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Medium chain fatty acids

Junjun Wu, Zhe Wang, Xia Zhang, Peng Zhou, Xiudong Xia, Mingsheng Dong
Medium-chain fatty acids (C6 -C10 , MCFAs) represent valuable molecules for food and pharmaceutical industries. However, MCFAs in Escherichia coli induce stresses and toxicity, reducing final yields. These phenotypes could be alleviated if MCFA export from cells was accelerated, yet information on proteins responsible for exporting MCFAs remains limited. Here, a panel of 17 genes or operons was screened. Overexpressing resistance nodulation cell division family transporter acrE, mdtE and mdtC increased MCFA titer by 46...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Engin Kose, Coskun Armagan, Pelin Teke Kısa, Huseyin Onay, Nur Arslan
Background Familial apo C-II deficiency is a rare hereditary disorder frequently caused by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and APOC2 gene mutations. To date, less than 30 patients with familial apo C-II deficiency with 24 different mutations have been identified in the literature. Here, we describe two familial chylomicronemia syndrome cases in infants with two novel mutations of the APOC2 gene. Case presentation Case 1, a 46-day-old female, was admitted to our hospital for evaluation due to the lipemic appearance of the blood sample...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jamshid Amiri Moghaddam, Antonio Dávila-Céspedes, Stefan Kehraus, Max Crüsemann, Meryem Köse, Christa E Müller, Gabriele Maria König
Bacteria of the family Rhodobacteraceae are widespread in marine environments and known to colonize surfaces, such as those of e.g., oysters and shells. The marine bacterium Labrenzia sp. 011 is here investigated and it was found to produce two cyclopropane-containing medium-chain fatty acids ( 1 , 2 ), which inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and fungi, most effectively that of a causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease (ROD), Pseudoroseovarius crassostreae DSM 16950. Additionally, compound 2 acts as a potent partial, β-arrestin-biased agonist at the medium-chain fatty acid-activated orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR84, which is highly expressed on immune cells...
October 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Carlos E Rodrigues, Marina Tonial, Laura Schäfer, Giancarlo Pasquali, Tarso B L Kist
Knowledge of the profile of fatty acids, including the profile of long chain fatty acids, is an important parameter for many areas like human health, food sciences, and the study of gene expression in plant tissues, among others. Moreover, very long chain fatty acids occur at low concentrations in many biological samples. The 3‑[4‑(bromomethyl)phenyl]‑7‑(diethylamino)coumarin (MPAC‑Br) reagent is an improved version of the coumarin bromomethyl-type reagents, used for the fluorescent labeling of carboxylic acids in a variety of sample types...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Li Xiang, Hongsong Zhang, Juntong Wei, Xiao Yu Tian, Hemi Luan, Shangfu Li, Hongzhi Zhao, Guodong Cao, Arthur C K Chung, Chunxue Yang, Yu Huang, Zongwei Cai
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which correlated with high mortality worldwide. Exercise is one of the effective lifestyle interventions in maintaining blood glucose level in the normal range and lowering risk factors. Metabolomics approaches are powerful tools in systematic study of overall metabolic changes in response to disease or interventions. In this study, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics studies were performed to investigate the regulatory effect of moderate intensity of exercise on db/db diabetic mice in skeletal muscle...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Muhammad Ajmal, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Junaid
BACKGROUND: Milk fat is one of the complex fat and most sensitive biochemical compounds towards auto-oxidation. To enhance the shelf life, milk is subjected to Ultra-high Temperature (UHT) treatment followed by aseptic packaging. During the storage, several chemical and biochemical changes take place in lipid fraction of UHT milk. In current investigation, the effect of UHT treatment and storage was determined by making a comparison in fatty acid profile, triglyceride composition, organic acids and lipid oxidation of the thermally treated and stored milk with raw milk, which was not reported in earlier investigations...
