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consciousness AND microtubules

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142359/integration-of-intracellular-signaling-biological-analogues-of-wires-processors-and-memories-organized-by-a-centrosome-3d-reference-system
#1
Nadezhda Barvitenko, Alfons Lawen, Muhammad Aslam, Antonella Pantaleo, Carlota Saldanha, Elisaveta Skverchinskaya, Marco Regolini, Jack A Tuszynski
BACKGROUND: Myriads of signaling pathways in a single cell function to achieve the highest spatio-temporal integration. Data are accumulating on the role of electromechanical soliton-like waves in signal transduction processes. Theoretical studies strongly suggest feasibility of both classical and quantum computing involving microtubules. AIM: A theoretical study of the role of the complex composed of the plasma membrane and the microtubule-based cytoskeleton as a system that transmits, stores and processes information...
August 22, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093720/bundles-of-brain-microtubules-generate-electrical-oscillations
#2
María Del Rocío Cantero, Cecilia Villa Etchegoyen, Paula L Perez, Noelia Scarinci, Horacio F Cantiello
Microtubules (MTs) are long cylindrical structures of the cytoskeleton that control cell division, intracellular transport, and the shape of cells. MTs also form bundles, which are particularly prominent in neurons, where they help define axons and dendrites. MTs are bio-electrochemical transistors that form nonlinear electrical transmission lines. However, the electrical properties of most MT structures remain largely unknown. Here we show that bundles of brain MTs spontaneously generate electrical oscillations and bursts of electrical activity similar to action potentials...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852014/anesthetic-alterations-of-collective-terahertz-oscillations-in-tubulin-correlate-with-clinical-potency-implications-for-anesthetic-action-and-post-operative-cognitive-dysfunction
#3
Travis J A Craddock, Philip Kurian, Jordane Preto, Kamlesh Sahu, Stuart R Hameroff, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A Tuszynski
Anesthesia blocks consciousness and memory while sparing non-conscious brain activities. While the exact mechanisms of anesthetic action are unknown, the Meyer-Overton correlation provides a link between anesthetic potency and solubility in a lipid-like, non-polar medium. Anesthetic action is also related to an anesthetic's hydrophobicity, permanent dipole, and polarizability, and is accepted to occur in lipid-like, non-polar regions within brain proteins. Generally the protein target for anesthetics is assumed to be neuronal membrane receptors and ion channels, however new evidence points to critical effects on intra-neuronal microtubules, a target of interest due to their potential role in post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351500/stream-of-consciousness-quantum-and-biochemical-assumptions-regarding-psychopathology
#4
Lucio Tonello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
The accepted paradigms of mainstream neuropsychiatry appear to be incompletely adequate and in various cases offer equivocal analyses. However, a growing number of new approaches are being proposed that suggest the emergence of paradigm shifts in this area. In particular, quantum theories of mind, brain and consciousness seem to offer a profound change to the current approaches. Unfortunately these quantum paradigms harbor at least two serious problems. First, they are simply models, theories, and assumptions, with no convincing experiments supporting their claims...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629259/subcellular-neuronal-quasicrystals-implications-for-consciousness
#5
John Gardiner
Neuron neurotransmitter receptors are in general pentameric. This enables them to form pentagonal components in biological quasicrystals (similar to mathematical aperiodic tilings). As quasicrystals have been proposed to require quantum effects to exist this might introduce such effects as a component of neurotransmission and thus consciousness. Microtubules may play a role in the clustering of the receptors into quasicrystals, thus modulating their function and may even form quasicrystals themselves. Other quaiscrystals in neurons are potentially formed by water, cholera toxin complexes, and the cytoskeletal components actin and ankyrin...
January 2015: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478770/subcellular-neuronal-quasicrystals-implications-for-consciousness
#6
John Gardiner
Neuron neurotransmitter receptors are in general pentameric. This enables them to form pentagonal components in biological quasicrystals (similar to mathematical aperiodic tilings). As quasicrystals have been proposed to require quantum effects to exist this might introduce such effects as a component of neurotransmission and thus consciousness. Microtubules may play a role in the clustering of the receptors into quasicrystals, thus modulating their function and may even form quasicrystals themselves. Other quaiscrystals in neurons are potentially formed by water, cholera toxin complexes, and the cytoskeletal components actin and ankyrin...
