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Pregnant colonization

Kathryn A Patras, Jaclyn Derieux, Mahmoud M Al-Bassam, Nichole Adiletta, Alison Vrbanac, John D Lapek, Karsten Zengler, David J Gonzalez, Victor Nizet
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) asymptomatically colonizes ~20% of adults; however, GBS causes severe disease in susceptible populations including newborns, pregnant women, and the elderly. In shifting between commensal and pathogenic states, GBS reveals multiple mechanisms of virulence factor control. Here we describe a GBS protein, which we named biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA), based on its homology with BrpA from S. mutans. Methods: We coupled phenotypic assays, RNA-seq profiling, human neutrophil and whole blood killing, and a murine infection models to investigate the contribution of BrpA to GBS physiology and virulence...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Serena Galié, Coral García-Gutiérrez, Elisa M Miguélez, Claudio J Villar, Felipe Lombó
Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms), Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains), Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly), Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly), and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eva Maria Rehbinder, Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Anne Cathrine Staff, Inga Leena Angell, Linn Landrø, Katarina Hilde, Peter Gaustad, Knut Rudi
BACKGROUND: The "sterile womb" paradigm is debated. Recent evidence suggests that the offspring's first microbial encounter is before birth in term uncomplicated pregnancies. The establishment of a healthy microbiota early in life might be crucial for reducing the burden of diseases later in life. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the presence of a microbiota in sterilely collected amniotic fluid in uncomplicated pregnancies at term in the Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and Allergies in children (PreventADALL) study cohort...
May 28, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Esther Wicker, Fabian Lander, Felix Weidemann, Markus Hufnagel, Reinhard Berner, Gérard Krause
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns worldwide. From 2000-2008, national guidelines in Germany recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for pregnant women displaying risk factors (e.g. perinatal anogenital GBS colonization, rupture of the membranes ≥ 18 hours before birth), for the vertical transmission of GBS to their children.In 2008, these guidelines were revised in order to advocate universal, culture-based screening for GBS colonization among all pregnant women between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation...
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
E M Álvarez-Santás, J Jaqueti-Aroca, I García-Arata, L Molina-Esteban, J García-Martínez, S Prieto-Menchero
OBJECTIVE: In pregnant women, the rectovaginal colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is related with geographic area of origin (6.5% to 36%). It was analysed GBS carriage in pregnant women in 2012-2014 in our hospital. METHODS: Observational retrospective study about GBS isolates from rectovaginal samples (RVS) and urine cultures of Spanish and immigrant pregnant women in 2012-2014. It was considered only a single isolation for patient. There were excluded women with GBS in urine samples of RVS study...
May 28, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Marwan Hakim, Adel Jabour, Miriam Anton, Meggie Hakim, Sahar Kheirallah
BACKGROUND: The recommendation of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding universal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) at 35-37 weeks gestational age in pregnancy is not accepted in Israel. The National Council for Obstetrics, Neonatology and Genetics recommends intrapartum prophylaxis, mainly based on risk factors, to prevent early neonatal GBS infection. This policy is based on past studies demonstrating low colonization rates of the bacteria in Israeli pregnant women and very low neonatal sepsis rates...
May 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Ana Caroline N Botelho, Juliana G Oliveira, Andreia P Damasco, Késia T B Santos, Ana Flávia M Ferreira, Gabriel T Rocha, Penélope S Marinho, Rita B G Bornia, Tatiana C A Pinto, Marco A Américo, Sergio E L Fracalanzza, Lúcia M Teixeira
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage by pregnant women is the primary risk factor for early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission route, and two main approaches are recommended to base the selection of pregnant women to be submitted to IAP: the risk-based and the culture-based strategies. In Brazil, compliance to such recommendations is poor, and not much is known about GBS carriage. In the present study, 3,647 pregnant women living in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were screened for GBS anogenital colonization, over a period of 8 years (2008-2015)...
2018: PloS One
Anna McCormick, Erika Peterson
This article reviews some of the more common types of cancer that may be encountered during pregnancy. It reviews the unique challenges with the diagnosis and treatment of breast, cervical, hematologic, and colon cancers in pregnant patients.
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Solomon Assefa, Kassu Desta, Tsehaynesh Lema
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in neonates. Maternal colonization with GBS is the principal risk factor for early-onset disease in infants. Group B Streptococcus is now an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. In Ethiopia, few studies have been done on GBS colonization among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and assess risk factors among pregnant women...
May 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Eliane Saori Otaguiri, Ana Elisa Belotto Morguette, Alexandre Tadachi Morey, Eliandro Reis Tavares, Gilselena Kerbauy, Rosângela S L de Almeida Torres, Mauricio Chaves Júnior, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim, Viviane Monteiro Góes, Marco Aurélio Krieger, Marcia Regina Eches Perugini, Lucy Megumi Yamauchi, Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of infections in newborns worldwilde. Prenatal GBS screening of pregnant women for vaginal-rectal colonization is recommended in many countries to manage appropriate intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for those identified as carriers. In this study, a novel melting-curve based multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of GBS and macrolide and lincosamide resistance markers was developed...
