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Michael L Slepian, Evan W Carr
People automatically generate first impressions from others' faces, even with limited time and information. Most research on social face evaluation focuses on static morphological features that are embedded "in the face" (e.g., overall average of facial features, masculinity/femininity, cues related to positivity/negativity, etc.). Here, we offer the first investigation of how variability in facial emotion affects social evaluations. Participants evaluated targets that, over time, displayed either high-variability or low-variability distributions of positive (happy) and/or negative (angry/fearful/sad) facial expressions, despite the overall averages of those facial features always being the same across conditions...
November 13, 2018: Cognition
Kevin Kantono, Nazimah Hamid, Daniel Shepherd, Yi Hsuan Tiffany Lin, Selma Skiredj, B Thomas Carr
Research into the influence of auditory cues upon food perception has increased in the past decade. Mechanisms evoked to explain crossmodal interactions between the auditory and gustatory senses include attentional, emotional, and affective mediators. In this study, the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) method was utilised to document the changes in taste and flavour of chocolate gelato while participants listened to music. After each TDS trial, the participants rated their emotions using intensity scales...
November 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sarah Steeg, Matthew Carr, Richard Emsley, Keith Hawton, Keith Waters, Harriet Bickley, Jennifer Ness, Galit Geulayov, Nav Kapur
BACKGROUND: Observational studies are suited to examining links between the routine hospital management of self-harm and future suicide and all-cause mortality due to their large scale. However, care must be taken when attempting to infer causal associations in non-experimental settings. METHODS: Data from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England were used to examine associations between four types of hospital management (specialist psychosocial assessment, general hospital admission, psychiatric outpatient referral and psychiatric admission) following self-harm and risks of suicide and all-cause mortality in the subsequent 12 months...
2018: PloS One
KyungPyo Hong, Jeremy D Collins, Bradley P Knight, James C Carr, Daniel C Lee, Daniel Kim
PURPOSE: To develop a wideband cardiac perfusion pulse sequence and test whether it is capable of suppressing image artifacts in patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED), while not exceeding the specific absorption rate (SAR) limit (2.0 W/kg). METHODS: A wideband perfusion pulse sequence was developed by incorporating a wideband saturation pulse to achieve a good balance between saturation of magnetization and SAR. Clinical standard and wideband perfusion MRI scans were performed back-to-back in a randomized order on 16 patients with a CIED undergoing clinical cardiac MRI...
September 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Anitra C Carr, John Cook
The use of intravenous vitamin C (IVC) for cancer therapy has long been an area of intense controversy. Despite this, high dose IVC has been administered for decades by complementary health care practitioners and physicians, with little evidence base resulting in inconsistent clinical practice. In this review we pose a series of questions of relevance to both researchers and clinicians, and also patients themselves, in order to identify current gaps in our knowledge. These questions include: Do oncology patients have compromised vitamin C status? Is intravenous the optimal route of vitamin C administration? Is IVC safe? Does IVC interfere with chemotherapy or radiotherapy? Does IVC decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and improve quality of life? What are the relevant mechanisms of action of IVC? What are the optimal doses, frequency, and duration of IVC therapy? Researchers have made massive strides over the last 20 years and have addressed many of these important aspects, such as the best route for administration, safety, interactions with chemotherapy, quality of life, and potential mechanisms of action...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kim Govaerts, K Chandrakumaran, Norman J Carr, Thomas D Cecil, Sanjeev Dayal, Faheez Mohamed, Andrew Thrower, Brendan J Moran
AIM: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon malignancy, generally originating from a ruptured epithelial tumour of the appendix. Despite successful cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), some patients recur. Currently there are no guidelines on the methods, frequency and intensity of follow-up. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2016, 1070 patients underwent surgery for a perforated epithelial tumour of the appendix, predominantly with PMP...
September 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Meredith Brockway, Karen M Benzies, Eloise Carr, Khalid Aziz
Background: Breastmilk is the ideal nutrition for preterm infants. Yet, breastmilk feeding rates among preterm infants are substantially lower than those of full-term infants. Barriers incurred through hospital care practices as well as the physical environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can result in physical and emotional separation of infants from their parents, posing a substantial risk to establishing and maintaining breastfeeding. Additionally, current practitioner-focused care provision in the NICU can result in decreased breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSE), which is predictive of breastfeeding rates in mothers of preterm infants at 6 weeks postpartum...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Allene L Gremaud, Lucas J Carr, Jacob E Simmering, Nicholas J Evans, James F Cremer, Alberto M Segre, Linnea A Polgreen, Philip M Polgreen
BACKGROUND: Sedentary work is hazardous. Over 80% of all US jobs are predominantly sedentary, placing full-time office workers at increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality. Thus, there is a critical need for effective workplace physical activity interventions. MapTrek is a mobile health platform that gamifies Fitbit use for the purpose of promoting physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of MapTrek for increasing daily steps and moderate-intensity steps over 10 weeks in a sample of sedentary office workers...
