiety and depressive symptoms in children with premature adrenarche (PA) have been recently raised. However, to date, most relevant studies are on a small number of girls. In this cross-sectional study, 82 pre-pubertal children (66 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with PA, were compared to 63 control children regarding their psychological characteristics and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as assessed by salivary cortisol measurement. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by child self-report (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Depression self-rating scale for Children (DSRS)) and parent-report (Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)) tests validated for the Greek population...
June 19, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Akin Inderson, Marije Slingerland, Arantza Farina Sarasqueta, Wobbe O de Steur, Jurjen J Boonstra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: VideoGIE: an official video journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Dhiraj John Sonbare, Deepak Thomas Abraham, Simon Rajaratnam, Nihal Thomas, Marie Therese Manipadam, Rekha Pai, Paul Mazhuvanchary Jacob
Re-operative adrenal surgery for recurrent pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PGL) is a therapeutic situation not commonly encountered. The recurrence rate of pheochromocytoma is estimated to be 6.1-16.5% of patients from published retrospective series; there are no reports from the Asian continent. A retrospective analysis of the departmental database was performed on patients who had undergone surgery for PCC/PGL from January 2004 to December 2014 at the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Keisuke Kondo, Toshihisa Ichiba, Hiroshi Naito, Kazuhito Mizuki, Ken Masuda
Nivolumab, a new immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been found to improve outcomes for patients with some advanced cancers, is being increasingly used. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause immune-related adverse events, including dermatitis, enterocolitis, hepatitis and hypophysitis, but adrenal insufficiency rarely occurs. We present a case of Nivolumab-induced adrenal insufficiency in a man who complained of refractory hypotension. A 52-year-old man with non-small cell lung cancer visited our emergency department complaining of fatigue and diarrhea...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Jack W O'Sullivan, Tim Muntinga, Sam Grigg, John P A Ioannidis
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the evidence on prevalence and outcomes of incidental imaging findings. DESIGN: Umbrella review of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE up to August 2017; screening of references in included papers. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Criteria included systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that gave a prevalence of incidental abnormalities ("incidentalomas")...
June 18, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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