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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452421/the-short-cosyntropintest-revisited-new-normal-reference-range-using-lcmsms
#1
Grethe Å Ueland, Paal Methlie, Marianne Øksnes, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Jørn Sagen, Ralf Kellmann, Gunnar Mellgren, Maria Ræder, Per Dahlqvist, Sandra R Dahl, Per M Thorsby, Kristian Løvås, Eystein S Husebye
Background: The cosyntropin test is used to diagnose adrenal insufficiency (AI) and non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH). Current cutoffs for cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) are derived from non-standardized immunoassays. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) offers direct measurement of steroids, prompting the need to re-establish normal ranges. Aim: Define cutoff values for cortisol and 17-OHP in serum by LCMSMS 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 250 µg tetracosactide acetate (Synachten©) to healthy volunteers, and compare LCMSMS with routine immunoassays...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452193/antidepressant-activity-of-vorinostat-is-associated-with-amelioration-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-corticosterone-induced-chronic-stress-model-in-mice
#2
Athira Kv, Rajaram Mohanrao Madhana, Indu Chandran Js, Mangala Lahkar, Swapnil Sinha, V G M Naidu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder. Chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to rodents is used to mimic the stress associated dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a well-established feature found in depressive patients. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the antidepressant potential of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. So, we examined the antidepressant potential of vorinostat (VOR), a HDAC inhibitor against CORT injections in male mice...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452075/physiological-correlates-of-reproductive-decisions-relationships-among-body-condition-reproductive-status-and-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-a-reptile
#3
Catherine A Dayger, Michael P LeMaster, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
When opportunities to feed and reproduce are limited, females are often unable to recover sufficient energy stores to reproduce in consecutive years. Body condition has been used as a proxy for recent reproductive history in such species. We previously found that glucocorticoid responses to capture stress vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), a species with limited seasonal breeding opportunities. Because variation in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the brain could explain these differences, we first assessed GR protein content in females in different body conditions...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450859/congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-cah-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-a-comprehensive-focus-on-233-pathogenic-variants-of-cyp21a2-gene
#4
REVIEW
Paola Concolino, Alessandra Costella
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by complete or partial defects in one of the several steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. More than 95-99% of all cases of CAH are caused by deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme encoded by the CYP21A2 gene. Currently, CYP21A2 genotyping is considered a valuable complement to biochemical investigations in the diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450723/molecular-imaging-and-theranostic-approaches-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#5
REVIEW
David Taïeb, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and their extra-adrenal counterpart paragangliomas (PGLs; together called PPGLs), belong to the family of neural crest-derived tumors. Given the overexpression of a wide variety of specific targets in PPGLs, it seems that these tumors are optimally suited to be imaged by specific radiopharmaceuticals. Thus, theranostics approaches with somatostatin agonists and antagonists are rapidly evolving in the setting of these tumors and may be considered as the next step in the therapeutic arsenal of metastatic PPGLs...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450650/access-to-the-cns-biomarker-strategies-for-dopaminergic-treatments
#6
REVIEW
Willem Johan van den Brink, Semra Palic, Isabelle Köhler, Elizabeth Cunera Maria de Lange
Despite substantial research carried out over the last decades, it remains difficult to understand the wide range of pharmacological effects of dopaminergic agents. The dopaminergic system is involved in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. This complex system features multiple pathways implicated in emotion and cognition, psychomotor functions and endocrine control through activation of G protein-coupled dopamine receptors. This review focuses on the system-wide effects of dopaminergic agents on the multiple biochemical and endocrine pathways, in particular the biomarkers (i...
February 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449525/anterior-approach-to-en-bloc-resection-in-left-sided-retroperitoneal-sarcoma-with-adjacent-organ-involvement-a-study-of-25-patients-in-a-single-center
#7
Zhen Wang, Jian-Hui Wu, Ang Lv, Cheng-Peng Li, Xiu-Yun Tian, Chun-Yi Hao
BACKGROUND There is no standard surgical approach for the management of retroperitoneal sarcoma. The aim of this clinical study was to describe the experience of an anterior approach to en bloc resection in left-sided retroperitoneal sarcoma with adjacent organ involvement. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective clinical study included 25 patients who were diagnosed with left-sided retroperitoneal sarcoma and underwent tumor resection at a single center between May 2012 and July 2017. All patients had tumors that were adjacent to the left colon, pancreas, left kidney, left adrenal gland, and psoas major; some of the tumors were adjacent to the diaphragm, stomach, and small intestine...