March 2015: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443309/biopathology-of-astrocytes-in-human-traumatic-and-complicated-brain-injuries-review-and-hypothesis
#7
REVIEW
Orlando José Castejón
The biopathology of astrocyte cells in severe human brain traumatic injuries complicated with subdural and epidural haematoma and hygroma is reviewed. Clear and dense oedematous and hypertrophic reactive astrocytes are distinguished in severe primary traumatic vasogenic and secondary cytotoxic brain oedema. Swollen perineuronal astrocytes appear compressing and indenting clear and dark degenerated pyramidal and non-pyramidal nerve cells, degenerated myelinated axons and synaptic contacts. Hypertrophic astrocytes display dense cytoplasm and contain numerous rosettes of alpha, beta- and gamma-type glycogen granules, swollen mitochondria, dilated smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, oedematous Golgi apparatus, microtubules, gliofilaments, intermediate filaments, lysosomes and liposomes...
2015: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227538/on-the-possible-quantum-role-of-serotonin-in-consciousness
#8
Lucio Tonello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Cell membrane's fatty acids (FAs) have been carefully investigated in neurons and platelets in order to study a possible connection to psychopathologies. An important link between the FA distribution and membrane dynamics appears to emerge with the cytoskeleton dynamics. Microtubules (MTs) in particular have been implicated in some recent quantum consciousness models and analyses. The recently proposed quantum model of Craddock et al. (2014) states that MTs possess structural and functional characteristics that are consistent with collective quantum coherent excitations in the aromatic groups of their tryptophan residues...
September 2015: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25912536/understanding-schizophrenia-as-a-disorder-of-consciousness-biological-correlates-and-translational-implications-from-quantum-theory-perspectives
#9
Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia...
April 30, 2015: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714379/anesthetics-act-in-quantum-channels-in-brain-microtubules-to-prevent-consciousness
#10
Travis J A Craddock, Stuart R Hameroff, Ahmed T Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A Tuszynski
The mechanism by which anesthetic gases selectively prevent consciousness and memory (sparing non-conscious brain functions) remains unknown. At the turn of the 20(th) century Meyer and Overton showed that potency of structurally dissimilar anesthetic gas molecules correlated precisely over many orders of magnitude with one factor, solubility in a non-polar, 'hydrophobic' medium akin to olive oil. In the 1980s Franks and Lieb showed anesthetics acted in such a medium within proteins, suggesting post-synaptic membrane receptors...
2015: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012713/keeping-time-could-quantum-beating-in-microtubules-be-the-basis-for-the-neural-synchrony-related-to-consciousness
#11
Travis J A Craddock, Avner Priel, Jack A Tuszynski
This paper discusses the possibility of quantum coherent oscillations playing a role in neuronal signaling. Consciousness correlates strongly with coherent neural oscillations, however the mechanisms by which neurons synchronize are not fully elucidated. Recent experimental evidence of quantum beats in light-harvesting complexes of plants (LHCII) and bacteria provided a stimulus for seeking similar effects in important structures found in animal cells, especially in neurons. We argue that microtubules (MTs), which play critical roles in all eukaryotic cells, possess structural and functional characteristics that are consistent with quantum coherent excitations in the aromatic groups of their tryptophan residues...
June 2014: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012711/quantum-effects-in-the-understanding-of-consciousness
#12
Stuart R Hameroff, Travis J A Craddock, Jack A Tuszynski
This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology...
