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Drug OR Interaction

Hiran Thabrew, Karolina Stasiak, Sarah E Hetrick, Stephen Wong, Jessica H Huss, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Long-term physical conditions affect 10% to 12% of children and adolescents worldwide; these individuals are at greater risk of developing psychological problems, particularly anxiety and depression. Access to face-to-face treatment for such problems is often limited, and available interventions usually have not been tested with this population. As technology improves, e-health interventions (delivered via digital means, such as computers and smart phones and ranging from simple text-based programmes through to multimedia and interactive programmes, serious games, virtual reality and biofeedback programmes) offer a potential solution to address the psychological needs of this group of young people...
August 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
B Armstrong, S Buckingham-Howes, M M Black
OBJECTIVE: Low inhibitory control is linked with weight gain among youth. Inhibitory problems are associated with disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis cortisol response. Increased cortisol predicts appetite and weight gain (though may be gender specific). This study hypothesized that cortisol reactivity explains the association between inhibition and weight gain while considering the moderating factors of early stressors to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Gustavo Provensi, Maria Beatrice Passani, Alessia Costa, Ivan Izquierdo, Patrizio Blandina
In this review, we describe the experimental paradigms used in preclinical studies to unravel the histaminergic brain circuits that modulate the formation and retrieval of memories associated with aversive events. Emotionally arousing events, especially bad ones, are remembered more accurately, clearly and for longer periods of time than neutral ones. Maladaptive elaborations of these memories may eventually constitute the basis of psychiatric disorders such as generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Solène M Laville, Marie Metzger, Bénédicte Stengel, Christian Jacquelinet, Christian Combe, Denis Fouque, Maurice Laville, Luc Frimat, Carole Ayav, Elodie Speyer, Bruce M Robinson, Ziad A Massy, Sophie Liabeuf
AIMS: Drug prescription is difficult to manage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the prevalence and determinants of inappropriate drug prescriptions (whether contraindications or inappropriately high doses) with regard to kidney function in patients with CKD under nephrology care. We also assessed the impact of the equation used to estimate GFR on the prevalence estimates. METHODS: The CKD-REIN cohort includes 3033 outpatients with CKD (eGFR between 15-60 ml/min per 1...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Vincenzo De Luca, Gianfranco Spalletta, Renan P Souza, Ariel Graff, Luciana Bastos-Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Camargos Bicalho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 influencing the age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, the AAO of dementia varies from 40 to 90 years. Usually, AD patients who develop symptoms before the age of 65 are considered as early-onset AD (EOAD). However, considering the heterogeneity of the AD onset, the definition of late-onset AD (LOAD) cannot rely on an arbitrary cut-off. Thus, we aim to validate the anticipation effect of the APOE e4 allele in LOAD...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Madhukar H Trivedi, Charles South, Manish K Jha, A John Rush, Jing Cao, Benji Kurian, Mary Phillips, Diego A Pizzagalli, Joseph M Trombello, Maria A Oquendo, Crystal Cooper, Daniel G Dillon, Christian Webb, Bruce D Grannemann, Gerard Bruder, Patrick J McGrath, Ramin Parsey, Myrna Weissman, Maurizio Fava
BACKGROUND: One in three clinical trial patients with major depressive disorder report symptomatic improvement with placebo. Strategies to mitigate the effect of placebo responses have focused on modifying study design with variable success. Identifying and excluding or controlling for individuals with a high likelihood of responding to placebo may improve clinical trial efficiency and avoid unnecessary medication trials. METHODS: Participants included those assigned to the placebo arm (n = 141) of the Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures for Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care (EMBARC) trial...
