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Daniel Stengel, Sarah Wahby, Thomas Braunbeck
In order to develop a test battery based on a variety of neurological systems in fish, three sensory systems (vision, olfaction, and lateral line) as well as nerve transmission (acetylcholine esterase) were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos with respect to their suitability as a model for the screening of neurotoxic trace substances in aquatic ecosystems. As a selection of known or putative neurotoxic compounds, amidotrizoic acid, caffeine, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid were tested in the fish embryo test (OECD test guideline 236) to determine EC10 values, which were then used as maximum test concentration in subsequent neurotoxicity tests...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marilena M Bourdakou, George M Spyrou
BACKGROUND: Systemic approaches offer a different point of view on the analysis of several types of molecular associations as well as on the identification of specific gene communities in several cancer types. However, due to lack of sufficient data needed to construct networks based on experimental evidence, statistical gene co-expression networks are widely used instead. Many efforts have been made to exploit the information hidden in these networks. However, these approaches still need to capitalize comprehensively the prior knowledge encrypted into molecular pathway associations and improve their efficiency regarding the discovery of both exclusive subnetworks as candidate biomarkers and conserved subnetworks that may uncover common origins of several cancer types...
October 11, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
N J McDonnell, R Browning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
John A Lesku, Linh M T Ly
What is the 'simplest' animal that sleeps? When did sleep first evolve? Do all animals sleep? Tantalizing hints to answers come from new research showing that jellyfish, one of the earliest evolving groups of animals, have a sleep-like restful state.
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Sarah König, Marion Eisenhut, Andrea Bräutigam, Samantha Kurz, Andreas P M Weber, Claudia Büchel
Diatoms, albeit being only distantly related with higher plants, harbour a plant-like cryptochrome (CryP) that was proposed to act as a photoreceptor required for the regulation of some photosynthetic proteins. Plant cryptochromes are involved in the regulation of developmental processes relevant only to multicellular organisms. Their role in the unicellular diatoms to date is mostly enigmatic. To elucidate the function of this plant-like cryptochrome in a unicellular species, we examined the role of CryP in the regulation of transcription in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum by comparative RNA-seq of wild type and CryP knock-down mutants, under prolonged darkness and one hour after onset of blue light...
August 30, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Samuel Alizon, Carmen Lía Murall, Ignacio G Bravo
Most infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are `acute', that is non-persistent. Yet, for HPVs, as for many other oncoviruses, there is a striking gap between our detailed understanding of chronic infections and our limited data on the early stages of infection. Here we argue that studying HPV acute infections is necessary and timely. Focusing on early interactions will help explain why certain infections are cleared while others become chronic or latent. From a molecular perspective, descriptions of immune effectors and pro-inflammatory pathways during the initial stages of infections have the potential to lead to novel treatments or to improved handling algorithms...
October 10, 2017: Viruses
Alice M Percher, Gildas Merceron, Gontran Nsi Akoue, Jordi Galbany, Alejandro Romero, Marie Je Charpentier
OBJECTIVES: Dental microwear is a promising tool to reconstruct animals' diet because it reflects the interplay between the enamel surface and the food items recently consumed. This study examines the sources of inter-individual variations in dietary habits in a free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) using a combination of feeding monitoring and in vivo dental microwear textural analysis (DMTA). METHODS: We investigated the impact of seasonality and individual traits on four DMTA parameters...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Ramon A Franco, Inna Husain, Lindsay Reder, Paul Paddle
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The fibrotic/erythematous appearance of the subglottis in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) hints that it might respond to repeated intralesional steroid treatment similar to keloids. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Thirteen iSGS subjects (six treated in-office with serial intralesional steroid injections [SILSI] versus seven treated endoscopically in the operating room [OR] followed by awake SILSI) between October 2011 and April 2017...
October 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
Teng-Fei Fan, Ming-Jie He, Chang-Jun Li, Dong-Xue Shi, Chao Yang, Yi-Yin Chen, Ji Ke, Yu-Xia Chen, Lei Zhang, Di-Qin Li, Lai-Hua Liu, Chen Xu
K326 and HD represent major tobacco cultivars in China, which required a large nitrogen (N)-fertilizer input but with different application rates. To understand primary components affecting tobacco N-use physiology, we adopted these two varieties as valuable genetic materials to assess their growth response to N nutrition. We established a hydroponic-culture system to grow plants supplied with different N regimes. Plant biomass, nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, arginine, GS and NR activity, N transfer- and use-efficiency as well as root uptake were examined...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biology
Carlos Antonio Rodríguez-Saltos
Courtship signals are attractive; in other words, receivers are motivated to approach courtship signals. Though the concept of a receiver is commonly associated in the literature with that of a mate seeker, young songbirds that are learning to sing by imitating conspecifics are also receivers. Juvenile songbirds are attracted to conspecific songs, which has been shown by juveniles working to hear song in operant chambers. The mechanisms explaining this attraction are poorly understood. Here, I review studies that hint at the mechanisms by which conspecific song becomes attractive...