October 2, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Kirsten De Keyser, Noël Dierick, Uthai Kanto, Tassanan Hongsapak, Goedele Buyens, Leni Kuterna, Erik Vanderbeke
The influence of medium-chain glycerides on performance and gastrointestinal well-being in weaning piglets was assessed. First, caproic (C6), caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acid activity against Escherichia coli was screened in vitro. Pig flora of the whole small intestine was used as inoculum. Seven in vitro incubations were done in duplicate at pH = 3 and 5: C10 (15 mM), C8 (12 mM), C6 (15, 12, 10 mM), a non-incubated-negative control and incubated negative control. Culture suspensions were plated on E...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Sadanandavalli R Chandra, Rita Christopher, Gayathri Narayanappa, Nitin C Ramanujam, Pavan Katragadda, Akshata Huddar, Shreyashi Jha
Encephalopathy and Myopathy in children of varying ages can be due to variety of causes including Mitochondrial diseases, metabolic diseases like renal tubular acidosis, storage diseases as well as fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorders. FAO related disorders have variable clinical presentation and manifest in different ages. They may present with hypoglycemia, effort intolerance, multi organ involvement with or without ketonuria. High degree of suspicion and appropriate investigations are mandatory for diagnosis...
July 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Ruixia Lan, Inho Kim
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of organic acid (OA) and medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) blends on production performance of sows and their litters. A total of 36 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire, average parity is 3.3, SE = 0.2) were randomly allocated to three treatments with 12 replicates. Dietary treatments were as follows: CON, basal diet; MC1, CON + 0.1% OA, and MCFA blends; MC2, CON + 0.2% OA, and MCFA blends. During lactation, no differences were observed in body weight (BW) loss, average daily feed intake, backfat thickness, digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, or energy of sows...
September 30, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Tahnee J Dening, Paul Joyce, Clive A Prestidge
Solution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) analysis was used in conjunction with in vitro lipolysis to elucidate the time-dependent speciation and release of lipolytic products during the digestion of lipid-loaded inorganic particles, allowing correlations to be made between the phase partitioning of lipolytic products and an encapsulated poorly soluble drug. Silicon dioxide, montmorillonite and laponite were used to encapsulate medium chain triglycerides (MCT) into solid-state lipid-based formulations (LBFs), and coumarin 102 was selected as a model poorly soluble compound...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Lauren R Waskowicz, Jin Zhou, Dustin J Landau, Elizabeth D Brooks, Andrea Lim, Zollie A Yavarow, Tsubasa Kudo, Haoyue Zhang, Yajun Wu, Stuart Grant, Sarah P Young, Bay Boon Huat, Paul M Yen, Dwight D Koeberl
Glucose-6-phosphatase α (G6Pase) deficiency, also known as von Gierke's Disease or GSD Ia, is characterized by decreased ability of the liver to convert glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose leading to glycogen accumulation and hepatosteatosis. Long-term complications of GSD Ia include hepatic adenomas and carcinomas, in association with the suppression of autophagy in the liver. The G6pc-/- mouse and canine models for GSD Ia were treated with the pan-peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, bezafibrate, to determine the drug's effect on liver metabolism and function...
September 25, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
P Sorrow, R Maguire, S K Murphy, S M Belcher, C Hoyo
BACKGROUND: High-throughput metabolomics has been used cross-sectionally to evaluate differential metabolic profiles associated with human obesity. OBJECTIVES: This study longitudinally assessed the cord blood metabolome to explore if metabolic signatures of obesity at age 3-5 are apparent at birth. METHODS: In a nested case-control design, metabolomics analysis was performed on umbilical cord blood of 25 children who developed obesity by age 3-5 years, compared with 25 sex-matched non-obese children enrolled as part of an ongoing birth cohort...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
L G Silva, B S Ferguson, A S Avila, A P Faciola
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition attenuates inflammation in rodents and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are effective HDAC inhibitors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the SCFAs sodium propionate (SP) and sodium butyrate (SB) as HDAC-dependent regulators of inflammatory gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-Ts). We postulated that SP and SB would decrease inflammation in MAC-Ts by inhibiting HDAC activity and increasing histone H3 acetylation and consequently decreasing inflammatory gene expression...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Richard Agans, Alex Gordon, Denise Lynette Kramer, Sergio Perez-Burillo, José A Rufián-Henares, Oleg Paliy
While a substantial amount of dietary fats escape absorption in the human small intestine and reach the colon, the ability of resident microbiota to utilize these dietary fats for growth has not been investigated in detail. In this study we used an in vitro multi-vessel simulator system of the human colon to reveal that human gut microbiota is able to utilize typically consumed dietary fatty acids to sustain growth. Gut microbiota adapted quickly to a macronutrient switch from a balanced Western diet type medium to its variant lacking carbohydrates and proteins...