May 3, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Maxim Seferovic, Claudia Sánchez-San Martín, Suzette D Tardif, Julienne Rutherford, Eumenia C C Castro, Tony Li, Vida L Hodara, Laura M Parodi, Luis Giavedoni, Donna Layne-Colon, Manasi Tamhankar, Shigeo Yagi, Calla Martyn, Kevin Reyes, Melissa A Suter, Kjersti M Aagaard, Charles Y Chiu, Jean L Patterson
During its most recent outbreak across the Americas, Zika virus (ZIKV) was surprisingly shown to cause fetal loss and congenital malformations in acutely and chronically infected pregnant women. However, understanding the underlying pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital disease has been hampered by a lack of relevant in vivo experimental models. Here we present a candidate New World monkey model of ZIKV infection in pregnant marmosets that faithfully recapitulates human disease. ZIKV inoculation at the human-equivalent of early gestation caused an asymptomatic seroconversion, induction of type I/II interferon-associated genes and proinflammatory cytokines, and persistent viremia and viruria...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong-Jun Wang, Xue Xu, Rui-Hua Xie, Yun-Yun Rui, Ping-An Zhang, Xiao-Jue Zhu, Guang-Yin Xu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by widespread, chronic abdominal pain associated with altered bowel movements. Increasing amounts of evidence indicate that stressors presented during gestational periods could have long-term effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of the present study is designed to determine whether prenatal maternal stress (PMS) is a adverse factor affecting gastrointestinal sensitivity and to investigate possible mechanisms underlying PMS-induced visceral hypersensitivity in adult offspring...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Jesús Joaquín Hijona, Antonio Luis Carballo, María Soledad Sánchez, Nataliya Dyachkova, Juan Francisco Expósito, José Luis Alcázar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dequalinium chloride (DQC; 10 mg vaginal tablets), administered shortly prior to delivery in women with group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. METHODS: This observational, longitudinal, and prospective study involved 201 pregnant women at term, potentially carriers of GBS bacteria, scheduled for induction with oxytocin and with no premature rupture of amniotic membranes. RESULTS: A total of 163 women (81...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Juan Carranza, Washington A Yoong, Belén Caño Vergara, Abel Briones, Concha Mateos
Reproductive phenology is an important trait subjected to natural selection. Current horses in America belong to the Palearctic original populations after being introduced by European colonizers. Photoperiod variation is the main environmental factor for the adjustment of reproductive timing in horses, but is absent in equatorial areas. Here we hypothesize that seasonality of green-grass availability may influence breeding phenology in equatorial regions. We used data of 929 services to mares from 2006 to 2011 in a thoroughbred equine exploitation in Ecuador that experienced strong grass seasonality...
June 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Rémi Gschwind, Thierry Fournier, Marie-José Butel, Sandra Wydau-Dematteis
Some diseases seem to have a developmental origin. Today, the microbiota is recognized as a determinant in health and diseases and one important step is its establishment in the neonate. Some variations in its composition including an imbalance (also called dysbiosis) have been associated to several pathologies. Recent studies suggest a bacterial colonization in the non-pregnant uterus, in the amniotic fluid and in the placenta, which were previously thought sterile. So, during deve-lopmental phases, the fetus could have encounter bacteria in utero...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Balázs Bernáth, Dominique Schenker, Patrick M Guerin
Organisms respond to environmental stimuli in ways that optimize survival and reproduction. Tsetse fly life-history is characterized by high investment in progeny by the pregnant female and low birth rate. This places constraints on tsetse populations across the sub-Saharan biotopes they colonize where extreme climatic conditions militate against survival. Controlling metabolic rate is crucial in biotopes where daily swings in temperature can exceed 20 °C. Tsetse acquire their nutrient requirements from the blood meal...
May 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Agnieszka Kaczmarek, Krzysztof Skowron, Anna Budzyńska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Vaginal and/or rectal Escherichia coli colonization of pregnant women is sometimes associated with neonatal infections. Despite the relevance of these strains, they have been rarely described before. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare vaginal (VEC) and rectal E. coli (REC) isolates in respect of antimicrobial susceptibility and the frequency of virulence-associated genes (VAGs). The antimicrobial susceptibility of 50 VEC and 50 REC isolates was performed by using the disc diffusion method, and VAGs were detected by PCR...
April 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Mohammad Reza Darabi, Salman Soltani, Alireza Akhavan Rezayat, Masoud Yousefi, Mehdi Kashefi, Mahmoud Tavakkoli, Shabnam Mohammadi
Background: Urinary tract stones is one of the most frequent medical emergencies which leads to life-threatening complications, namely obstructive uropathy as well as renal failure in some situations. Previously, bilateral stones were treated with either open surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, these treatment options were associated with lengthy operation time, need for more anesthesia, further bleeding, and long hospitalization. Therefore, much effort has been made to treat both sides simultaneously...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
Alecsya H Broyles, Scott A Hopper, J Brett Woodie, Alan J Ruggles
OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique for colopexy via a left ventral paramedian incision and report postoperative clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-six thoroughbred broodmares treated with a colopexy through a left ventral paramedian incision between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for postoperative complications and survival to discharge. The survival rate at 1 year after surgery was based on the medical record, progeny record, or client telephone conversation...
April 6, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Clemence Beauruelle, Adeline Pastuszka, Laurent Mereghetti, Philippe Lanotte
We evaluated the diversity of group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaginal carriage populations in pregnant women. For this purpose, we studied each isolate present in a primary culture of a vaginal swab using a new approach based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) locus analysis. To evaluate the CRISPR array composition rapidly, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed. For each different pattern observed, the CRISPR array was sequenced and capsular typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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