July 28, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
François Thomas, Philippe Bordron, Damien Eveillard, Gurvan Michel
Flavobacteriia are recognized as key players in the marine carbon cycle, due to their ability to efficiently degrade algal polysaccharides both in the open ocean and in coastal regions. The chemical complexity of algal polysaccharides, their differences between algal groups and variations through time and space, imply that marine flavobacteria have evolved dedicated degradation mechanisms and regulation of their metabolism during interactions with algae. In the present study, we report the first transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis for an alga-associated flavobacterium during polysaccharide degradation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn
Social cognition is increasingly recognized as an important treatment target in schizophrenia; however, the dearth of well-validated measures that are suitable for use in clinical trials remains a significant limitation. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study addresses this need by systematically evaluating the psychometric properties of promising measures. In this final phase of SCOPE, eight new or modified tasks were evaluated. Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 218) and healthy controls (n = 154) completed the battery at baseline and 2-4 weeks later across three sites...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Christine Buff, Leonie Brinkmann, Maximilian Bruchmann, Michael P I Becker, Sara Tupak, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
Sustained anticipatory anxiety is central to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). During anticipatory anxiety, phasic threat responding appears to be mediated by the amygdala, while sustained threat responding seems related to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Although sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD patients was proposed to be associated with BNST activity alterations, firm evidence is lacking. We aimed to explore temporal characteristics of BNST and amygdala activity during threat anticipation in GAD patients...
August 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Vicky Brocklebank, David Kavanagh
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), characterized by organ injury occurring consequent to severe endothelial damage, can manifest in a diverse range of diseases. In complement-mediated atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) a primary defect in complement, such as a mutation or autoantibody leading to over activation of the alternative pathway, predisposes to the development of disease, usually following exposure to an environmental trigger. The elucidation of the pathogenesis of aHUS resulted in the successful introduction of the complement inhibitor eculizumab into clinical practice...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Caitlin Corkhill, Christophe Roubeix, Anja-Maria Davids, Norbert Kociok, Olaf Strauss, Antonia M Joussen, Nadine Reichhart
Purpose: The cellular immune response driven by mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) is crucial for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) progression. Case reports show that a switch from pure anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) intravitreal treatment to aflibercept, a drug with combined anti-VEGF-A and anti-placenta growth factor (PlGF) activity, can be beneficial for patients who do not respond to anti-VEGF-A alone. Since MPs harbor VEGFR1, we hypothesize that the interplay of P1GF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) in immune cells plays a pivotal role for CNV...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Haymanti Bhanot, Ellen L Weisberg, Mamatha M Reddy, Atsushi Nonami, Donna Neuberg, Richard M Stone, Klaus Podar, Ravi Salgia, James D Griffin, Martin Sattler
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are highly dependent on glycolytic pathways to generate metabolic energy and support cell growth, hinting at specific, targetable vulnerabilities as potential novel targets for drug development. Elevated levels of NADPH, a central metabolic factor involved in redox reactions, are common in myeloid leukemia cells, but the significance or biochemical basis underlying this increase is unknown. Using a small molecule analog that efficiently inhibits NADPH-producing enzymes, we found that AML cells require NADPH homeostasis for cell growth...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Abd Elmoneim O Elkhalifa, Rita Bernhardt, Gaetano Cardone, Alessandra Marti, Stefania Iametti, Mauro Marengo
The combined effects of grain germination and of subsequent fermentation on the physicochemical properties of sorghum flour were investigated by studying the structural changes occurring in the starch and protein fractions and by assessing their effects on physical properties of the resulting materials most relevant to end use. The sequential treatments were more effective than either individual treatment in the modification of starch-related properties, whereas modification of the protein components only occurs in the fermentation step, almost regardless of a previous germination step...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sameer Shakeel Ansari, Rizwan Hasan Khan, Saeeda Naqvi
Intermolecular interaction study of human serum albumin (HSA) with two anthraquinones i.e., danthron and quinizarin has been performed through fluorescence, UV-Vis and CD spectroscopy along with docking analysis. The titration of drugs into HSA solution brought about the quenching of fluorescence emission by way of complex formation. The binding constants were found to be 1.51 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1.70 × 10(4) L mol(-1) at λexc = 280 nm while at λexc = 295 nm, the values of binding constants were 1.81 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Bradford W Hesse, Alexandra J Greenberg, Emily B Peterson, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou
The contemporary healthcare system can help improve health literacy outcomes in two ways: first, by nurturing the skills and motivations needed for patients to be actively engaged in their own health and healthcare decisions; and, second, by creating a prepared and proactive healthcare system that adapts to patients' capacities and needs in efficacious ways. In 2001, the National Cancer Institute launched the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) as a way for researchers and planners to understand how the public is interacting with a rapidly changing health information environment...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Michael J Holdsworth
A mechanism by which plants detect and respond to oxygen starvation has been known for some years. Three recent papers suggest that we haven't been seeing the full picture.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
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