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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822136/investigating-the-role-of-the-photorespiratory-pathway-in-non-photosynthetic-tissues
#1
Alisdair R Fernie, Hermann Bauwe, Lee J Sweetlove
Whilst photorespiration represents one of the dominant pathway fluxes in photosynthetic tissues there are hints from publically available gene expression data such as that housed in the bioarray resource (BAR; www.bar.utoronto.ca) that several of the constituent enzymes are present in roots and other heterotrophic tissues. Here we describe a protocol based on modification of the gaseous environment surrounding individual tissues of mutant and wild type Arabidopsis and evaluation of the consequences. This method could additionally easily be used for larger plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821587/drift-induced-selection-between-male-and-female-heterogamety
#2
Carl Veller, Pavitra Muralidhar, George W A Constable, Martin A Nowak
Evolutionary transitions between male and female heterogamety are common in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Theoretical studies of these transitions have found that, when all genotypes are equally fit, continuous paths of intermediate equilibria link the two sex chromosome systems. This observation has led to a belief that neutral evolution along these paths can drive transitions, and that arbitrarily small fitness differences among sex chromosome genotypes can determine the system to which evolution leads...
August 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820904/parametric-studies-of-metabolic-cooperativity-in-escherichia-coli-colonies-strain-and-geometric-confinement-effects
#3
Joseph R Peterson, John A Cole, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
Characterizing the complex spatial and temporal interactions among cells in a biological system (i.e. bacterial colony, microbiome, tissue, etc.) remains a challenge. Metabolic cooperativity in these systems can arise due to the subtle interplay between microenvironmental conditions and the cells' regulatory machinery, often involving cascades of intra- and extracellular signalling molecules. In the simplest of cases, as demonstrated in a recent study of the model organism Escherichia coli, metabolic cross-feeding can arise in monoclonal colonies of bacteria driven merely by spatial heterogeneity in the availability of growth substrates; namely, acetate, glucose and oxygen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819351/a-systematic-analysis-of-term-reuse-and-term-overlap-across-biomedical-ontologies
#4
Maulik R Kamdar, Tania Tudorache, Mark A Musen
Reusing ontologies and their terms is a principle and best practice that most ontology development methodologies strongly encourage. Reuse comes with the promise to support the semantic interoperability and to reduce engineering costs. In this paper, we present a descriptive study of the current extent of term reuse and overlap among biomedical ontologies. We use the corpus of biomedical ontologies stored in the BioPortal repository, and analyze different types of reuse and overlap constructs. While we find an approximate term overlap between 25-31%, the term reuse is only <9%, with most ontologies reusing fewer than 5% of their terms from a small set of popular ontologies...
2017: Semantic Web
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816758/ibd-hints-for-preventive-care
#5
Noah Hall, John D Betteridge, Manish B Singla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816747/ibd-hints-for-preventive-care
#6
Noah Hall, John D Betteridge, Manish B Singla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816521/plume-activity-and-tidal-deformation-on-enceladus-influenced-by-faults-and-variable-ice-shell-thickness
#7
Marie Běhounková, Ondřej Souček, Jaroslav Hron, Ondřej Čadek
We investigated the effect of variations in ice shell thickness and of the tiger stripe fractures crossing Enceladus' south polar terrain on the moon's tidal deformation by performing finite element calculations in three-dimensional geometry. The combination of thinning in the polar region and the presence of faults has a synergistic effect that leads to an increase of both the displacement and stress in the south polar terrain by an order of magnitude compared to that of the traditional model with a uniform shell thickness and without faults...
