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Clinton Burnside, Tamaro Hudson, Carla Williams, William Lawson, Adeyinka O Laiyemo
OBJECTIVE: Cancer imposes higher burden on men. Sex differences in healthcare utilization may contribute to this problem. We compared healthcare utilization among adults with and without a history of cancer as measured by having at least one physician visit within the previous 12 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 7,229 responders (weighted population size=211,722,892) enrolled in the 2007 Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in the United States...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Mattia Vicario, Domenico Cieri, Marisa Brini, Tito Calì
The presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is unequivocally linked to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Not only it is the major component of amyloid fibrils found in Lewy bodies but mutations and duplication/triplication in its gene are responsible for the onset of familial autosomal dominant forms of PD. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration are not fully understood. Several lines of evidence suggest that impaired autophagy clearance and mitochondrial dysfunctions such as bioenergetics and calcium handling defects and alteration in mitochondrial morphology might play a pivotal role in the etiology and progression of PD, and indicate the intriguing possibility that α-syn could be involved in the control of mitochondrial function both in physiological and pathological conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sandip Dey, Chiranjit Biswas, Jayati Sengupta
The ribosome-associated GTPase HflX acts as an antiassociation factor upon binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit during heat stress in Escherichia coli Although HflX is recognized as a guanosine triphosphatase, several studies have shown that the N-terminal domain 1 of HflX is capable of hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but the functional role of its adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity remains unknown. We demonstrate that E. coli HflX possesses ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity and is capable of unwinding large subunit ribosomal RNA...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Sukant Garg, He Huifu, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa
OBJECTIVE: Short-term viability assays of cultured cells in 96-well plates are routinely used to determine the cytotoxicity or safety of drugs. These are often based on the formation of chromogen, generated selectively in viable cells. The innate problems of such short-term cell viability assays include (i) effect of drugs is determined by cell density (ii) some drugs have slow/gradual effect and hence may escape such assays, (iii) cell morphology that reveal significant hints to molecular signaling underlining the effect of drugs cannot be effectively captured, (iv) long-term effect on viability and clonogenic potential of cells cannot be determined and (v) herbal extracts often possess intrinsic color that interferes with spectrophotometer estimation...
June 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Zeyu Liu, Li Zhang, Xian Wang, Gang Jiang, Mingli Yang
Introduction of silicon into hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the effective ways to modulate the bioactivity of HA-based biomaterials. The bulk and surface structures of silicate-substituted HA (Si-HA) were characterized by using density functional theory calculations. The energetically favorable structures were identified from a number of candidate structures. Particular attention was paid to the surface structures of Si-HA, whose bioactivity is closely relevant to their surface atoms. Compared to the surface of pure HA, the Si-HA surface has similar surface energy but different charge distribution...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Thomas Schmitt, Stefan Lange, Stefan Sonnenberger, Bodo Dobner, Bruno Demé, Andreas Langner, Reinhard H H Neubert
This study used neutron diffraction to investigate a ceramide-[NP] C24/[AP] C24 /[EOS]-br C30/cholesterol/lignoceric acid (0.6: 0.3: 0.1: 0.7: 1) based stratum corneum modelling system. By adding specifically deuterated ceramides-[NP]-D3 , [AP]-D3 , and [EOS]-br-D3 , detailed information on the lamellar and the nanostructure of the system was obtained. For the short periodicity phase a natural-like lamellar repeat distance of 5.47 ± 0.02 nm was observed, similar to the [NP]/[AP] base system without the [EOS]-br...
