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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847364/calculations-of-consciousness-electroencephalography-analyses-to-determine-anesthetic-depth
#1
Sarah L Eagleman, David R Drover
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electroencephalography (EEG) was introduced into anesthesia practice in the 1990s as a tool to titrate anesthetic depth. However, limitations in current analysis techniques have called into question whether these techniques improve standard of care, or instead call for improved, more ubiquitously applicable measures to assess anesthetic transitions and depth. This review highlights emerging analytical approaches and techniques from neuroscience research that have the potential to better capture anesthetic transitions to provide better measurements of anesthetic depth...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480684/artificial-neural-networks-can-be-effectively-used-to-model-changes-of-intracranial-pressure-icp-during-spinal-surgery-using-different-non-invasive-icp-surrogate-estimators
#2
Abdulla Watad, Nicola L Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Howard Amital, Samaa Watad, Kassem Sharif, Bishara Bisharat, Anna Siri, Ala Mahamid, Hakim Abu Ras, Ahmed Nasr, Federico Bilotta, Chiara Robba, Mohammad Adawi
BACKGROUND: Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques play a major role in anesthesiology, even though their importance is often overlooked. In the extant literature, AI approaches, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), have been underutilized, mainly being used to model patient's consciousness state, to predict the precise amount of anesthetic gases, the level of analgesia, or the need of anesthesiological blocks, among others. In the field of neurosurgery, ANNs have been effectively applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral tumors, seizures, low back pain, and also to the monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656787/artificial-consciousness-and-the-consciousness-attention-dissociation
#3
REVIEW
Harry Haroutioun Haladjian, Carlos Montemayor
Artificial Intelligence is at a turning point, with a substantial increase in projects aiming to implement sophisticated forms of human intelligence in machines. This research attempts to model specific forms of intelligence through brute-force search heuristics and also reproduce features of human perception and cognition, including emotions. Such goals have implications for artificial consciousness, with some arguing that it will be achievable once we overcome short-term engineering challenges. We believe, however, that phenomenal consciousness cannot be implemented in machines...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619326/maze-learning-by-a-hybrid-brain-computer-system
#4
Zhaohui Wu, Nenggan Zheng, Shaowu Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Liqiang Gao, Lijuan Su
The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity...
September 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351772/can-artificial-intelligences-suffer-from-mental-illness-a-philosophical-matter-to-consider
#5
Hutan Ashrafian
The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, but may also offer a platform on which to examine the mechanisms of biological or artificially intelligent psychiatric disease...
April 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333299/could-robots-become-authentic-companions-in-nursing-care
#6
Theodore A Metzler, Lundy M Lewis, Linda C Pope
Creating android and humanoid robots to furnish companionship in the nursing care of older people continues to attract substantial development capital and research. Some people object, though, that machines of this kind furnish human-robot interaction characterized by inauthentic relationships. In particular, robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have been charged with substituting mindless mimicry of human behaviour for the real presence of conscious caring offered by human nurses. When thus viewed as deceptive, the robots also have prompted corresponding concerns regarding their potential psychological, moral, and spiritual implications for people who will be interacting socially with these machines...
January 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25996742/inexpensive-complex-hand-model-twenty-years-later
#7
Paul Frenger
Twenty years ago the author unveiled his inexpensive complex hand model, which reproduced every motion of the human hand. A control system programmed in the Forth language operated its actuators and sensors. Follow-on papers for this popular project were next presented in Texas, Canada and Germany. From this hand grew the author’s meter-tall robot (nicknamed ANNIE: Android With Neural Networks, Intellect and Emotions). It received machine vision, facial expressiveness, speech synthesis and speech recognition; a simian version also received a dexterous ape foot...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25823865/consciousness-here-there-and-everywhere
#8
REVIEW
Giulio Tononi, Christof Koch
The science of consciousness has made great strides by focusing on the behavioural and neuronal correlates of experience. However, while such correlates are important for progress to occur, they are not enough if we are to understand even basic facts, for example, why the cerebral cortex gives rise to consciousness but the cerebellum does not, though it has even more neurons and appears to be just as complicated. Moreover, correlates are of little help in many instances where we would like to know if consciousness is present: patients with a few remaining islands of functioning cortex, preterm infants, non-mammalian species and machines that are rapidly outperforming people at driving, recognizing faces and objects, and answering difficult questions...
May 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012712/genomic-instantiation-of-consciousness-in-neurons-through-a-biophoton-field-theory
#9
Lleuvelyn A Cacha, Roman R Poznanski
A theoretical framework is developed based on the premise that brains evolved into sufficiently complex adaptive systems capable of instantiating genomic consciousness through self-awareness and complex interactions that recognize qualitatively the controlling factors of biological processes. Furthermore, our hypothesis assumes that the collective interactions in neurons yield macroergic effects, which can produce sufficiently strong electric energy fields for electronic excitations to take place on the surface of endogenous structures via alpha-helical integral proteins as electro-solitons...
June 2014: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24737482/artificial-intelligence-and-robot-responsibilities-innovating-beyond-rights
#10
Hutan Ashrafian
The enduring innovations in artificial intelligence and robotics offer the promised capacity of computer consciousness, sentience and rationality. The development of these advanced technologies have been considered to merit rights, however these can only be ascribed in the context of commensurate responsibilities and duties. This represents the discernable next-step for evolution in this field. Addressing these needs requires attention to the philosophical perspectives of moral responsibility for artificial intelligence and robotics...