August 15, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Zi Wang, Yan-Fei Li, Xin-Yue Han, Yin-Shi Sun, Lian-Xue Zhang, Wei Liu, Xiang-Xiang Liu, Wei Li, Ying-Ying Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cisplatin (CDDP) was the first platinum-containing anti-cancer drug. However, CDDP causes nephrotoxicity as a side effect, which limits its clinic application. The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of ginsenoside Re (G-Re) in a murine model of CDDP-induced acute kidney injury. METHODS: Male ICR mice were divided into 4 groups. G-Re was administered to the mice by oral gavage once a day at a dose of 25 mg/kg for 10 days...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Bin Zhu, Dong-Rong Yu, Ji-Cheng Lv, Yi Lin, Qiang Li, Jia-Zhen Yin, Yuan-Yuan Du, Xuan-Li Tang, Li-Chan Mao, Qiu-Fen Li, Yue Sun, Ling Liu, Xian-Fa Li, Dan Fei, Xin-Yi Wei, Cai-Feng Zhu, Xiao-Xia Cheng, Hong-Yu Chen, Yong-Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of serum uric acid (SUA) level in the progression of Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) remains controversial. METHODS: In a cohort of 1,965 cases with biopsy-proven IgAN, we examined the associations of SUA concentration with the primary outcome of a composite of all-cause mortality or kidney failure (defined as a reduction of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] by 40% from baseline, requirements for dialysis and transplantation), or the outcome of kidney failure alone, assessed using Cox and logistic regression models, respectively, with adjustment for confounders...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Sven R Olson, Eric Lu, Emilio Sulpizio, Joseph J Shatzel, Jose F Rueda, Thomas G DeLoughery
The terminal complement-inhibitor eculizumab has dramatically changed the management of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and has also shown promise for treating certain forms of secondary HUS (sHUS), including that caused by drugs and solid-organ/hematopoietic stem cell transplant. While effective, eculizumab is costly and inconvenient. In this review, we evaluate the literature on eculizumab cessation in these diseases to better inform clinicians who consider stopping therapy. Reported relapse rates in aHUS after stopping eculizumab are as high as 30%, suggesting indefinite therapy is reasonable and that patients who choose to stop should be closely monitored...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Fotios Baxevanis, Jesse Kuiper, Nikoletta Fotaki
In this study, the influence of the presence of excipients in sample preparation and clean-up steps required prior to drug analysis in milk-based media which simulate the in vivo properties of the fed state stomach was investigated. 15 excipients, normally present in solid dosage forms of five APIs tested (atenolol, paracetamol, furosemide, nifedipine and propafenone hydrochloride) were mixed (one at a time) with the active pharmaceutical ingredient of interest either via vortexing, co-grinding or shaking of the physical mixture and dissolved in Fed State Simulated Gastric Fluid (FeSSGF)...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Lordkipanidze Maia, Lulofs Kris, Bressers Hans
The paper focuses on the governance of the Dutch national park Weerribben-Wieden and its ability to foster ecological resilience in the face of climate change and human disturbances. The study highlights the role of various characteristics of the institutional context of governance in which resilience-relevant decisions are prepared, taken and implemented as referenced by an assessment of the governance context. The relevance of such an assessment is found in the frequent institutional changes in nature policy...
August 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nitzan Kutnowski, Hagay Shmuely, Idit Dahan, Fania Shmulevich, Geula Davidov, Anat Shahar, Jerry Eichler, Raz Zarivach, Boaz Shaanan
Protein-DNA interactions are highly dependent on salt concentration. To gain insight into how such interactions are maintained in the highly saline cytoplasm of halophilic archaea, we determined the 3-D structure of VNG0258H/RosR, the first haloarchaeal DNA-binding protein from the extreme halophilic archaeon Halobactrium salinarum. It is a dimeric winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) protein with unique features due to adaptation to the halophilic environment. As ions are major players in DNA binding processes, particularly in the halophilic environments, we investigated the solution structure of the ionic envelope and located anions in the first shell around the protein in the crystal using anomalous scattering...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Chunhu Gu, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Jianjun Lv, Wei Yi, Yang Yang, Minfeng Fang
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of some endogenous defensive molecules in various pathological processes, particularly myocardial ischemia (MI), a high risk of myocardial infarction. Thereby it is of great significance to explore the inherent mechanism between AMPK and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the structure and role of AMPK in the heart. Next, we introduce the mechanisms of AMPK in the heart; followed by the energy regulation of AMPK in MI. Lastly, the attention will be expanded to some potential directions and further perspectives...
