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Medium chain fatty acids

Haruka Shinohara, Nobuhiko Sugito, Yuki Kuranaga, Kazuki Heishima, Yosuke Minami, Tomoki Naoe, Yukihiro Akao
Therapy based on targeted inhibition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase has greatly improved the prognosis for patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive leukemia and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become the standard therapy. However, some patients acquire resistance to TKIs that is frequently associated with point mutations in the BCR-ABL. We previously reported that a medium-chain fatty-acid derivative AIC-47 induced transcriptional suppression of BCR-ABL and perturbation of the Warburg effect, leading to growth inhibition in Ph-positive leukemia cells...
December 12, 2018: Cancer Science
Sara Violante, Nihad Achetib, Carlo W T van Roermund, Jacob Hagen, Tetyana Dodatko, Frédéric M Vaz, Hans R Waterham, Hongjie Chen, Myriam Baes, Chunli Yu, Carmen A Argmann, Sander M Houten
Peroxisomes are essential organelles for the specialized oxidation of a wide variety of fatty acids, but they are also able to degrade fatty acids that are typically handled by mitochondria. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibition and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 genome editing technology to simultaneously manipulate peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) in HEK-293 cells, we identified essential players in the metabolic crosstalk between these organelles...
December 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
E Gabano, M Ravera, E Perin, I Zanellato, B Rangone, M J McGlinchey, D Osella
Three pairs of asymmetric dicarboxylato derivatives based on the cisplatin and oxaliplatin-like skeletons have been synthesized de novo or re-synthesized. The axial ligands consist of one medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA), namely clofibrate (i.e. 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid, CA), heptanoate (HA) or octanoate (OA), respectively, and an inactive acetato ligand that imparts acceptable water solubility to such conjugates. Stability tests provided evidence for the partial formation of two hydrolyzed products, corresponding to two monoaqua diastereomers derived from the substitution of an equatorial chlorido ligand with a water molecule...
December 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ryuji Uchida, Ariko Kondo, Akiho Yagi, Kenichi Nonaka, Rokurou Masuma, Keisuke Kobayashi, Hiroshi Tomoda
Simpotentin, a new potentiator of amphotericin B activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, was isolated from the culture broth of Simplicillium minatense FKI-4981 by Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, centrifugal partition chromatography, and preparative HPLC. The structure of simpotentin was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and MS. The compound has a mannose core to which two medium-chain fatty acids are linked. Simpotentin was found to potentiate amphotericin B activity against C...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
A Yu Lyudinina, G E Ivankova, E R Bojko
BACKGROUND: One of the topics discussed in sports science is the use of medium-chain saturated fat as an energy-saving nutrient additive when approaching high-intensity exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare the blood concentrations of medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (FAs) across different intensity loads. METHODS: Fifteen male highly trained athletes from the Russian cross-country skiing team participated in the study. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at the peak of veloergometric test with a growing exercise load till exhaustion (97-100% VO2max), and after competitions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Djeyne Silveira Wagmacker, Jefferson Petto, Amanda Silva Fraga, Sindy Kerole Andrade Mota, Luiz Erlon Araújo Andrade, Luiz Erlon Araujo Rodrigues, Ana Marice Ladeia
OBJECTIVE: to test the hypothesis that acute physical exercise would change the fatty acids in the serum of individuals with increased body weight. METHOD: sixty-six sedentary women with excess weight were included in the sample (BMI = 29.6 ± 4.2). They were aged 24.4 ± 3.6 years and were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. After 12 hours fasting, basal blood collection was performed. Twelve hours after the first collection, the exercise group was submitted to a physical exercise session with energy expenditure of 250 kcal...
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Matthew J Scarborough, Christopher E Lawson, Joshua J Hamilton, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
Biomanufacturing from renewable feedstocks can offset fossil fuel-based chemical production. One potential biomanufacturing strategy is production of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) from organic feedstocks using either pure cultures or microbiomes. While the set of microbes in a microbiome can often metabolize organic materials of greater diversity than a single species can and while the role of specific species may be known, knowledge of the carbon and energy flow within and between organisms in MCFA-producing microbiomes is only now starting to emerge...