June 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Holly M Brothers, Maya L Gosztyla, Stephen R Robinson
Amyloid-ß (Aß) is best known as the misfolded peptide that is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it is currently the primary therapeutic target in attempts to arrest the course of this disease. This notoriety has overshadowed evidence that Aß serves several important physiological functions. Aß is present throughout the lifespan, it has been found in all vertebrates examined thus far, and its molecular sequence shows a high degree of conservation. These features are typical of a factor that contributes significantly to biological fitness, and this suggestion has been supported by evidence of functions that are beneficial for the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Esra'a Ali Mohammad Alomari, Luca Ronda, Stefano Bruno, Gianluca Paredi, Marialaura Marchetti, Stefano Bettati, Davide Olivari, Francesca Fumagalli, Deborah Novelli, Giuseppe Ristagno, Roberto Latini, Chris E Cooper, Brandon J Reeder, Andrea Mozzarelli
Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are an investigational replacement for blood transfusions and are known to cause oxidative damage to tissues. To investigate the correlation between their oxygen binding properties and these detrimental effects, we investigated two PEGylated HBOCs endowed with different oxygen binding properties - but otherwise chemically identical - in a Guinea pig transfusion model. Plasma samples were analyzed for biochemical markers of inflammation, tissue damage and organ dysfunction; proteins and lipids of heart and kidney extracts were analyzed for markers of oxidative damage...
June 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jill A Dosso, Kevin H Roberts, Alessandra DiGiacomo, Alan Kingstone
There is a growing consensus among researchers that a complete description of human attention and action should include information about how these processes are informed by social context. When we actively engage in co-action with others, there are characteristic changes in action kinematics, reaction time, search behavior, as well as other processes (see Sebanz et al., 2003; Becchio et al., 2010; Wahn et al., 2017). It is now important to identify precisely what is shared between co-actors in these joint action situations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Friedemann Pulvermüller
How can we understand causal relationships and how can we understand words such as 'cause'? Some theorists assume that the underlying abstract concept is given to us, and that perceptual correlation provides the relevant hints towards inferring causation from perceived real-life events. A different approach emphasizes the role of actions and their typical consequences for the emergence of the concept of causation and the application of the related term. A model of causation is proposed that highlights the family resemblance between causal actions and postulates that symbols are necessary for binding together the different partially shared semantic features of subsets of causal actions and their goals...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anubrata Ghosal, Vignesh M P Babu, Graham C Walker
YbeY is a highly conserved, multifunctional endoribonuclease that plays a significant role in ribosome biogenesis and has several additional roles. Here, we show in Escherichia coli that overexpressing the conserved GTPase, Era, partially suppresses the growth defect of a ΔybeY strain while improving 16S rRNA processing and 70S ribosome assembly. This suppression requires both Era's ability to hydrolyze GTP and the function of three exoribonucleases, RNase II, RNase R and RNase PH, suggesting a model for Era's action...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Jian Zhou, Yuyuan Ge, Yun Hu, Dawei Rong, Kai Fu, Hanjin Wang, Hongyong Cao, Weiwei Tang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which were recently discovered as a special class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, have recently shown huge capabilities as gene regulators in different species in a wide variety of organisms including viruses, plants, archaea and animals. These circRNAs mainly arise from exons or introns in different combinations by special selective splicing and are enriched in cytoplasm. Apart from that, circRNAs usually display patterns of cell-type, tissue-type and developmental-stage specific expression in eukaryotic transcriptome...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Raviprasadh Rajasekaran, Andrea Felser, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Jean-François Dufour, Marie V St-Pierre
The histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT-2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase expressed in hepatocytes. The phenotype of Hint2 knockout ( Hint2-/- ) mice includes progressive hepatic steatosis and lysine hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins, which are features of respiratory chain malfunctions. We postulated that the absence of HINT-2 induces a defect in mitochondria bioenergetics. Isolated Hint2-/- hepatocytes produced less ATP and generated a lower mitochondrial membrane potential than did Hint2+/+ hepatocytes...
April 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Chuanlin Zheng, Atiako Kwame Acheampong, Zhaowan Shi, Amichay Mugzech, Tamar Halaly-Basha, Felix Shaya, Yufei Sun, Violeta Colova, Assaf Mosquna, Ron Ophir, David W Galbraith, Etti Or
The molecular mechanism regulating dormancy release in grapevine buds is as yet unclear. It was formerly proposed that dormancy is maintained by ABA-mediated repression of bud-meristem activity, and that removal of this repression triggers dormancy release. It was also proposed that such removal of repression may be achieved via natural or artificial upregulation of VvA8H-CYP707A4, which encodes ABA 8'-hydroxylase, and is the most highly expressed paralog in grapevine buds. The current study further examines these assumptions, and its experiments reveal that (1) hypoxia and ethylene, stimuli of bud dormancy release, enhance expression of VvA8H-CYP707A4 within grape buds, (2) the VvA8H-CYP707A4 protein accumulates during the natural transition to the dormancy release stage, and (3) transgenic vines overexpressing VvA8H-CYP707A4 exhibit increased ABA catabolism, significant enhancement of bud-break in controlled and natural environments and longer basal summer laterals...
