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Medium chain fatty acids

Sieglinde Debruyne, Alexis Ruiz-González, Einar Artiles-Ortega, Bart Ampe, Wim Van Den Broeck, Ellen De Keyser, Leen Vandaele, Karen Goossens, Veerle Fievez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Mengya Wang, Kuili Fang, Sung Min Choi Hong, Inwha Kim, Ik-Soon Jang, Seok Hoon Hong
Persisters represent a small bacterial population that is dormant and that survives under antibiotic treatment without experiencing genetic adaptation. Persisters are also considered one of the major reasons for recalcitrant chronic bacterial infections. Although several mechanisms of persister formation have been proposed, it is not clear how cells enter the dormant state in the presence of antibiotics or how persister cell formation can be effectively controlled. A fatty acid compound, cis-2-decenoic acid, was reported to decrease persister formation as well as revert the dormant cells to a metabolically active state...
August 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Maryam Mirfatahi, Hossein Imani, Hadi Tabibi, Alireza Nasrollahi, Mehdi Hedayati
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder is a common complication in hemodialysis patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed oil, a rich source of plant omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, on serum markers of bone formation and resorption in hemodialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 34 hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to either the flaxseed oil or the control group...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Simona Rimoldi, Emi Gliozheni, Chiara Ascione, Elisabetta Gini, Genciana Terova
In aquaculture research, one important aim of gut microbiota studies is to provide the scientific basis for developing effective strategies to manipulate gut microbial communities through the diet, promoting fish health and improving productivity. Currently, there is an increasing commercial and research interest towards the use of organic acids in aquafeeds, due to several beneficial effects they have on growth performance and intestinal tract's health of farmed fish. Among organic acids, monoglycerides of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have attracted particular research attention also for their bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties...
2018: PeerJ
F A Bichkaeva, N I Volkova, A A Bichkaev, T V Tretykova, O S Vlasova, E V Nesterova, B A Shengof, N F Baranova
The study involved 106 elderly people of the Arctic aged 61-74 years, 42 of them were residents of the Subarctic region (SR) and 64 residents of the Arctic region (AR). Using gas-liquid chromatography there was determined the serum content of saturated fatty acids (SFA): short-chain (SCFA), medium-chain (MCFA) and long-chain (LCFA); and the levels of carbohydrate metabolism parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Correlation analysis showed that elderly people of SR had no significant interrelationships between the contents of SCFA, MCFA and LCFA, since all the correlation dependences were weak (r=0,2-0,29, p=0,08-0,786), against AR with a lower occurrence of high values of glucose (Glu), lactate (Lac) and low pyruvate (Pyr)...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Chuannan Long, Mengmeng Liu, Dongsheng Zhang, Shaobin Xie, Wenyong Yuan, Na Gui, Jingjing Cui, Bin Zeng
To investigate the relationship between starch hydrolysis and Monascus pigments (MPs) production, the α-amylase gene ( AOamyA ) from Aspergillus oryzae was heterologously expressed in Monascus ruber CICC41233, and we obtained a positive transformant named Monascus ruber Amy9. In M. ruber Amy9, the α-amylase activities were 6.65- and 4.26-fold higher at 72 h and 144 h, respectively, than those in the parent strain with the glucose as solo carbon medium. Surprisingly, in the MPs fermentation medium with rice powder as solo material, M...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Nurul Aqilah A Ghani, Amy-Arniza Channip, Phoebe Chok Hwee Hwa, Fairuzeta Ja'afar, Hartini M Yasin, Anwar Usman
Different from cooking oils which contain long-chain fatty acids, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has high medium-chain fatty acids, making it a potential functional food which can provide some health benefits. In this study, our objective is to investigate the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity, and metal contents of the VCO extracted through four different processing methods: chilling and centrifugation; fermentation; direct micro expelling-oven dried; and direct micro expelling-sun-dried processes...
