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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518005/-a-multicenter-clinical-study-on-1-138-cases-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-2012-to-2017
#1
L Zhu, W H Li, X H Wang, K Tan, Q F Fang, Q X Zhu, K K Wu, Q Z Yang, A W Lin, H L Deng, J Bi, J Liu, S Y Zhao, Y Liu, S J Jing, Y M Wang, L M Li, Q Zhao, K H Yao, X Wang, L Jia, F Wang, J K Deng, J Sun, C H Zhu, K Zhou, J Liang, X Z Nie, S C Cao, D M Wang, S J Li, X X Chen, J Li, Y Wang, L Ye, Y H Zhang, F Dong, Z Li, Y H Yang, G Liu
Objective: To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods: By retrieving the laboratory information system in 18 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2017, the children with IPD were enrolled. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) must be isolated from the sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, hydrothorax and joint effusion etc.). The clinical characteristics, serotype, drug resistance, treatment and prognosis were reviewed and analyzed...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518003/-investigation-on-the-rational-use-of-antibacterial-agents-by-chinese-pediatricians-in-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
Objective: To obtain baseline data of pediatricians' clinical use of antibacterial agents in children in China, and provide evidence for the follow-up of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children's clinical medications and the development of rational drug management measures and norms. Methods: A multi-center cross-sectional study was designed to conduct a network electronic questionnaire survey of doctors with child prescription rights in hospitals of all provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country through cluster sampling to understand the current status of antibacterial drugs use in 2016...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517979/sox11-regulates-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#3
Zhi Liu, Yang Zhong, Yu Jian Chen, Hui Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality. Identifying key molecules involved in the regulation of HCC development is of great clinical significance. SOX11 is a transcription factor belonging to group C of Sry-related HMG box family whose abnormal expression is frequently seen in many kinds of human cancers. Here, we reported that the expression of SOX11 was decreased in human HCC tumors than that in matched normal tissues. Overexpression of SOX11 promoted growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cell line HuH-7...
December 5, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517974/simultaneous-quantitation-of-metformin-and-dapagliflozin-in-human-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#4
Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav, Jaivik V Shah, Archana George
A single LC-MS/MS assay is developed and validated for simultaneous determination of metformin and dapagliflozin in human plasma using ion-pair solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and their internal standards was carried out on a reversed-phase ACE 5CN (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-15 mM ammonium acetate, pH 4.5 (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. To achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity for the analytes, mass spectrometric analysis was performed using polarity switching approach...
December 5, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517973/pharmacokinetics-and-metabolism-of-pemafibrate-a-novel-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-modulator-in-rats-and-monkeys
#5
Shin-Ichiro Ogawa, Yoshihiko Tunenari, Hiroyuki Kawai, Hiroshi Yamazaki
The metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics of pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha modulator currently launched as an antidyslipidemic drug, were investigated in vitro using hepatocytes from rats, monkeys, and humans and in vivo in rats and monkeys. Hepatocytes from rats, monkeys, and humans all biotransformed pemafibrate to its demethylated form (M1). The bioavailabilities of pemafibrate in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys were 15% and 87%, respectively, after a single oral administration of pemafibrate (1 mg/kg)...
December 5, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517972/death-tir-and-rhim-self-assembling-domains-involved-in-innate-immunity-and-cell-death-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Nanson, Bostjan Kobe, Thomas Ve
The innate immune system consists of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect pathogen- and endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs), initiating signaling pathways that lead to the induction of cytokine expression, processing of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induction of cell-death responses. An emerging concept in these pathways and associated processes is signaling by cooperative assembly formation (SCAF), which involves formation of higher order oligomeric complexes, and enables rapid and strongly amplified signaling responses to minute amounts of stimulus...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517966/ubtf-mutation-causes-complex-phenotype-of-neurodegeneration-and-severe-epilepsy-in-childhood
#7
Lucie Sedláčková, Petra Laššuthová, Katalin Štěrbová, Jana Haberlová, Emílie Vyhnálková, Jana Neupauerová, David Staněk, Marie Šedivá, Pavel Kršek, Pavel Seeman
INTRODUCTION:  Neurodegenerative diseases of childhood present with progressive decline in cognitive, social, and motor function and are frequently associated with seizures in different stages of the disease. Here we report a patient with severe progressive neurodegeneration with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown etiology from the age of 2 years. METHODS AND RESULTS:  Using whole exome sequencing, we found heterozygous missense de novo variant c.628G > A (p...