September 21, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Maryam Beheshti Foroutani, Christopher C Parrish, Jeanette Wells, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise, Fereidoon Shahidi
Due to limited fish meal and fish oil resources and their high costs for the aquaculture industry, it is necessary to find alternative sustainable sources of protein and lipids. Therefore, seven different diets were formulated with different levels of animal by-products, vegetable proteins, fish oil and rapeseed oil, to feed farmed Atlantic salmon, and their effects on growth performance, muscle lipid class, and fatty acid composition were examined. Protein sources included anchovy, poultry, feather, blood, corn, soy and wheat...
2018: PloS One
Nisha Panth, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Katie Wynne, Manohar L Garg
Background: Medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs) may affect circulating lipids and lipoproteins differently than long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), but the results from human intervention trials have been equivocal. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether MCFAs and LCSFAs have differential impacts on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Design: Five databases were searched (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Scopus) until April 2018, and published clinical trials investigating the differential effects of dietary MCFAs and LCSFAs on blood lipids were included...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tanya McDonald, Michelle Puchowicz, Karin Borges
There is mounting evidence that oxidative glucose metabolism is impaired in epilepsy and recent work has further characterized the metabolic mechanisms involved. In healthy people eating a traditional diet, including carbohydrates, fats and protein, the major energy substrate in brain is glucose. Cytosolic glucose metabolism generates small amounts of energy, but oxidative glucose metabolism in the mitochondria generates most ATP, in addition to biosynthetic precursors in cells. Energy is crucial for the brain to signal "normally," while loss of energy can contribute to seizure generation by destabilizing membrane potentials and signaling in the chronic epileptic brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Junwei J Zhu, Steven C Cermak, James A Kenar, Gary Brewer, Kenneth F Haynes, Dave Boxler, Paul D Baker, Desen Wang, Changlu Wang, Andrew Y Li, Rui-de Xue, Yuan Shen, Fei Wang, Natasha M Agramonte, Ulrich R Bernier, Jaires G de Oliveira Filho, Ligia M F Borges, Kristina Friesen, David B Taylor
Hematophagous arthropods are capable of transmitting human and animal pathogens worldwide. Vector-borne diseases account for 17% of all infectious diseases resulting in 700,000 human deaths annually. Repellents are a primary tool for reducing the impact of biting arthropods on humans and animals. N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), the most effective and long-lasting repellent currently available commercially, has long been considered the gold standard in insect repellents, but with reported human health issues, particularly for infants and pregnant women...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenhao Han, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Fan Lü
Carbon chain elongation (CCE), a reaction within the carboxylate platform that elongates short-chain to medium-chain carboxylates by mixed culture, has attracted worldwide interest. The present study provides insights into the microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways of a mixed-culture CCE microbiome based on comparative analysis of the metagenome and metatranscriptome. We found that the acclimated chain elongation microbiome shared a highly similar microbial structure with the original inoculating biogas reactor culture; however, the metabolic activities were completely different, demonstrating the high stability of the microbial structure and flexibility of its functions...
September 14, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Winifred W Yau, Brijesh K Singh, Ronny Lesmana, Jin Zhou, Rohit A Sinha, Kiraely A Wong, Yajun Wu, Boon-Huat Bay, Shigeki Sugii, Lei Sun, Paul M Yen
The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ) activates thermogenesis by uncoupling electron transport from ATP synthesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria. Although T3 can induce thermogenesis by sympathetic innervation, little is known about its cell autonomous effects on BAT mitochondria. We thus examined effects of T3 on mitochondrial activity, autophagy, and metabolism in primary brown adipocytes and BAT and found that T3 increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration as well as autophagic flux, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
September 13, 2018: Autophagy
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