June 2014: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24454909/spatiotemporal-imaging-of-glutamate-induced-biophotonic-activities-and-transmission-in-neural-circuits
#13
Rendong Tang, Jiapei Dai
The processing of neural information in neural circuits plays key roles in neural functions. Biophotons, also called ultra-weak photon emissions (UPE), may play potential roles in neural signal transmission, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system such as vision, learning and memory, cognition and consciousness. However, the experimental analysis of biophotonic activities (emissions) in neural circuits has been hampered due to technical limitations. Here by developing and optimizing an in vitro biophoton imaging method, we characterize the spatiotemporal biophotonic activities and transmission in mouse brain slices...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24259348/quantum-walks-in-brain-microtubules-a-biomolecular-basis-for-quantum-cognition
#14
Stuart Hameroff
Cognitive decisions are best described by quantum mathematics. Do quantum information devices operate in the brain? What would they look like? Fuss and Navarro () describe quantum lattice registers in which quantum superpositioned pathways interact (compute/integrate) as 'quantum walks' akin to Feynman's path integral in a lattice (e.g. the 'Feynman quantum chessboard'). Simultaneous alternate pathways eventually reduce (collapse), selecting one particular pathway in a cognitive decision, or choice. This paper describes how quantum walks in a Feynman chessboard are conceptually identical to 'topological qubits' in brain neuronal microtubules, as described in the Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' theory of consciousness...
January 2014: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24070914/consciousness-in-the-universe-a-review-of-the-orch-or-theory
#15
REVIEW
Stuart Hameroff, Roger Penrose
The nature of consciousness, the mechanism by which it occurs in the brain, and its ultimate place in the universe are unknown. We proposed in the mid 1990's that consciousness depends on biologically 'orchestrated' coherent quantum processes in collections of microtubules within brain neurons, that these quantum processes correlate with, and regulate, neuronal synaptic and membrane activity, and that the continuous Schrödinger evolution of each such process terminates in accordance with the specific Diósi-Penrose (DP) scheme of 'objective reduction' ('OR') of the quantum state...
March 2014: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23673035/quantum-mathematical-cognition-requires-quantum-brain-biology-the-orch-or-theory
#16
COMMENT
Stuart R Hameroff
The "Orch OR" theory suggests that quantum computations in brain neuronal dendritic-somatic microtubules regulate axonal firings to control conscious behavior. Within microtubule subunit proteins, collective dipoles in arrays of contiguous amino acid electron clouds enable "quantum channels" suitable for topological dipole "qubits" able to physically represent cognitive values, for example, those portrayed by Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) as projections in abstract Hilbert space.
June 2013: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23091452/how-quantum-brain-biology-can-rescue-conscious-free-will
#17
Stuart Hameroff
Conscious "free will" is problematic because (1) brain mechanisms causing consciousness are unknown, (2) measurable brain activity correlating with conscious perception apparently occurs too late for real-time conscious response, consciousness thus being considered "epiphenomenal illusion," and (3) determinism, i.e., our actions and the world around us seem algorithmic and inevitable. The Penrose-Hameroff theory of "orchestrated objective reduction (Orch OR)" identifies discrete conscious moments with quantum computations in microtubules inside brain neurons, e...
2012: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22925839/consciousness-biology-and-quantum-hypotheses
#18
REVIEW
Bernard J Baars, David B Edelman
Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level...
September 2012: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22899055/insights-into-plant-consciousness-from-neuroscience-physics-and-mathematics-a-role-for-quasicrystals
#19
John Gardiner
There is considerable debate over whether plants are conscious and this, indeed, is an important question. Here I look at developments in neuroscience, physics and mathematics that may impact on this question. Two major concomitants of consciousness in animals are microtubule function and electrical gamma wave synchrony. Both these factors may also play a role in plant consciousness. I show that plants possess aperiodic quasicrystal structures composed of ribosomes that may enable quantum computing, which has been suggested to lie at the core of animal consciousness...
September 1, 2012: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22794497/increased-levels-of-serum-map-2-at-6-months-correlate-with-improved-outcome-in-survivors-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Stefania Mondello, Andrea Gabrielli, Sheila Catani, Mariagrazia D'Ippolito, Andreas Jeromin, Antonio Ciaramella, Paola Bossù, Kara Schmid, Frank Tortella, Kevin K W Wang, Ronald L Hayes, Rita Formisano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate microtubule-associated proteins (MAP-2), a dendritic marker of both acute damage and chronic neuronal regeneration after injury, in serum of survivors after severe TBI and examine the association with long-term outcome. METHODS: Serum concentrations of MAP-2 were evaluated in 16 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score [GCS] ≤ 8) 6 months post-injury and in 16 controls. Physical and cognitive outcomes were assessed, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCFS), respectively...
2012: Brain Injury: [BI]
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