December 5, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517965/an-overview-on-genistein-and-its-various-formulations
#8
Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517945/neuroimmune-and-inflammatory-signals-in-complex-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Ana Clara Liberman, Emiliano Trias, Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Marissol Dos Santos Pereira, Damian Refojo, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira, Claudio A Serfaty
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair...
December 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517941/suspected-reaction-with-cephalosporin-may-be-a-predictive-factor-for-%C3%AE-lactam-allergy-in-children
#10
Isil Eser Simsek, Mujde Tuba Cogurlu, Metin Aydogan
BACKGROUND: Most children diagnosed with β-lactam allergy based only on history are not truly allergic, and mislabeling leads to use of less effective and more costly alternative broader-spectrum antibiotics, significantly increasing drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and risk factors of confirmed allergy in patients with β-lactam allergy reported by parents or their doctors and evaluate cross-reactivity between β-lactams in children with confirmed allergy...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517935/involvement-of-the-camp-dependent-pathway-in-dextromethorphan-induced-inhibition-of-spontaneous-glutamate-transmission-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius-neurons-of-guinea-pigs
#11
Yoshiaki Ohi, Daisuke Kodama, Akira Haji
Dextromethorphan (DEX) presynaptically decreases glutamatergic transmission in second-order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (TS). To clarify the inhibitory mechanism of DEX, the present study examined the interaction of DEX with cAMP. The effects of DEX on miniature and TS-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and eEPSCs) were recorded under activation of the cAMP-dependent pathway using the brainstem slices. An increase in cAMP by forskolin counteracted the inhibitory effect of DEX on mEPSCs...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517930/dialysate-calcium-levels-do-they-matter
#12
REVIEW
Frank M van der Sande, Karlien J A Ter Meulen, Peter Kotanko, Jeroen P Kooman
BACKGROUND: Calcium (Ca) is an essential element that plays a critical role in many biological processes. In dialysis patients, the regulation of Ca balance is highly complex, given the absence of kidney function, endocrine disturbances and the use of drugs such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics. Also, the use of different dialysate Ca (DCa) baths has profound effect on Ca balance, which depends both on the difference between the Ca concentration in the bath and the serum of the patients, as on the ultrafiltration volume...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517927/disaster-management-in-a-nephrology-service-lessons-learned-from-hurricane-maria
#13
Melvin Bonilla-Félix, Marta Suárez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Puerto Rico suffered a major humanitarian -crisis after Hurricane Maria. We describe our experience with patients with renal disease in an academic medical center. SUMMARY: A comprehensive emergency response plan should be developed, shared and discussed with the team and the patients prior to the hurricane. The needs of the staff should not be ignored to ensure their ability to participate as responders. Physical damage to facilities, lack of basic services, shortage of disposable products, and the inability to get to treatment centers are the most common threats...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517909/psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents-an-international-cross-cultural-study
#14
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Raidah AlBaradie, Tyson Sawchuk, Zahra Bahrami, Abeer Al Amer, Jeffrey Buchhalter
PURPOSE: We compared various clinical characteristics of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between young patients from Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Canada, three nations with significantly different socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. This international cross-cultural comparative study may advance our knowledge and understanding of PNES in children and adolescents across the cultures and borders. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we investigated all patients 16 years of age or younger, with PNES admitted to the epilepsy monitoring units at one center in Iran, one center in Saudi Arabia, and one center in Canada...