February 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448302/retroperitoneal-laparoscopic-adrenalectomy-with-transient-renal-artery-occlusion-for-large-adrenal-tumors-%C3%A2-8-cm
#9
Binbin Gong, Ming Ma, Wenjie Xie, Xiaorong Yang, Ting Sun
OBJECTIVES: To analyze our experience in retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (RLA) with transient renal artery occlusion for large adrenal tumors (≥8 cm) and to explore the safety and feasibility of this surgical procedure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with a surgical data review of 18 patients with large adrenal tumors who underwent RLA with transient renal artery occlusion in our hospital. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were treated by RLA with transient occlusion of the renal artery, and none were converted to open adrenalectomy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447799/iatrogenic-cushing-s-syndrome-and-adrenal-insufficiency-in-infants-on-intranasal-dexamethasone-drops-for-nasal-obstruction-case-series-and-literature-review
#10
Rohan R Joshi, Alison Maresh
The use of intranasal steroid drops for nasal obstruction in infants is common practice and can prevent more invasive surgical procedures; however, it is not without complication. We describe 2 cases of iatrogenic Cushing's secondary to nasal steroids in infants with nasal obstruction, discuss the etiology of this unusual complication, and review previous literature reports. While reporting in the literature is sparse, these cases highlight the risk of development of adrenal insufficiency with usage of nasal steroid drops in infants as well as the need for close monitoring of administration and tapering of the drops...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446975/primary-adrenal-insufficiency-due-to-hereditary-apolipoprotein-ai-amyloidosis-endocrine-involvement-beyond-hypogonadism
#11
Adriana Pané, Sabina Ruiz, Aida Orois, Daniel Martínez, Mattia Squarcia, Lydia Sastre, Pablo Ruiz, Joan Caballería, Mireia Mora, Felicia A Hanzu, Irene Halperin
Several mutations in the gene encoding apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) have been described as a cause of familial amyloidosis. Individuals with apoAI-derived (AApoAI) amyloidosis frequently manifest with liver, kidney, laryngeal, skin and myocardial involvement. Although primary hypogonadism (PH) is considered almost pathognomonic of this disease, until now, primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) has not been described as a common clinical feature. Here, we report the first kindred with AApoAI amyloidosis in which PAI is well-documented...
February 15, 2018: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446684/acute-nonhemorrhagic-adrenal-infarction-in-pregnancy-10-year-mri-incidence-and-patient-outcomes-at-a-single-institution
#12
Shahar A Glomski, Jeffrey P Guenette, Wendy Landman, Servet Tatli
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the MRI incidence of nonhemorrhagic adrenal infarction in pregnant women undergoing MRI evaluation of acute abdominal or flank pain, assess the MRI features quantitatively, and report patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All abdominal MRI examinations of pregnant women with acute pain at one institution from May 2005 to April 2015 were reviewed. The adrenals were evaluated for abnormal morphologic and signal intensity characteristics described in the literature characterizing nonhemorrhagic adrenal infarction and were compared with the contralateral adrenal by paired t tests...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445860/origin-and-initiation-mechanisms-of-neuroblastoma
#13
REVIEW
Shoma Tsubota, Kenji Kadomatsu
Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that affects normal development of the adrenal medulla and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia in early childhood. Extensive studies have revealed the molecular characteristics of human neuroblastomas, including abnormalities at genome, epigenome and transcriptome levels. However, neuroblastoma initiation mechanisms and even its origin are long-standing mysteries. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge about normal development of putative neuroblastoma sources, namely sympathoadrenal lineage of neural crest cells and Schwann cell precursors that were recently identified as the source of adrenal chromaffin cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444898/significant-prevalence-of-nr3c1-mutations-in-incidentally-discovered-bilateral-adrenal-hyperplasia-results-of-the-french-muta-gr-study
#14
Geraldine Vitellius, Séverine Trabado, Christine Hoeffel-Fornes, Jerome Bouligand, Antoine Bennet, Frédéric Castinetti, Bénédicte Decoudier, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Marc Lombes, Brigitte Delemer