November 2018: MSystems
Kevin S Kolahi, Amy M Valent, Kent L Thornburg
INTRODUCTION: The placenta employs an efficient and selective fatty acid transport system to supply lipids for fetal development. Disruptions in placental fatty acid transport lead to restricted fetal growth along with cardiovascular and neurologic deficits. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in human placental fatty acid trafficking during the initial steps of uptake, or the importance of fatty acid chain length in determining uptake rates. METHODS: We employed BODIPY fluorophore conjugated fatty acid analogues of three chain lengths, medium (BODIPY-C5), long (BODIPY-C12), and very-long (BODIPY-C16), to study fatty acid uptake in isolated human trophoblast and explants using confocal microscopy...
December 2018: Placenta
Helene Bohnert, Max Maurer, Philip C Calder, Johann Pratschke, Paul Thul, Verena Müller
BACKGROUND: Data on the use of lipid emulsions containing fish-oil (FO) derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in addition to medium- and long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) for long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are limited. This study aimed to compare HPN regimens containing either MCT/LCT/FO-derived n-3 PUFAs (test group) or MCT/LCT (control group) with respect to efficacy and safety during 8 weeks of HPN using a non-inferiority trial design with change of body mass index (BMI) as primary endpoint...
November 30, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Yanfeng Xue, Changzheng Guo, Fan Hu, Junhua Liu, Shengyong Mao
The mechanisms underlying the adaption of liver metabolism to the undernutrition in ewes during late gestation remain unclear. This research aimed to explore the adaptive mechanisms of liver metabolism by hepatic metabolome analysis in pregnant ewes to the negative energy balance induced by severe feed restriction. Twenty ewes carrying multiple fetuses and gestating for 115 days were fed normally or restricted to a 30% feed level (10 ewes in each group) for 15 days. All ewes were sacrificed and hepatic samples were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
November 27, 2018: Metabolites
Magdalena Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Mateusz Kropiwnicki, Jacek Żebrowski, Athanasios Beopoulos, Lucyna Dymińska, Jerzy Hanuza, Waldemar Rymowicz
The high demand for new biomaterials makes synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in plants an interesting and desirable achievement. Production of polymers in plants is an example of application of biotechnology for improving the properties of plants, e.g. industrial properties, but it can also provide knowledge about plant physiology and metabolism. The subject of the present study was an industrially important plant: flax, Linum usitatissimum L., of a fibre cultivar (cv Nike). In the study the gene encoding PHA synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fused to a peroxisomal targeting signal, was expressed in flax plants with the aim of modifying the mechanical properties of plants...
November 27, 2018: Transgenic Research
Thomas J Jönsson, Hans-Ludwig Schäfer, Andreas W Herling, Mark Brönstrup
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with alterations in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. In order to characterize the biochemical phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, the most common animal model for the study of T2D, and the impact of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone, a global, mass spectrometry-based analysis of the metabolome was conducted. Overall, 420 metabolites in serum, 443 in the liver and 603 in the intestine were identified at study end. In comparison to two control groups, obese diabetic ZDF rats showed characteristic metabolic signatures that included hyperglycemia, elevated β-oxidation, dyslipidemia-featured by an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a decrease of medium chain and of polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum-and decreased amino acid levels, consistent with their utilization in hepatic gluconeogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Li-Fang Feng, Xiao-Hong Chen, Dong-Xiao Li, Xi-Yuan Li, Jin-Qing Song, Ying Jin, Yan-Ling Yang
A boy aged 6 years and 3 months developed upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia 2 months ago and was given oral administration of nimesulide by his parents according to directions. Half an hour later, the boy experienced convulsions and cardiopulmonary arrest, and emergency examination found hypoketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, significant increases in serum aminotransferases and creatine kinase, and renal damage. Recovery of consciousness and vital signs was achieved after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but severe mental and movement regression was observed...