December 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517905/rational-design-of-polymer-lipid-nanoparticles-for-docetaxel-delivery
#15
Juan M R Albano, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Verônica Muniz Couto, Mariana Barbosa Messias, Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Eneida de Paula, Monica Pickholz
In this work, a stable nanocarrier for the anti-cancer drug docetaxel was rational designed. The nanocarrier was developed based on the solid lipid nanoparticle preparation process aiming to minimize the total amount of excipients used in the final formulations. A particular interest was put on the effects of the polymers in the final composition. In this direction, two poloxoamers -Pluronic F127 and F68- were selected. Some poloxamers are well known to be inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Additionally, their poly-ethylene-oxide blocks can help them to escape the immune system, making the poloxamers appealing to be present in a nanoparticle designed for the treatment of cancer...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517904/magnetically-propelled-hydrogel-particle-motors-produced-by-ultrasound-assisted-hydrodynamic-electrospray-ionization-jetting
#16
Sven Rutkowski, Ling Mu, Tieyan Si, Meiyu Gai, Mengmeng Sun, Johannes Frueh, Qiang He
One of the most promising future applications of hydrogels is drug delivery. The hydrogels act as a biomedical cargo model to reach the target and release drugs to cure diseases. This application requires no side effects of the hydrogel and the ability to pass through porous media (e.g. membranes, interstitial tissue etc.) with nanoscaled channels. At the same time, the hydrogel must be mass-producible in an economic way. In this work, we show that hydrodynamic electrospray ionization jetting combined with ultrasound can fulfill these high requirements...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517903/liquisolid-systems-understanding-the-impact-of-drug-state-solution-or-dispersion-nonvolatile-solvent-and-coating-material-on-simvastatin-apparent-aqueous-solubility-and-flowability
#17
Daiane Anzilaggo, André O'Reilly Beringhs, Bianca Ramos Pezzini, Diva Sonaglio, Hellen Karine Stulzer
The drug in a solid dosage form must undergo dissolution before it is available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Liquisolid system (LS) is a technology used for increasing aqueous solubility of the drugs, which has an important role in the dissolution and absorption phenomena. However, many factors can influence the performance and success of LS. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate through a factorial design, the factors such as drug state (solution or dispersion), nonvolatile solvent and coating material that influence the increase simvastatin (BSC II drug) apparent aqueous solubility and LS flow properties...
November 22, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517901/university-students-self-reported-reasons-for-abstinence-from-prescription-and-non-prescription-stimulants-and-depressants
#18
Joseph A Rosansky, Harold Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: No previous publication has evaluated whether the importance of university students' reasons for abstinence differs across prescription stimulants, prescription opioids, and two illicit forms of those medications (cocaine and heroin). METHODS: In response to a recruitment email sent to all enrolled undergraduates at a large public university, 768 students who reported no prior recreational use of these four substances rated the importance of 17 reasons for lifelong abstention from each of the four drugs...
November 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517887/neuronal-snare-complex-a-protein-folding-system-with-intricate-protein-protein-interactions-and-its-common-neuropathological-hallmark-snap25
#19
REVIEW
Srijeeb Karmakar, Laipubam Gayatri Sharma, Abhishek Roy, Anjali Patel, Lalit Mohan Pandey
SNARE (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Receptor) complex is a trimeric supramolecular organization of SNAP25, syntaxin, and VAMP which mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. The functioning of this entire protein assembly is dependent on its tetrahelical coiled coil structure alongside its interaction with a large spectrum of regulatory proteins like synaptotagmin, complexin, intersectin, etc. Defects arising in SNARE complex assembly due to mutations or faulty post-translational modifications are associated to severe synaptopathies like Schizophrenia and also proteopathies like Alzheimer's disease...
December 2, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517884/guiding-compass-dpy-30-positions-set1-mll-epigenetic-signaling
#20
David Dilworth, Cheryl H Arrowsmith
In this issue of Structure, Haddad et al. (2018) solve the high-resolution trimeric crystal structure of human COMPASS-like components Dpy-30 and Ash2L (2:1) to unravel an uncharacterized interaction surface required for competent H3K4 methylation in cells and clarify Dpy-30's role in the allosteric regulation of KMT2 enzymes.
December 4, 2018: Structure
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