April 2015: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24558738/-do-androids-need-a-legal-status
#11
Xavier Bioy
The existence of the subject of law is not an automatic allocation when the will and the autonomy are awarded, but a tool conferred by the legal system in order to protect the humanity (based on the presupposition of a consciousness that the human being remains to be the only one to have and to suppose at the others). He cannot involve thus of reducing the question of the status of the android to the simple recognition of an intelligence, besides artificial, but of denying the reasoning by analogy any real impact for the existence of a legal status...
December 2013: Journal International de Bioéthique, International Journal of Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24558734/brain-mind-body-and-society-autonomous-system-in-robotics
#12
Motomu Shimoda
In this paper I examine the issues related to the robot with mind. To create a robot with mind aims to recreate neuro function by engineering. The robot with mind is expected not only to process external information by the built-in program and behave accordingly, but also to gain the consciousness activity responding multiple conditions and flexible and interactive communication skills coping with unknown situation. That prospect is based on the development of artificial intelligence in which self-organizing and self-emergent functions have been available in recent years...
December 2013: Journal International de Bioéthique, International Journal of Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23961869/interview-with-daniel-c-dennett
#13
(no author information available yet)
Daniel Dennett was educated at Harvard and Oxford, receiving his D.Phil. in 1965. After six years at University of California Irvine, he moved to Tufts, where he is Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences and Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies. It is the author of articles on many issues in artificial intelligence, psychology, and cognitive ethology, as well as in philosophy. His books are Content and Consciousness (1969), Brainstorms (1978), The Mind's I (with Douglas Hofstadter, 1981). Elbow Room (1984), The Intentional Stance (1987), and Consciousness Explained (1991)...
1995: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23902853/single-trial-analysis-of-the-neural-correlates-of-speech-quality-perception
#14
Anne K Porbadnigk, Matthias S Treder, Benjamin Blankertz, Jan-Niklas Antons, Robert Schleicher, Sebastian Möller, Gabriel Curio, Klaus-Robert Müller
OBJECTIVE: Assessing speech quality perception is a challenge typically addressed in behavioral and opinion-seeking experiments. Only recently, neuroimaging methods were introduced, which were used to study the neural processing of quality at group level. However, our electroencephalography (EEG) studies show that the neural correlates of quality perception are highly individual. Therefore, it became necessary to establish dedicated machine learning methods for decoding subject-specific effects...
October 2013: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23678242/towards-an-integrative-theory-of-consciousness-part-2-an-anthology-of-various-other-models
#15
Avinash De Sousa
The study of consciousness has today moved beyond neurobiology and cognitive models. In the past few years, there has been a surge of research into various newer areas. The present article looks at the non-neurobiological and non-cognitive theories regarding this complex phenomenon, especially ones that self-psychology, self-theory, artificial intelligence, quantum physics, visual cognitive science and philosophy have to offer. Self-psychology has proposed the need to understand the self and its development, and the ramifications of the self for morality and empathy, which will help us understand consciousness better...
January 2013: Mens Sana Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23597599/the-rise-of-machine-consciousness-studying-consciousness-with-computational-models
#16
James A Reggia
Efforts to create computational models of consciousness have accelerated over the last two decades, creating a field that has become known as artificial consciousness. There have been two main motivations for this controversial work: to develop a better scientific understanding of the nature of human/animal consciousness and to produce machines that genuinely exhibit conscious awareness. This review begins by briefly explaining some of the concepts and terminology used by investigators working on machine consciousness, and summarizes key neurobiological correlates of human consciousness that are particularly relevant to past computational studies...
August 2013: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23545248/ambient-intelligence-for-monitoring-and-research-in-clinical-neurophysiology-and-medicine-the-mimerica-project-and-prototype
#17
L Pignolo, F Riganello, G Dolce, W G Sannita
Ambient Intelligence (AmI) provides extended but unobtrusive sensing and computing devices and ubiquitous networking for human/environment interaction. It is a new paradigm in information technology compliant with the international Integrating Healthcare Enterprise board (IHE) and eHealth HL7 technological standards in the functional integration of biomedical domotics and informatics in hospital and home care. AmI allows real-time automatic recording of biological/medical information and environmental data...
April 2013: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22760770/-neuropsychology-of-dreams
#18
REVIEW
J Tirapu-Ustarroz
INTRODUCTION: Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. DEVELOPMENT: The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation...
July 16, 2012: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22255141/revealing-the-neural-response-to-imperceptible-peripheral-flicker-with-machine-learning
#19
Anne K Porbadnigk, Simon Scholler, Benjamin Blankertz, Arnd Ritz, Matthias Born, Robert Scholl, Klaus-Robert Muller, Gabriel Curio, Matthias S Treder
Lighting in modern-day devices is often discrete. The sharp onsets and offsets of light are known to induce a steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at low frequencies. However, it is not well-known how the brain processes visual flicker at the threshold of conscious perception and beyond. To shed more light on this, we ran an EEG study in which we asked participants (N=6) to discriminate on a behavioral level between visual stimuli in which they perceived flicker and those that they perceived as constant wave light...
2011: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22244297/introduction-the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-thought
#20
Rupak Doshi, Kalina Christoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2012: Brain Research
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