July 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Nestor J Hernandez-Lozada, Rung-Yi Lai, Trevor Simmons, Kelsey A Thomas, Ratul Chowdhury, Costas D Maranas, Brian F Pfleger
Microbial metabolism is an attractive route for producing medium chain-length fatty acids, e.g. octanoic acid, used in the oleochemical industry. One challenge to this strategy is the lack of enzymes that are both highly active in a microbial host and selective towards substrates with desired chain-length. Of the many steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, the thioesterase is the most widely used enzyme for controlling chain length. Thioesterases hydrolyze the thioester bond between fatty acids and the acyl-carrier protein (ACP) or coenzyme A (CoA) co-factor...
July 31, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Josep Garcia, Álvaro Fernández-Blanco, Meritxell Teixidó, Macarena Sánchez-Navarro, Ernest Giralt
An estimated 285 million people were living with diabetes in 2010, and this number is expected to reach 440 million by 2030. Current treatment of this disease involves the intradermal injection of insulin analogues. Many alternative administration routes have been proposed, the oral route being the most widely studied. One of the most interesting approaches for insulin delivery is the use of permeation enhancers to increase its transport across the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a remarkable example of this family of compounds...
July 31, 2018: ChemMedChem
Fei Xiong, Kunliang Liu, Sha Liu, Jianjun Chen, Jinghan Liu, Hao Wang, Ning Gu
Guanfu base A·HCl (GFA·HCl) solution, approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) in 2005, has been used in the treatment of arrhythmia. However, the poor targeting and absorption of GFA·HCl have severely affected its clinical application. In this study, a nanolipid-based, Guanfu base A (GFA) delivery system was designed to improve the deficiency of GFA·HCl and realize better clinical effect. The GFA-loaded solid nanolipids (GFASN) with a core/shell structure, composed of Poloxamer 188, lecithin, and medium-chain fatty acid, were prepared using a high-pressure homogenate emulsification method...
July 30, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
B Tian, Y Feng, L Ren, T Wang, S Zong
  BACKGROUND: Larvae of the Cossidae family moth Eogystia hippophaecolus bore into and overwinter in the roots of sea buckthorn, which damages this plant in China. OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of the current study were to investigate the effects of fatty acids on cold hardness in overwintering larvae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The supercooling point (SCP), low temperature mortality and fatty acid composition of different overwintering larvae were assessed. RESULTS: E...
May 2018: Cryo Letters
Hui Wang, Jiangjiang Zhu, Qiuya He, Juan J Loor, Jun Luo
MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA that regulate protein abundance and are involved in diverse aspects of cellular function including aspects of lipid metabolism in mammary gland of ruminants. Although our previous studies showed that the miR-26 family and its host genes control components of the cellular fatty acid metabolic machinery in goat mammary epithelial cells, a direct relationship between the miR-26 family and milk fatty acids remains unknown. Bioinformatics analysis in the present study indicated that the miR-26 family targets belong to the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathway...
July 29, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Hugo Toledo-Alvarado, Ana I Vazquez, Gustavo de Los Campos, Robert J Tempelman, Gianfranco Gabai, Alessio Cecchinato, Giovanni Bittante
The relationship of the estrous cycle to milk composition and milk physical properties was assessed on Holstein (n = 10,696), Brown Swiss (n = 20,501), Simmental (n = 17,837), and Alpine Grey (n = 8,595) cows reared in northeastern Italy. The first insemination after calving for each cow was chosen to be the day of estrus and insemination. Test days surrounding the insemination date (from 10 d before to 10 d after the day of the estrus) were selected and categorized in phases relative to estrus as diestrus high-progesterone, proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus increasing-progesterone phases...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ian Sofian Yunus, Patrik R Jones
Cyanobacteria can directly channel atmospheric CO2 into a wide range of versatile carbon products such as fatty acids and fatty alcohols with applications including fuel, cosmetics, and health products. Works on alcohol production in cyanobacteria have so far focused on either long (C12-C18) or short (C2-C4) chain-length products. In the present work, we report the first synthetic pathway for 1-octanol (C8) biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, employing a carboxylic acid reductase and C8-preferring fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase...