July 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Audrey De Jong, Jeanne Cossic, Daniel Verzilli, Clément Monet, Julie Carr, Mathieu Conseil, Marion Monnin, Moussa Cisse, Fouad Belafia, Nicolas Molinari, Gérald Chanques, Samir Jaber
PURPOSE: The relation between driving pressure (plateau pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure) and mortality has never been studied in obese ARDS patients. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 90-day mortality and driving pressure in an ARDS population ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to obesity status. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study of prospectively collected data of all ARDS patients admitted consecutively to a mixed medical-surgical adult ICU from January 2009 to May 2017...
July 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Seema P Deshpande, Jonathan H Chow, Patrick Odonkor, Bartley Griffith, Shamus R Carr
Chest tube thoracostomy is a commonly performed procedure in the emergency department, operating room, and intensive care unit. We report an extremely rare case of accidental insertion of a chest tube into the left atrium via the right pulmonary vein during an interventional radiology-guided placement of the catheter. To our knowledge, such a case has not been reported to date. The anesthetic and surgical management of this injury are discussed.
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
Veronica Sanchez, Michelle Maladen-Percy, Jennifer Gustin, Amy Tally, Roger Gibb, Julie Ogle, Dianna C Kenneally, Andrew N Carr
BACKGROUND: Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants face significant diapering challenges compared with their full-term peers, due to immature musculature, nervous system, and skin development. Advances in medical care have increased an ELBW infant's rate of survival, which creates a growing need for diapers to better serve these infants. Aim of research. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm the requirements for optimal diaper performance from the neonatal intensive care unit nurses' perspective, as well as to assess in-hospital performance to determine if new features improved key developmental care parameters...
August 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Dan Nguyen, Junji Iwahara
NMR relaxation of arginine (Arg) 15 Nε nuclei is useful for studying side-chain dynamics of proteins. In this work, we studied the impact of two geminal 15 N-15 N scalar couplings on measurements of transverse relaxation rates (R 2 ) for Arg side-chain 15 Nε nuclei. For 12 Arg side chains of the DNA-binding domain of the Antp protein, we measured the geminal 15 N-15 N couplings ( 2 J NN ) of the 15 Nε nuclei and found that the magnitudes of the 2 J NN coupling constants were virtually uniform with an average of 1...
May 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Kunal Karamchandani, Zyad J Carr, Anthony Bonavia, Avery Tung
The rapid rise in the opioid epidemic has had a deleterious impact across the United States. This increase has drawn the attention of the critical care community not only because of the surge in acute opioid overdose-related admissions, but also due to the increase in the number of opioid-dependent and opioid-tolerant patients being treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Opioid-related issues relevant to the critical care physician include direct care of patients with opioid overdoses, the provision of sufficient analgesia to patients with opioid dependence and tolerance, and the task of preventing long-term opioid dependence in patients who survive ICU care...