June 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Shuma Hirashio, Takahiro Arima, Ayaka Satoh, Kouichi Mandai, Shigeo Hara, Takao Masaki
BACKGROUND: Immunotactoid glomerulopathy (ITG) is a rare glomerulonephritis characterized by microtubular deposits. Immunofluorescence findings are necessary to differentiate ITG from other proliferative glomerular diseases. The characteristic tubular structure on electron microscopy is essential for a definitive diagnosis, and the diameter of the structure has been traditionally used for differentiating between ITG and other types of glomerulonephritis with organized deposits. In recent years, the disease concept of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, which is associated with M protein produced by plasma cell tumors, has been proposed...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Benjamin Steinmüller, Christopher Dietz, Michael Kretschmer, Markus H Thoma
Characteristic timescales and length scales for phase transitions of real materials are in ranges where a direct visualization is unfeasible. Therefore, model systems can be useful. Here, the crystallization process of a three-dimensional complex plasma under gravity conditions is considered where the system ranges up to a large extent into the bulk plasma. Time-resolved measurements exhibit the process down to a single-particle level. Primary clusters, consisting of particles in the solid state, grow vertically and, secondarily, horizontally...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
A W Jones, A Holmgren, F C Kugelberg, F P Busardò
This article reports the concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in femoral blood and bladder urine in a case series of drug intoxication deaths (N = 37). GHB was determined in blood (B-GHB) and urine (U-GHB) by a GC-FID-GBL method and 30 mg/L was used as a cut-off concentration for reporting positive results. The mean (median) and range of GHB concentrations in bladder urine were 2,818 mg/L (1,900 mg/L) and 120-13,000 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations were appreciably higher than those in femoral blood, 637 mg/L (260 mg/L) and 30-9,200 mg/L, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Claus Nielsen, Morten Steen Nørby, Jacob Kongsted, Ilia A Solov'yov
The magnetic compass sense utilized by migratory birds for long-distance navigation functions only once light of a certain wavelength is present. This piece of evidence fits partially with the popular hypothesis of chemical magnetoreception in cryptochrome proteins, located in the bird retina. According to this hypothesis a magnetosensitive radical pair is produced after photoexcitation of an FAD co-factor inside cryptochrome, and as such the absorption properties of FAD is of crucial importance for cryptochrome activation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Achim G Beule
The microbiome is defined as the total of cellular microorganisms of baczerial, viral or e. g., parasite origin living on the surface of a body. Within the anatomical areas of otorhinolaryngology, a significant divergence and variance can be demonstrated. For ear, nose, throat, larynx and cutis different interactions of microbiome and common factors like age, diet and live style factors (e. g., smoking) have been detected in recent years. Besides, new insights hint at a passible pathognomic role of the microbiome towards diseases in the ENT area...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Stefan Dhein, Katrin Schmelmer, Julika Guenther, Aida Salameh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Drug abuse is an increasing problem among young adults in European countries. We wanted to assess the prevalence of methamphetamine and cannabis use in young people and to ask for their socioeconomic, parental and emotional background. METHODS: All pupils (n = 1,087) in the final class of 3 school types (-general school [in Germany: Hauptschule/Regelschule mit Hauptschulabschluss] class 9, regular school [in Germany: Regelschule] class 10, high school [in Germany: Gymnasium] class 10) and the first 2 classes of the vocational school (in Germany: Berufsschule) in the entire rural district of Altenburger Land, a Thuringian county in Germany with a total of 92,344 inhabitants were asked to fill out a 2-page questionnaire...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
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