July 25, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Jordan T Gebhardt, Roger C Cochrane, Jason C Woodworth, Cassandra K Jones, Megan C Niederwerder, Mary B Muckey, Charles R Stark, Mike D Tokach, Joel M DeRouchey, Robert D Goodband, Jianfia Bai, Philip C Gauger, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Rodger G Main, Steve S Dritz
Various strategies have been proposed to mitigate potential risk of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) transmission via feed and feed ingredients. Wet disinfection has been found to be the most effective decontamination of feed mill surfaces; however, this is not practical on a commercial feed production scale. Another potential mitigation strategy would be using chemically-treated rice hulls flushed through the feed manufacturing equipment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or formaldehyde-treated rice hull flush batches as potential chemical mitigation strategies for PEDV during feed manufacturing...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Eleanor C Warren, Matthew C Walker, Robin S B Williams
Since the original report of seizure control through starvation in the 1920s, the ketogenic diet has been considered an energy-related therapy. The diet was assumed to be functioning through the effect of reduced carbohydrate intake regulating cellular energy state, thus giving rise to seizure control. From this assumption, the generation of ketones during starvation provided an attractive mechanism for this altered energy state; however, many years of research has sought and largely failed to correlate seizure control and ketone levels...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ming-Hua Sung, Fang-Hsuean Liao, Yi-Wen Chien
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are distinguished from other triglycerides in that each fat molecule consists of 6 to 12 carbons in length. MCTs and long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) are absorbed and utilized in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of replacing soybean oil with MCT oil, in a low- or high-fat diet, on lipid metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There were, thirty-two T2DM Sprague-Dawley rats divided into low-fat-soybean oil (LS), low-fat-MCT oil (LM), high-fat-soybean oil (HS), and high-fat-MCT oil (HM) groups...
July 26, 2018: Nutrients
Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Md Tarikul Islam, Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Nusrat Sultana, Mst Noorjahan Begum, Mohammad Al Mahmud-Un-Nabi, Md Abdulla Al Noman Howladar, Tashmim Farhana Dipta, A K M Muraduzzaman, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, Tahmina Shirin, Salma Sadiya, Manzoor Hussain, Waqar Ahmed Khan, Sharif Akhteruzzaman, Syed Saleheen Qadri, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
Patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) suffer from fatigue, poor physical fitness, muscle weakness, lethargy, and cardiac complications which are related to an energy crisis. Carnitine and acylcarnitine derivatives play important roles in fatty acid oxidation, and deregulation of carnitine and acylcarnitine metabolism may lead to an energy crisis. The present study aimed to investigate carnitine and acylcarnitine metabolites to gain an insight into the pathophysiology of BTM. Dried blood spots of 45 patients with BTM and 96 age-matched healthy controls were analyzed for free carnitine and 24 acylcarnitines by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
July 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ilona K Jóźwik, Martin Litzenburger, Yogan Khatri, Alexander Schifrin, Marco Girhard, Vlada Urlacher, Andy-Mark W H Thunnissen, Rita Bernhardt
Oxidative biocatalytic reactions performed by cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are of high interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. CYP267B1 is a P450 enzyme from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 displaying a broad substrate scope. In this work, a search for new substrates was performed, combined with product characterization, and a structural analysis of substrate-bound complexes using X-ray crystallography and computational docking. The results demonstrate the ability of CYP267B1 to perform in-chain hydroxylations of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid and tetradecanoic acid) and a regioselective hydroxylation of flavanone...
July 25, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Xi Yuan, Xiaojuan Liu, David Julian McClements, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Effects of lipid type in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in spinach were studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Results showed that the lipid type only had a minor impact on the physical and structural characteristics of the spinach/emulsion mixtures as they passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases. However, a significant effect was observed on lipid digestion, mixed micelle formation, and carotenoid bioaccessibility...
July 25, 2018: Food & Function
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