September 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Benjamin J Haywood, John R White, Robert L Cook
The January 2016 Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) opening resulted in a large-scale Mississippi River (MR) flood discharge that qualitatively and quantitatively impacted the dissolved organic matter (DOM) cycling in the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary (LPE) located in Louisiana, USA. This early season flood event was a result of the delay of snow formation caused by warmer than normal watershed temperatures. During the diversion period and the subsequent weeks, the LPE water temperature remained lower than pre-flood water temperatures, suppressing carbon cycling...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew R Carr, Mark M Ashla, Elvira E Jimenez, Mario F Mendez
Objective: Although emotional blunting is a core feature of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), there are no practical clinical measures of emotional expression for the early diagnosis of bvFTD. Method: Three age-matched groups (bvFTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls (HC)) of eight participants each were presented with real-life vignettes varying in emotional intensity (high versus low) with either negative or positive outcomes. This study evaluated verbal (self-reports of distress) and visual (presence or absence of facial affect) measures of emotional expression during the vignettes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Michael F Jantsch, Alessandro Quattrone, Mary O'Connell, Mark Helm, Michaela Frye, Manuel Macias-Gonzales, Marie Ohman, Stefan Ameres, Luc Willems, Francois Fuks, Anastasis Oulas, Stepanka Vanacova, Henrik Nielsen, Cecile Bousquet-Antonelli, Yuri Motorin, Jean-Yves Roignant, Nikolaos Balatsos, Andras Dinnyes, Pavel Baranov, Vincent Kelly, Ayelet Lamm, Gideon Rechavi, Mattia Pelizzola, Janis Liepins, Irina Holodnuka Kholodnyuk, Vanessa Zammit, Duncan Ayers, Finn Drablos, John Arne Dahl, Janusz Bujnicki, Carmen Jeronimo, Raquel Almeida, Monica Neagu, Marieta Costache, Jasna Bankovic, Bojana Banovic, Jan Kyselovic, Luis Miguel Valor, Stefan Selbert, Pinar Pir, Turan Demircan, Victoria Cowling, Matthias Schäfer, Walter Rossmanith, Denis Lafontaine, Alexandre David, Clement Carre, Frank Lyko, Raffael Schaffrath, Schraga Schwartz, Andre Verdel, Arne Klungland, Elzbieta Purta, Gordana Timotijevic, Fernando Cardona, Alberto Davalos, Ester Ballana, Donal O Carroll, Jernej Ule, Rupert Fray
The genetic alphabet consists of the four letters: C, A, G, and T in DNA and C,A,G, and U in RNA. Triplets of these four letters jointly encode 20 different amino acids out of which proteins of all organisms are built. This system is universal and is found in all kingdoms of life. However, bases in DNA and RNA can be chemically modified. In DNA, around 10 different modifications are known, and those have been studied intensively over the past 20 years. Scientific studies on DNA modifications and proteins that recognize them gave rise to the large field of epigenetic and epigenomic research...
2018: RNA Biology
Robin Jonas, Barbara Namer, Lenka Stockinger, Kim Chisholm, Mark Schnakenberg, Gunther Landmann, Mateusz Kucharczyk, Christoph Konrad, Roland Schmidt, Richard Carr, Stephen McMahon, Martin Schmelz, Roman Rukwied
OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a low-intensity sinusoidal electrical stimulation paradigm to preferentially activate C-fibers in human skin. METHODS: Sinusoidal transcutaneous stimulation (4Hz) was assessed psychophysically in healthy volunteers (n = 14) and neuropathic pain patients (n = 9). Pursuing laser Doppler imaging and single nociceptor recordings in vivo in humans (microneurography) and pigs confirmed the activation of "silent" C-nociceptors...
May 2018: Annals of Neurology
Leonard H Epstein, Rocco A Paluch, Katelyn A Carr, Jennifer L Temple, Warren K Bickel, James MacKillop
Food is a primary reinforcer, and food reinforcement is related to obesity. The reinforcing value of food can be measured by establishing how hard someone will work to get food on progressive-ratio schedules. An alternative way to measure food reinforcement is a hypothetical purchase task which creates behavioral economic demand curves. This paper studies whether reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral demand approaches are assessing the same or unique aspects of food reinforcement for low (LED) and high (HED) energy density foods using a combination of analytic approaches in females of varying BMI...
April 2018: Eating Behaviors
Mario F Mendez, Sylvia S Fong, Mark M Ashla, Elvira E Jimenez, Andrew R Carr
Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) differ in basic emotional tone. Skin conduction levels (SCLs), a measure of sympathetic tone, may be a sensitive test for discriminating these two dementias early in their course. Previous research has shown differences in resting SCLs between patients with bvFTD and AD, but no study has evaluated the discriminability of SCLs during different environmental conditions. The authors compared bvFTD patients (N=8), AD patients (N=10), and healthy control subjects (N=9) on SCL measures pertaining to real-life vignettes or scenarios differing in valence and emotional intensity...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Simon Blockley, Ian Candy, Ian Matthews, Pete Langdon, Cath Langdon, Adrian Palmer, Paul Lincoln, Ashley Abrook, Barry Taylor, Chantal Conneller, Alex Bayliss, Alison MacLeod, Laura Deeprose, Chris Darvill, Rebecca Kearney, Nancy Beavan, Richard Staff, Michael Bamforth, Maisie Taylor, Nicky Milner
Understanding the resilience of early societies to climate change is an essential part of exploring the environmental sensitivity of human populations. There is significant interest in the role of abrupt climate events as a driver of early Holocene human activity, but there are very few well-dated records directly compared with local climate archives. Here, we present evidence from the internationally important Mesolithic site of Star Carr showing occupation during the early Holocene, which is directly compared with a high-resolution palaeoclimate record from neighbouring lake beds...
May 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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