November 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Yi Gan, Yu Song, Yadong Chen, Hongbo Liu, Dongdong Yang, Qianyu Xu, Zhifu Zheng
BACKGROUND: Neocinnamomum caudatum (Nees) Merr., a biodiesel tree species in the subtropical areas of South China, India and Burma, is distinctive from other species in Lauraceae family and its seed oil is rich in linoleic acid (18:2) and stearic acid (18:0). However, there is little genetic information about this species so far. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis on developing seeds of N. caudatum was conducted in an attempt to discern the molecular mechanisms involving the control of the fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis...
November 26, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Lin Zhang, Xiuying Wang, Shaokui Chen, Shuhui Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Guolong Zhang, Huiling Zhu, Xiangen Li, Jianglin Xiong, Yulan Liu
This study was conducted to investigate whether medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by down-regulating necroptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. A total of 24 pigs were randomly allotted to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design including diet (0 and 4% MCTs) and immunological challenge (saline and LPS). After three weeks of feeding with or without 4% MCTs, pigs were challenged with saline or LPS. MCTs led to a significant increase in eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and total (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiahui Hao, Ling Luo, Juliette Jouhet, Fabrice Rébeillé, Eric Maréchal, Hanhua Hu, Yufang Pan, Xiaoming Tan, Zhuo Chen, Lingjie You, Hong Chen, Fang Wei, Yangmin Gong
Background: In photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae, acyl-CoA molecules are used as substrates for the biosynthesis of membrane glycerolipids, triacylglycerol (TAG) and other acylated molecules. Acyl-CoA can also be directed to beta-oxidative catabolism. They can be utilized by a number of lipid metabolic enzymes including endogenous thioesterases, which catalyze their hydrolysis to release free fatty acids. Acyl-CoA availability thus plays fundamental roles in determining the quantity and composition of membrane lipids and storage lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Vanda Sargautiene, Ilva Nakurte, Vizma Nikolajeva
Prebiotics inducing the growth or activity of beneficial intestinal bacteria - probiotics producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) have lately received wide recognition for their beneficial influence on host intestinal microbiota and metabolic health. Some non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are defined as prebiotics and oats being one of richest sources of NSP in grains are considered as potentially having prebiotic effect. However, information on fermentation of specific NSP of oats is limited. Moreover, bacterial cross-feeding interactions in which fermentation of prebiotics is involved is poorly characterized...
2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Yoshihiro Miyagawa, Takuya Mori, Kei Goto, Isao Kawahara, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Shingo Kishi, Takamitsu Sasaki, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Hiroki Kuniyasu
BACKGROUND: Oral intake of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) reportedly suppresses the accumulation of visceral fat and has antitumor effects in tumor-bearing animals. MCFAs penetrate the mitochondrial membrane in a carnitine shuttle-independent manner and are metabolized more quickly than long-chain fatty acids. Based on these characteristics, MCFAs may have pronounced effects in mitochondria-rich tissues, such as the myocardium. We examined the effect of oral intake of MCFAs on the heart...
November 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Amy E Rumora, Giovanni LoGrasso, Julia A Haidar, Justin J Dolkowski, Stephen I Lentz, Eva L Feldman
Dyslipidemia associated with T2D leads to diabetic neuropathy, a complication characterized by sensory neuronal dysfunction and peripheral nerve damage. Sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are dependent on axonal mitochondrial energy production facilitated by mitochondrial transport mechanisms that distribute mitochondria throughout the axon. Since long chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) damage DRG neurons and medium chain SFAs are reported to improve neuronal function, we evaluated the impact of SFA chain length on mitochondrial trafficking, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
NaHye Lee, Moonsun Sa, Yu Ri Hong, C Justin Lee, JaeHyung Koo
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are mostly generated from dietary triglycerides and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes in the brain use MCFAs as an alternative energy source. In addition, MCFAs have various regulatory and signaling functions in astrocytes. However, it is unclear how astrocytes sense and take up MCFAs. This study demonstrates that decanoic acid (DA; C10), a saturated MCFA and a ligand of Gαs protein-coupled receptors (Gαs -GPCRs), is a signaling molecule in energy metabolism in primary astrocytes...
October 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
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