August 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Jacob Levman, Lana Vasung, Patrick MacDonald, Sean Rowley, Natalie Stewart, Ashley Lim, Bryan Ewenson, Albert Galaburda, Emi Takahashi
Autism is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction, restricted and repetitive behavior. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 1,996 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain from 1,769 autistic and neurologically typically developing patients (aged 0 to 32 years), and extracted regional volumetric measurements distributed across 463 brain regions of each patient. The youngest autistic patients (< 2.5 years) were diagnosed after imaging and identified retrospectively...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Sreekumar Balan, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Abdenour Abbas, Norbert Couespel, Juliette Savoret, Francesco Imperatore, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Nina Bhardwaj, Marc Dalod
The ability to generate large numbers of distinct types of human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro is critical for accelerating our understanding of DC biology and harnessing them clinically. We developed a DC differentiation method from human CD34+ precursors leading to high yields of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and both types of conventional DCs (cDC1s and cDC2s). The identity of the cells generated in vitro and their strong homology to their blood counterparts were demonstrated by phenotypic, functional, and single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Tatsuhiro Shimizu, Strahil Iv Pastuhov, Hiroshi Hanafusa, Kunihiro Matsumoto, Naoki Hisamoto
The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration are not well understood. Here, we identify the brc-2 gene encoding a homolog of the mammalian BRCA2 tumor suppressor as a regulator of axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. We show that the RHO-1/Rho GTPase-LET-502/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase)-regulatory non-muscle myosin light-chain (MLC-4/MLC) phosphorylation signaling pathway regulates axon regeneration...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Natalia A Kuzmina, Patrick Younan, Pavlo Gilchuk, Rodrigo I Santos, Andrew I Flyak, Philipp A Ilinykh, Kai Huang, Ndongala M Lubaki, Palaniappan Ramanathan, James E Crowe, Alexander Bukreyev
Some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recovered from survivors of filovirus infections can protect against infection. It is currently unknown whether natural infection also induces some antibodies with the capacity for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). A panel of mAbs obtained from human survivors of filovirus infection caused by Ebola, Bundibugyo, or Marburg viruses was evaluated for their ability to facilitate ADE. ADE was observed readily with all mAbs examined at sub-neutralizing concentrations, and this effect was not restricted to mAbs with a particular epitope specificity, neutralizing capacity, or subclass...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Lavina Sierra Tay, Vaidehi Krishnan, Haresh Sankar, Yu Lin Chong, Linda Shyue Huey Chuang, Tuan Zea Tan, Arun Mouli Kolinjivadi, Dennis Kappei, Yoshiaki Ito
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is a pivotal genome maintenance network that orchestrates the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). The tumor suppressors RUNX1 and RUNX3 were shown to regulate the FA pathway independent of their canonical transcription activities, by controlling the DNA damage-dependent chromatin association of FANCD2. Here, in further biochemical characterization, we demonstrate that RUNX3 is modified by PARP-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which in turn allows RUNX binding to DNA repair structures lacking transcription-related RUNX consensus motifs...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Michael Letko, Kerri Miazgowicz, Rebekah McMinn, Stephanie N Seifert, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes, Aaron Carmody, Neeltje van Doremalen, Vincent Munster
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) likely originated in bats and passed to humans through dromedary camels; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying cross-species adaptation remain poorly understood. Variation in the host receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), can block the interaction with the MERS-CoV spike protein and form a species barrier to infection. To better understand the species adaptability of MERS-CoV, we identified a suboptimal species-derived variant of DPP4 to study viral adaption...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Miling Wang, Xianzun Tao, Mathieu D Jacob, Clayton A Bennett, J J David Ho, Mark L Gonzalgo, Timothy E Audas, Stephen Lee
Amyloid bodies (A-bodies) are inducible membrane-less nuclear compartments composed of heterogeneous proteins that adopt an amyloid-like state. A-bodies are seeded by noncoding RNA derived from stimuli-specific loci of the rDNA intergenic spacer (rIGSRNA). This raises the question of how rIGSRNA recruits a large population of diverse proteins to confer A-body identity. Here, we show that long low-complexity dinucleotide repeats operate as the architectural determinants of rIGSRNA. On stimulus, clusters of rIGSRNA with simple cytosine/uracil (CU) or adenosine/guanine (AG) repeats spanning hundreds of nucleotides accumulate in the nucleolar area...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
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