Recently discovered mutations of NR3C1 gene, encoding for the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), in patients with glucocorticoid resistance and bilateral adrenal incidentalomas prompted us to investigate whether GR mutations might be associated with adrenal hyperplasia. OBJECTIVE: The multicenter French Clinical Research Program (Muta-GR) was set up to determine the prevalence of GR mutations and polymorphisms in patients harboring bilateral adrenal incidentalomas associated with hypertension and/or biological hypercortisolism without clinical Cushing's signs...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444643/sonographic-evaluation-of-adrenal-size-in-neonates-23-to-41-weeks-of-gestation
#15
Shigeo Iijima
BACKGROUND: Fetal adrenal gland size is known to have a positive correlation with both gestational age and estimated body weight. In contrast, some clinical observations suggest that maturation of the adrenal stress response occurs after 30 weeks of gestation. In this study, adrenal gland size at birth in extremely preterm to term neonates was investigated using ultrasonography to evaluate the adrenal developmental pattern and the impact of prematurity and perinatal factors. METHODS: The area of the right adrenal gland was measured in the first 3 h of life in 350 neonates and corrected for birth weight (BW) to determine the corrected adrenal area index (cAI)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444258/modeling-the-influence-of-seasonal-differences-in-the-hpa-axis-on-synchronization-of-the-circadian-clock-and-cell-cycle
#16
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444197/a-single-post-acth-cortisol-measurement-to-screen-for-adrenal-insufficiency-in-the-hospitalized-patient
#17
Devin C Odom, Ann M Gronowski, Elizabeth Odom, William Clutter, Mark Thoelke
BACKGROUND: Cosyntropin stimulation testing (CST) is used to screen patients for adrenal insufficiency (AI). Traditionally, CST includes baseline cortisol concentration, the administration of cosyntropin, and cortisol concentration at 30 and 60 minutes poststimulation. There is debate surrounding the utility of testing and cut-off points for concentrations at each time point. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a single cortisol measurement at 30 or 60 minutes could replace the traditional approach...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442480/cushing-s-disease-major-difficulties-in-diagnosis-and-management-during-pregnancy
#18
Francisca Caimari, Rosa Corcoy, Susan M Webb
Pregnancy in women with a diagnosis of Cushing' syndrome (CS) is an extremely rare event and its diagnosis and treatment are a real medical challenge. During pregnancy, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis undergoes major changes leading to a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels throughout gestation. The difficulties in diagnosis are related to the resemblance of symptoms of CS and those of pregnancy, and to the complex interpretation of the screening tests. Moreover, the diagnostic work up in the postnatal period may be difficult in the first weeks postpartum...
February 13, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442478/a-clinical-audit-diagnostic-and-epidemiological-evaluation-of-the-adrenal-incidentaloma-ai
#19
Vincenzo Nuzzo, Tiziana Attardo, Giuseppe Augello, Davide Brancato, Salvatore Camerlingo, Clelia Canale, Federica Coretti, Alessandro Franco, Francesco Giacometti, Maurizio Gambacorta, Massimo Loreno, Ada Maffettone, Vincenzo Provenzano, Alfonso Zuccoli
Audit is a clinical instrument of government characterized by a whole process of evaluation inter pares to improve medical behaviors in the clinical practice. Different endocrinopathies are underestimated in the clinical and diagnostics practice but they can be a real problem in patients admitted in the departments of Internal Medicine. The Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) is an accidental discovery with an incidence equal to 4% in radiologic studies but it's rarely considereted in the internal disorders. In the departments of Internal Medicine are hospitalized each year approximately 1...
February 13, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442094/a-potential-side-effect-of-oral-topical-steroids-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#20
Saranya George, Anita Balan
Topical corticosteroids are some of the most common drugs used in oral medicine for treating atrophic and erosive lesions that affect the mucosa. Adverse effects of these drugs include oral candidiasis with associated burning mouth and hypogeusia, hypersensitive reactions to the drug, and inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secondary adrenal insufficiency. The ocular side effects of oral topical steroids are less documented. This short communication describes a case of central serous retinopathy that developed following administration of oral topical steroid...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
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