August 17, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811299/twenty-years-of-menin-emerging-opportunities-for-restoration-of-transcription-in-men1
#8
Koen M A Dreijerink, Marc Timmers, Myles Brown
Since the discovery of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in 1997, elucidation of the molecular function of its protein product, menin, has been a challenge. Biochemical, proteomics, genetics and genomics approaches have identified various potential roles, which converge on gene expression regulation. The most consistent findings show that menin connects transcription factors and chromatin modifying enzymes, in particular the histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes MLL1 and MLL2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next generation sequencing has enabled studying genome-wide dynamics of chromatin binding by menin...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811274/hypoxia-in-combination-with-muscle-contraction-improves-insulin-action-and-glucose-metabolism-in-human-skeletal-muscle-via-the-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway
#9
Sven W Görgens, Tim Benninghoff, Kristin Eckardt, Christian Springer, Alexandra Chadt, Anita Melior, Jakob Wefers, Andrea Cramer, Jørgen Jensen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon, Hadi Al-Hasani, Jürgen Eckel
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes, and develops long before the onset of the disease. It is well accepted that physical activity improves glycemic control but the knowledge on underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects remains incomplete. Exercise is accompanied by a decrease in intramuscular oxygen levels resulting in induction of HIF-1α. HIF-1α is a master regulator of gene expression and might play an important role in skeletal muscle function and metabolism...
August 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809529/multiphoton-fabrication-of-fibronectin-functionalized-protein-micropatterns-stiffness-induced-maturation-of-cell-matrix-adhesions-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Jiaoni Ma, Chuen Wai Li, Nan Huang, Xinna Wang, Minghui Tong, Alfonso H W Ngan, Barbara P Chan
Cell-matrix adhesions are important structures governing the interactions between cells and their microenvironment at the cell-matrix interface. Focal complex (FC) and focal adhesion (FA) have been substantially investigated in conventional 2D culture system using fibroblast as in vitro model. However, the formation of more mature types of cell-matrix adhesion in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), including fabrillar adhesion (FBA) and 3D matrix adhesion (3DMA), have not been fully elucidated. Here, we try to provide some hints on which niche factor(s) dominate(s) the maturation of FBA and 3DMA by using multiphoton fabrication-based micropatterning technique...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808906/racial-disparities-in-hpv-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs-among-african-american-and-white-women-in-the-usa
#11
Ashley Ojeaga, Ernest Alema-Mensah, Desiree Rivers, Ijeoma Azonobi, Brian Rivers
The objective of this study was to assess the differences in HPV-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among African American and non-Hispanic white women and to determine their communication preferences for cancer-related information. Data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2014 Health Interview National Trends Survey (HINTS), a cross-sectional survey of US adults 18 years of age or older. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify differences in awareness and knowledge...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807224/mesua-ferrea-stem-bark-extract-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-metastasis-in-human-colorectal-carcinoma-hct-116-cells-through-modulation-of-multiple-cell-signalling-pathways
#12
Muhammad Asif, Armaghan Shafaei, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Mohammed Oday Ezzat, Saad S Dahham, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Chern Ein Oon, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Considering the great potential of natural products as anticancer agents, the present study was designed to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for anticancer activities of Mesua ferrea stem bark extract against human colorectal carcinoma. Based on MTT assay results, bioactive sub-fraction (SF-3) was selected for further studies using HCT 116 cells. Repeated column chromatography resulted in isolation of less active α-amyrin from SF-3, which was identified and characterized by GC-MS and HPLC methods...
July 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806398/lysine-52-stabilizes-the-myc-oncoprotein-through-an-scf-fbxw7-independent-mechanism
#13
J De Melo, S S Kim, C Lourenco, L Z Penn
The oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC (MYC) is deregulated and often overexpressed in more than 50% of cancers. MYC deregulation is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive disease, suggesting that the development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting MYC would markedly impact patient outcome. MYC is highly regulated, with a protein and mRNA half-life of ~30 min. The most extensively studied pathway regulating MYC protein stability involves ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation mediated by the E3-ligase, SCF(Fbxw7)...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806340/the-impact-of-comorbidities-in-the-aging-population-on-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#14
Brent Jerome Wilkerson, Sandra F Porps, Seilesh C Babu
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implants have been used for many years for bilateral profound hearing loss. General longevity has continued to increase and, therefore, the age at which cochlear implants are placed has concomitantly increased. Our purpose is to determine whether outcomes and complications are significantly different in the elderly. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, clinical review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center, primarily ambulatory setting...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806338/isolated-second-implant-adaptation-period-in-sequential-cochlear-implantation-in-adults
#15
Kari Smilsky, Peter R Dixon, Leah Smith, David Shipp, Amy Ng, Tara Millman, Suzanne Stewart, Julian M Nedzelski, Vincent Y Lin, Joseph M Chen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if depriving the use of the first cochlear implant (CI1) impacts adaptation to a sequential implant (CI2). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Academic center. PATIENTS: Sixteen unilateral cochlear implant recipients undergoing contralateral implantation (sequential bilateral) were matched according to age, etiology, duration of deafness, device age, and delay between implants. INTERVENTION: During a 4-week adaptation period after CI2 activation, patients underwent deprivation of CI1 or were permitted continued use of it...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795742/optical-reconfiguration-and-polarization-control-in-semi-continuous-gold-films-close-to-the-percolation-threshold
#16
Christian Frydendahl, Taavi Repän, Mathias Geisler, Sergey M Novikov, Jonas Beermann, Andrei V Lavrinenko, Sanshui Xiao, Sergey I Bozhevolnyi, N Asger Mortensen, Nicolas Stenger
Controlling and confining light by exciting plasmons in resonant metallic nanostructures is an essential aspect of many new emerging optical technologies. Here we explore the possibility of controllably reconfiguring the intrinsic optical properties of semi-continuous gold films, by inducing permanent morphological changes with a femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser above a critical power. Optical transmission spectroscopy measurements show a correlation between the spectra of the morphologically modified films and the wavelength, polarization, and the intensity of the laser used for alteration...
August 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794693/human-genetics-in-troubled-times-and-places
#17
REVIEW
Peter S Harper
The development of human genetics world-wide during the twentieth century, especially across Europe, has occurred against a background of repeated catastrophes, including two world wars and the ideological problems and repression posed by Nazism and Communism. The published scientific literature gives few hints of these problems and there is a danger that they will be forgotten. The First World War was largely indiscriminate in its carnage, but World War 2 and the preceding years of fascism were associated with widespread migration, especially of Jewish workers expelled from Germany, and of their children, a number of whom would become major contributors to the post-war generation of human and medical geneticists in Britain and America...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790959/brain-processing-of-contagious-itch-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#18
Christina Schut, Hideki Mochizuki, Shoshana K Grossman, Andrew C Lin, Christopher J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Uwe Gieler, Joerg Kupfer, Gil Yosipovitch
Several studies show that itch and scratching cannot only be induced by pruritogens like histamine or cowhage, but also by the presentation of certain (audio-) visual stimuli like pictures on crawling insects or videos showing other people scratching. This phenomenon is coined "Contagious itch" (CI). Due to the fact that CI is more profound in patients with the chronic itchy skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD), we believe that it is highly relevant to study brain processing of CI in this group. Knowledge on brain areas involved in CI in AD-patients can provide us with useful hints regarding non-invasive treatments that AD-patients could profit from when they are confronted with itch-inducing situations in daily life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790176/impaired-liver-regeneration-after-hepatectomy-and-bleeding-is-associated-with-a-shift-from-hepatocyte-proliferation-to-hypertrophy
#19
Idit Matot, Nathalie Nachmansson, Omri Duev, Susanne Schulz, Katrin Schroeder-Stein, Stilla Frede, Rinat Abramovitch
Extensive liver resections are common, and bleeding is frequent in these operations. Impaired regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) may contribute to liver failure. We thus assessed the impact of acute bleeding on the liver regeneration progress after PHx and explored possible contributing molecular mechanisms. In rats, the regeneration progress was delayed and attenuated with PHx and bleeding and was not restored with colloid resuscitation. Livers restored their initial volume by postoperative day (POD) 2 after PHx through hepatocyte proliferation vs...
August 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783759/senescence-as-a-novel-mechanism-involved-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-mediated-cardiac-hypertrophy
#20
Rongrong Sun, Baoling Zhu, Kai Xiong, Yan Sun, Dandan Shi, Li Chen, Youyi Zhang, Zijian Li, Lixiang Xue
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy used to be elucidated by biomechanical, stretch-sensitive or neurohumoral mechanisms. However, a series of hints have indicated that hypertrophy process simulates senescence program. However, further evidence need to be pursued. To verify this hypothesis and examine whether cardiac senescence is a novel mechanism of hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, 2-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to isoproterenol infusion (0.25mg/kg/day) for 7 days by subcutaneous injection)...
2017: PloS One
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